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Fishes of the World, 5th Edition

ISBN: 978-1-118-34233-6
752 pages
March 2016
Fishes of the World, 5th Edition (111834233X) cover image

Description

Take your knowledge of fishes to the next level

Fishes of the World, Fifth Edition is the only modern, phylogenetically based classification of the world’s fishes. The updated text offers new phylogenetic diagrams that clarify the relationships among fish groups, as well as cutting-edge global knowledge that brings this classic reference up to date. With this resource, you can classify orders, families, and genera of fishes, understand the connections among fish groups, organize fishes in their evolutionary context, and imagine new areas of research. To further assist your work, this text provides representative drawings, many of them new, for most families of fishes, allowing you to make visual connections to the information as you read.  It also contains many references to the classical as well as the most up-to-date literature on fish relationships, based on both morphology and molecular biology.

The study of fishes is one that certainly requires dedication—and access to reliable, accurate information. With more than 30,000 known species of sharks, rays, and bony fishes, both lobe-finned and ray-finned, you will need to master your area of study with the assistance of the best reference materials available. This text will help you bring your knowledge of fishes to the next level.

  • Explore the anatomical characteristics, distribution, common and scientific names, and phylogenetic relationships of fishes
  • Access biological and anatomical information on more than 515 families of living fishes
  • Better appreciate the complexities and controversies behind the modern view of fish relationships
  • Refer to an extensive bibliography, which points you in the direction of additional, valuable, and up-to-date information, much of it published within the last few years
Fishes of the World, Fifth Edition is an invaluable resource for professional ichthyologists, aquatic ecologists, marine biologists, fish breeders, aquaculturists, and conservationists.
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Table of Contents

