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Guide to State-of-the-Art Electron Devices

ISBN: 978-1-118-34726-3
322 pages
April 2013, Wiley-IEEE Press
Guide to State-of-the-Art Electron Devices (1118347269) cover image

Description

Winner, 2013 PROSE Award, Engineering and Technology

Concise, high quality and comparative overview of state-of-the-art electron device development, manufacturing technologies and applications

Guide to State-of-the-Art Electron Devices marks the 60th anniversary of the IRE electron devices committee and the 35th anniversary of the IEEE Electron Devices Society, as such it defines the state-of-the-art of electron devices, as well as future directions across the entire field.

  • Spans full range of electron device types such as photovoltaic devices, semiconductor manufacturing and VLSI technology and circuits, covered by IEEE Electron and Devices Society
  • Contributed by internationally respected members of the electron devices community
  • A timely desk reference with fully-integrated colour and a unique lay-out with sidebars to highlight the key terms
  • Discusses the historical developments and speculates on future trends to give a more rounded picture of the topics covered

A valuable resource R&D managers; engineers in the semiconductor industry; applied scientists; circuit designers; Masters students in power electronics; and members of the IEEE Electron Device Society.

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Table of Contents

Foreword xi

Preface xiii

Contributors xvii

Acknowledgments xix

Introduction: Historic Timeline xxi

PART I BASIC ELECTRON DEVICES

1 Bipolar Transistors 3
John D. Cressler and Katsuyoshi Washio

1.1 Motivation 3

1.2 The pn Junction and its Electronic Applications 5

1.3 The Bipolar Junction Transistor and its Electronic Applications 10

1.4 Optimization of Bipolar Transistors 15

1.5 Silicon-Germanium Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors 17

References 19

2 MOSFETs 21
Hiroshi Iwai, Simon Min Sze, Yuan Taur and Hei Wong

2.1 Introduction 21

2.2 MOSFET Basics 21

2.3 The Evolution of MOSFETs 27

2.4 Closing Remarks 31

References 31

3 Memory Devices 37
Kinam Kim and Dong Jin Jung

3.1 Introduction 37

3.2 Volatile Memories 39

3.3 Non-Volatile Memories 41

3.4 Future Perspectives of MOS Memories 43

3.5 Closing Remarks 45

References 46

4 Passive Components 49
Joachim N. Burghartz and Colin C. McAndrew

4.1 Discrete and Integrated Passive Components 49

4.2 Application in Analog ICs and DRAM 52

4.3 The Planar Spiral Inductor–A Case Study 54

4.4 Parasitics in Integrated Circuits 57

References 57

5 Emerging Devices 59
Supriyo Bandyopadhyay, Marc Cahay and Avik W. Ghosh

5.1 Non-Charge-Based Switching 59

5.2 Carbon as a Replacement for Silicon and the Rise of Grpahene Electronics and Moletronics 63

5.3 Closing Remarks 66

References 67

PART II ASPECTS OF DEVICE AND IC MANUFACTURING

6 Electronic Materials 71
James C. Sturm, Ken Rim, James S. Harris and Chung-Chih Wu

6.1 Introduction 71

6.2 Silicon Device Technology 71

6.3 Compound Semiconductor Devices 75

6.4 Electronic Displays 79

6.5 Closing Remarks 82

References 83

7 Compact Modeling 85
Colin C. McAndrew and Laurence W. Nagel

7.1 The Role of Compact Models 85

7.2 Bipolar Transistor Compact Modeling 87

7.3 MOS Transistor Compact Modeling 89

7.4 Compact Modeling of Passive Components 92

7.5 Benchmarking and Implementation 94

References 94

8 Technology Computer Aided Design 97
David Esseni, Christoph Jungemann, J¨urgen Lorenz, Pierpaolo Palestri, Enrico Sangiorgi and Luca Selmi

8.1 Introduction 97

8.2 Drift-Diffusion Model 98

8.3 Microscopic Transport Models 100

8.4 Quantum Transport Models 101

8.5 Process and Equipment Simulation 102

References 105

9 Reliability of Electron Devices, Interconnects and Circuits 107
Anthony S. Oates, Richard C. Blish, Gennadi Bersuker and Lu Kasprzak