MEMORIES OF JOE NELSON xxix

FOREWORD xxxiii

PREFACE xxxvii

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS xxxix

INTRODUCTION 1

Taxonomic Diversity 3

Importance to People 4

Systematics and Classification 4

Anatomical Terminology 7

Distribution and Biogeography 8

Human Impacts 11

PHYLUM CHORDATA 13

SUBPHYLUM UROCHORDATA (Tunicata: the tunicates) 15

Class ASCIDIACEA (ascidians), 15

Class THALIACEA (salps), 15

Order PYROSOMIDA, 15

Order DOLIOLIDA, 15

Order SALPIDA, 15

Class APPENDICULARIA, 15

SUBPHYLUM CEPHALOCHORDATA (Acrania, in part) 16

Order AMPHIOXIFORMES (lancelets), 16

Family BRANCHIOSTOMATIDAE, 16

Family EPIGONICHTHYIDAE, 16

SUBPHYLUM CRANIATA 18

INFRAPHYLUM MYXINOMORPHI 19

Class MYXINI, 20

Order MYXINIFORMES (1)—hagfishes, 20

Family MYXINIDAE (1)—hagfishes, 20

INFRAPHYLUM VERTEBRATA (vertebrates) 22

SUPERCLASS PETROMYZONTOMORPHI 23

Class PETROMYZONTIDA, 23

Order PETROMYZONTIFORMES (2)—lampreys, 23

Family PETROMYZONTIDAE (2)—northern lampreys, 24

Family GEOTRIIDAE (3)—southern lampreys, 25

Family MORDACIIDAE (4)—southern topeyed lampreys, 26

SUPERCLASS GNATHOSTOMATA (jawed vertebrates) 34

EUGNATHOSTOMATA, 40

GRADE CHONDRICHTHYOMORPHI 40

Class CHONDRICHTHYES—cartilaginous fishes, 40

Superorder HOLOCEPHALIMORPHA, 50

Order CHIMAERIFORMES (3)—chimaeras, 51

Family CALLORHINCHIDAE (5)—plownose chimaeras, 52

Family RHINOCHIMAERIDAE (6)—longnose chimaeras, 52

Family CHIMAERIDAE (7)—shortnose chimaeras or ratfishes, 53

Subclass EUSELACHII (sharks, rays, and related fossils), 53

Infraclass ELASMOBRANCHII, 56

Division SELACHII—sharks, 58

Superorder GALEOMORPHI, 58

Order HETERODONTIFORMES (4)—bullhead sharks, 59

Family HETERODONTIDAE (8)—bullhead sharks, 59

Order ORECTOLOBIFORMES (5)—carpet sharks, 59

Family PARASCYLLIIDAE (9)—collared carpet sharks, 60

Family BRACHAELURIDAE (10)—blind sharks, 60

Family ORECTOLOBIDAE (11)—wobbegongs, 61

Order LAMNIFORMES (6)—mackerel sharks, 63

Order CARCHARHINIFORMES (7)—ground sharks, 68

Superorder SQUALOMORPHI, 73

Series HEXANCHIDA, 73

Order HEXANCHIFORMES (8)—six-gill sharks, 73

Family CHLAMYDOSELACHIDAE (31)—frilled sharks, 74

Family HEXANCHIDAE (32)—cow sharks, 74

Series SQUALIDA, 75

Order SQUALIFORMES (9)—dogfish sharks, 75

Series SQUATINIDA, 78

Order ECHINORHINIFORMES (10)—bramble sharks, 78

Family ECHINORHINIDAE (39)—bramble sharks, 78

Order SQUATINIFORMES (11)—angel sharks, 79

Family SQUATINIDAE (40)—angel sharks, 79

Order PRISTIOPHORIFORMES (12)—saw sharks, 80

Family PRISTIOPHORIDAE (41)—saw sharks, 80

Division BATOMORPHI—rays, 80

Order TORPEDINIFORMES (13)—electric rays, 82

Family TORPEDINIDAE (42)—torpedo electric rays, 82

Family NARCINIDAE (43)—numbfishes, 83

Order RAJIFORMES (14)—skates, 84

Family RAJIDAE (44)—skates, 84

Order PRISTIFORMES (15)—guitarfishes and sawfishes, 85

Order MYLIOBATIFORMES (16)—stingrays, 87

Grade TELEOSTOMI 95

Class OSTEICHTHYES—bony fishes and tetrapods, 101

Subclass SARCOPTERYGII—lobe-finned fishes and tetrapods, 102

Infraclass ACTINISTIA—coelacanths, 103

Order COELACANTHIFORMES (17)—coelacanths, 104

Family LATIMERIIDAE (59)—gombessas or coelacanths, 105

Infraclass ONYCHODONTIDA, 106

Infraclass DIPNOMORPHA, 106

Superorder DIPNOI, 107

Order CERATODONTIFORMES (18)—living lungfishes and their fossil relatives, 108

Family NEOCERATODONTIDAE (60)—Australian lungfishes, 109

Family LEPIDOSIRENIDAE (61)—South American lungfishes, 109

Family PROTOPTERIDAE (62)—African lungfishes, 109

Infraclass TETRAPODA—tetrapods, 111

Subclass ACTINOPTERYGII—ray-finned fishes, 111

Infraclass CLADISTIA, 116

Order POLYPTERIFORMES (19)—bichirs, 116

Family POLYPTERIDAE (63)—bichirs, 117

Infraclass CHONDROSTEI, 118

Order ACIPENSERIFORMES (20)—paddlefishes and sturgeons, 118

Family POLYODONTIDAE (64)—paddlefishes, 118

Family ACIPENSERIDAE (65)—sturgeons, 119

NEOPTERYGII, 121

Infraclass HOLOSTEI (gars, bowfins, and relatives), 121

Division GINGLYMODI, 122

Order LEPISOSTEIFORMES (21)—gars, 122

Family LEPISOSTEIDAE (66)—gars, 123

Division HALECOMORPHI, 124

Order AMIIFORMES (22)—bowfins, 125

Family AMIIDAE (67)—bowfins, 126

Division TELEOSTEOMORPHA, 126

Subdivision TELEOSTEI, 128

Supercohort TELEOCEPHALA—crown-group Teleostei, 132

Cohort ELOPOMORPHA, 133

Order ELOPIFORMES (23)—tenpounders, 135

Family ELOPIDAE (68)—tenpounders (ladyfishes), 135

Family MEGALOPIDAE (69)—tarpons, 135

Order ALBULIFORMES (24)—bonefishes, 136

Family ALBULIDAE (70)—bonefishes, 136

Order NOTACANTHIFORMES (25)—halosaurs and deep-sea spiny eels, 137

Family HALOSAURIDAE (71)—halosaurs, 137

Family NOTACANTHIDAE (72)—deep-sea spiny eels, 138

Order ANGUILLIFORMES (26)—eels, 139

OSTEOGLOSSOCEPHALA, 153

Cohort OSTEOGLOSSOMORPHA, 153

Order HIODONTIFORMES (27)—mooneyes, 155

Family HIODONTIDAE (92)—mooneyes, 155

Order OSTEOGLOSSIFORMES (28)—bonytongues, 155

CLUPEOCEPHALA, 160

Cohort OTOCEPHALA, 161

Superorder CLUPEOMORPHA, 162

Order CLUPEIFORMES (29)—herrings, 164

Superorder ALEPOCEPHALI, 172

Order ALEPOCEPHALIFORMES (30)—slickheads and tubeshoulders, 172

Superorder OSTARIOPHYSI, 174

Series ANOTOPHYSI, 175

Order GONORYNCHIFORMES (31)—milkfishes, 175

Series OTOPHYSI, 179

Subseries Cypriniphysi, 180

Order CYPRINIFORMES (32)—carps, loaches, minnows, and relatives, 180

Family CYPRINIDAE (109)—minnows, carps, and loaches, 181

Subseries Characiphysi, 193

Order CHARACIFORMES (33)—characins, 193

Subseries Siluriphysi, 207

Order SILURIFORMES (34)—catfishes, 207

Order GYMNOTIFORMES (35)—Neotropical knifefishes, 238

Cohort EUTELEOSTEI, 241

Order LEPIDOGALAXIIFORMES (36)—salamanderfishes, 242

Family LEPIDOGALAXIIDAE (186)—salamanderfishes, 242

Superorder PROTACANTHOPTERYGII, 243

Order SALMONIFORMES (37)—trout, salmon, and whitefish, 244

Family SALMONIDAE (187)—trout, salmon, and whitefish, 244

Order ESOCIFORMES (38)—pikes and mudminnows, 248

Family ESOCIDAE (188)—pikes, 249

Family UMBRIDAE (189)—mudminnows, 251

Superorder OSMEROMORPHA, 252

Order ARGENTINIFORMES (39)—marine smelts, 252

Order GALAXIIFORMES (40)—galaxiiforms, 254

Family GALAXIIDAE (194)—galaxiids, 254

Order OSMERIFORMES (41)—freshwater smelts, 256

Order STOMIIFORMES (42)—dragonfishes, 259

Superorder ATELEOPODOMORPHA, 265

Order ATELEOPODIFORMES (43)—jellynose fishes, 265

Family ATELEOPODIDAE (204)—jellynose fishes, 265

Superorder CYCLOSQUAMATA, 266

Order AULOPIFORMES (44)—lizardfishes, 266

Superorder SCOPELOMORPHA, 276

Order MYCTOPHIFORMES (45)—lanternfishes, 276

Family NEOSCOPELIDAE (221)—blackchins, 277

Family MYCTOPHIDAE (222)—lanternfishes, 277

Superorder LAMPRIMORPHA, 280

Order LAMPRIFORMES (46)—opahs, 280

Superorder PARACANTHOPTERYGII, 284

Order POLYMIXIIFORMES (47)—beardfishes, 285

Family POLYMIXIIDAE (229)—beardfishes, 286

Order PERCOPSIFORMES (48)—trout-perches, 287