9.1 Introduction and Background 107

9.2 Device Reliability Issues 109

9.3 Circuit-Level Reliability Issues 114

9.4 Microscopic Approaches to Assuring Reliability of ICs 117

References 117

10 Semiconductor Manufacturing 121
Rajendra Singh, Luigi Colombo, Klaus Schuegraf, Robert Doering and Alain Diebold

10.1 Introduction 121

10.2 Substrates 122

10.3 Lithography and Etching 122

10.4 Front-End Processing 124

10.5 Back-End Processing 125

10.6 Process Control 128

10.7 Assembly and Test 129

10.8 Future Directions 131

References 131

PART III APPLICATIONS BASED ON ELECTRON DEVICES

11 VLSI Technology and Circuits 135
Kaustav Banerjee and Shuji Ikeda

11.1 Introduction 135

11.2 MOSFET Scaling Trends 136

11.3 Low-Power and High-Speed Logic Design 137

11.4 Scaling Driven Technology Enhancements 139

11.5 Ultra-Low Voltage Transistors 144

11.6 Interconnects 144

11.7 Memory Design 148

11.8 System Integration 150

References 152

12 Mixed-Signal Technologies and Integrated Circuits 157
Bin Zhao and James A. Hutchby

12.1 Introduction 157

12.2 Analog/Mixed-Signal Technologies in Scaled CMOS 159

12.3 Data Converter ICs 161

12.4 Mixed-Signal Circuits for Low Power Displays 164

12.5 Image Sensor Technologies and Circuits 166

References 168

13 Memory Technologies 171
Stephen Parke, Kristy A. Campbell and Chandra Mouli

13.1 Semiconductor Memory History 171

13.2 State of Mainstream Semiconductor Memory Today 178

13.3 Emerging Memory Technologies 183

13.4 Closing Remarks 185

References 186

14 RF and Microwave Semiconductor Technologies 189
Giovanni Ghione, Fabrizio Bonani, Ruediger Quay and Erich Kasper

14.1 III-V-Based: GaAs and InP 189

14.2 Si and SiGe 194

14.3 Wide Bandgap Devices (Group-III Nitrides, SiC and Diamond) 197

References 199

15 Power Devices and ICs 203
Richard K. Williams, Mohamed N. Darwish, Theodore J. Letavic and Mikael O¨stling

15.1 Overview of Power Devices and ICs 203

15.2 Two-Carrier and High-Power Devices 205

15.3 Power MOSFET Devices 206

15.4 High-Voltage and Power ICs 209

15.5 Wide Bandgap Power Devices 210

References 211

16 Photovoltaic Devices 213
Steven A. Ringel, Timothy J. Anderson, Martin A. Green, Rajendra Singh and Robert J. Walters

16.1 Introduction 213

16.2 Silicon Photovoltaics 215

16.3 Polycrystalline Thin-Film Photovoltaics 218

16.4 III-V Compound Photovoltaics 219

16.5 Future Concepts in Photovoltaics 220

References 222

17 Large Area Electronics 225
Arokia Nathan, Arman Ahnood, Jackson Lai and Xiaojun Guo

17.1 Thin-Film Solar Cells 225

17.2 Large Area Imaging 229

17.3 Flat Panel Displays 233

References 235

18 Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) 239
Darrin J. Young and Hanseup Kim

18.1 Introduction 239

18.2 The 1960s – First Micromachined Structures Envisioned 239

18.3 The 1970s – Integrated Sensors Started 240

18.4 The 1980s – Surface Micromachining Emerged 241

18.5 The 1990s – MEMS Impacted Various Fields 244

18.6 The 2000s – Diversified Sophisticated Systems Enabled by MEMS 247

18.7 Future Outlook 248

References 248

19 Vacuum Device Applications 251
David K. Abe, Baruch Levush, Carter M. Armstrong, Thomas Grant and William L. Menninger

19.1 Introduction 251

19.2 Traveling-Wave Devices 252

19.3 Klystrons 255

19.4 Inductive Output Tubes 258

19.5 Crossed-Field Devices 259

19.6 Gyro-Devices 260

References 262

20 Optoelectronic Devices 265
Leda Lunardi, Sudha Mokkapati and Chennupati Jagadish

20.1 Introduction 265

20.2 Light Emission in Semiconductors 266

20.3 Photodetectors 268

20.4 Integrated Optoelectronics 269

20.5 Optical Interconnects 271

20.6 Closing Remarks 271

References 271

21 Devices for the Post CMOS Era 275
Wilfried Haensch

21.1 Introduction 275

21.2 Devices for the 8-nm Node with Conventional Materials 277

21.3 New Channel Materials and Devices 282

21.4 Closing Remarks 287

References 287

Index 291

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Author Information

Edited by

Prof. Dr. Joachim N. Burghartz

Institute for Microelectronics Stuttgart, Germany
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Reviews

“A ‘Wikipedia’ for modern electron devices, this concise reference answers the ‘what’, ‘why’, and ‘how’ of devices which enable our everyday information, communication, entertainment and computing systems. Each chapter tells a story of a device or a class of devices, written in an easy-to-read style that entices the reader to continue.”
Tak H. Ning, Fellow, IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York

"As a person with over 60 years of experience in the field, I am delighted to recommend “Guide to State-of-the-Art Electron Devices” as a valuable resource for researchers and engineers engaged in work on semiconductor devices.  I have personally known or followed the work of many of these authors, and feel that the editor has done an outstanding job in engaging top experts in the various topical areas covered in this work.”
Nick Holonyak, Jr., John Bardeen Endowed Chair in Electrical and Computer Engineering and Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

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