Family PERCOPSIDAE (230)—trout-perches, 287

Family APHREDODERIDAE (231)—pirate perches, 288

Family AMBLYOPSIDAE (232)—cavefishes, 289

Order ZEIFORMES (49)—dories, 289

Order STYLEPHORIFORMES (50)—tube-eyes or thread-tails, 293

Family STYLEPHORIDAE (239)—tube-eyes or thread-tails, 293

Order GADIFORMES (51)—cods and hakes, 293

Superorder ACANTHOPTERYGII, 302

Series BERYCIDA, 303

Order HOLOCENTRIFORMES (52)—squirrelfishes, 304

Family HOLOCENTRIDAE (253)—squirrelfishes, 304

Order TRACHICHTHYIFORMES (53)—roughies, 305

Order BERYCIFORMES (54)—beryciforms, 308

Series PERCOMORPHA, 314

Subseries Ophidiida, 315

Order OPHIDIIFORMES (55)—cusk-eels, 315

Subseries Batrachoidida, 320

Order BATRACHOIDIFORMES (56)—toadfishes, 320

Family BATRACHOIDIDAE (272)—toadfishes, 321

Subseries Gobiida, 323

Order KURTIFORMES (57)—nurseryfishes and cardinalfishes, 324

Family KURTIDAE (273)—nurseryfishes, 324

Family APOGONIDAE (274)—cardinalfishes, 324

Order GOBIIFORMES (58)—gobies, 326

Subseries Ovalentaria, 333

Order MUGILIFORMES (59)—mullets, 341

Family MUGILIDAE (291)—mullets, 342

Order CICHLIFORMES (60)—cichlids and convict blennies, 342

Family CICHLIDAE (292)—cichlids, 342

Family PHOLIDICHTHYIDAE (293)—convict blenny, 345

Order BLENNIIFORMES (61)—Blennies, 346

Order GOBIESOCIFORMES (62)—clingfishes, 351

Family GOBIESOCIDAE (300)—clingfishes, 352

Order ATHERINIFORMES (63)—silversides, 354

Order BELONIFORMES (64)—needlefishes, 363

Order CYPRINODONTIFORMES (65)—killifishes, 369

Order SYNBRANCHIFORMES (66)—swamp eels, 380

Order CARANGIFORMES (67)—jacks, 383

Order ISTIOPHORIFORMES (68)—barracudas and billfishes, 387

Order ANABANTIFORMES (69)—labyrinth fishes, 390

Order PLEURONECTIFORMES (70)—flatfishes, 395

Order SYNGNATHIFORMES (71)—pipefishes and seahorses, 405

Order ICOSTEIFORMES (72)—ragfishes, 412

Family ICOSTEIDAE (366)—ragfishes, 412

Order CALLIONYMIFORMES (73), 412

Family CALLIONYMIDAE (367)—dragonets, 412

Family DRACONETTIDAE (368)—slope dragonets, 413

Order SCOMBROLABRACIFORMES (74)—longfin escolars, 413

Family SCOMBROLABRACIDAE (369)—longfin escolars, 413

Order SCOMBRIFORMES (75)—mackerels, 414

Order TRACHINIFORMES (76), 421

Order PERCIFORMES (78)—perches, 430

Order SCORPAENIFORMES (79)—mail-cheeked fishes, 467

Order MORONIFORMES (80)—temperate basses, 495

Order ACANTHURIFORMES—(81) surgeonfishes and relatives, 497

Order SPARIFORMES (82)—breams and porgies, 502

Order CAPROIFORMES (83)—boarfishes, 506

Family CAPROIDAE (508)—boarfishes, 507

Order LOPHIIFORMES (84)—anglerfishes, 508

Order TETRAODONTIFORMES (85)—plectognaths, 518

BIBLIOGRAPHY 527

INDEX 651

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Author Information

JOSEPH S. NELSON, PhD, (1937–2011) is the author of the first four editions, was a Professor Emeritus of Biological Sciences at the University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada.

TERRY C. GRANDE, PhD, is an expert in fish morphology, development, and phylogeny. She is Professor of Biology at Loyola University Chicago in Chicago, IL, USA.

MARK V.H. WILSON, PhD, is an expert in fish evolution, paleontology, and taxonomy. He is a Professor Emeritus of Biological Sciences at the University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada, and Affiliate Professor of Biology at Loyola University Chicago in Chicago, IL, USA.

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