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Oats Nutrition and Technology

YiFang Chu (Editor)
ISBN: 978-1-118-35411-7
464 pages
January 2014, Wiley-Blackwell
Oats Nutrition and Technology (1118354117) cover image

A considerable amount of research has emerged in recent years on the science, technology and health effects of oats but, until now, no book has gathered this work together. Oats Nutrition and Technology presents a comprehensive and integrated overview of the coordinated activities of nutritionists, plant scientists, food
scientists, policy makers, and the private sector in developing oat products for optimal health.

Readers will gain a good understanding of the value of best agricultural production and processing practices that are important in the oats food system. The book reviews agricultural practices for the production of oat products, the food science involved in the processing of oats, and the nutrition science aimed at understanding and advancing the health effects of oats and how they can affect nutrition policies. There are individual chapters that
summarize oat breeding and processing, the many bioactive compounds that oats contain, and their health benefits. With respect to the latter, the health benefits of oats and oat constituents on chronic diseases, obesity, gut health, metabolic syndromes, and skin health are reviewed. The book concludes with a global summary of food labelling practices that are particularly relevant to oats.

Oats Nutrition and Technology offers in-depth information about the life cycle of oats for nutrition, food and agricultural scientists and health practitioners interested in this field. It is intended to provoke thought and stimulate readers to address the many research challenges associated with the oat life cycle and food system.

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List of Contributors xi

Preface xv

Acknowledgements xvii

PART I: INTRODUCTION

1 Introduction: Oat Nutrition, Health, and the Potential Threat of a Declining Production on Consumption 3
Penny Kris-Etherton, Chor San Khoo, and YiFang Chu

1.1 A landmark health claim 3

1.2 The growing interest in oats and health 4

1.3 Declining production poses threats to the growth of oat intake 5

References 6

PART II: OAT BREEDING, PROCESSING, AND PRODUCT PRODUCTION

2 Breeding for Ideal Milling Oat: Challenges and Strategies 9
Weikai Yan, Judith Frégeau-Reid, and Jennifer Mitchell Fetch

2.1 Introduction 9

2.2 Breeding for single traits: Genotype-by-environment interactions 11

2.3 Breeding for multiple traits: Undesirable trait associations 19

2.4 Strategies of breeding for an ideal milling oat 25

2.5 Discussion 28

Acknowledgements 32

References 32

3 Food Oat Quality Throughout the Value Chain 33
Nancy Ames, Camille Rhymer, and Joanne Storsley

3.1 Introduction: Oat quality in the context of the value chain 33

3.2 Physical oat quality 36

3.3 Nutritional oat quality 41

3.4 Agronomic factors affecting physical and nutritional quality 46

3.5 Oat end-product quality 47

3.6 Mycotoxins 58

3.7 Summary 59

Acknowledgements 60

References 60

PART III: OAT NUTRITION AND CHEMISTRY

4 Nutritional Comparison of Oats and Other Commonly Consumed Whole Grains 73
Apeksha A. Gulvady, Robert C. Brown, and Jenna A. Bell

4.1 Introduction to oats as a cereal grain 73

4.2 Overview of the nutritional composition of oats 75

4.3 Conclusion 91

References 91

5 Oat Starch 95
Prabhakar Kasturi and Nicolas Bordenave

5.1 Introduction 95

5.2 Native oat starch organization: From the molecular to the granular level 96

5.3 Starch minor components, isolation, and extraction 104

5.4 Beyond native starch granule: Gelatinization, pasting, retrogradation, and interactions with other polysaccharides 107

5.5 Industrial uses 115

5.6 Conclusion and perspectives 116

References 116

6 Oat-Glucans: Physicochemistry and Nutritional Properties 123
Madhuvanti Kale, Bruce Hamaker, and Nicolas Bordenave

6.1 Introduction 123

6.2 Molecular structures and characteristics 124

6.3 Extraction 131

6.4 Solution properties 135

6.5 Oat-glucan nutritional properties 144

6.6 Conclusion and perspectives 158

References 159

7 Health Benefits of Oat Phytochemicals 171
Shaowei Cui and Rui Hai Liu

7.1 Introduction 171

7.2 Oat phytochemicals 172

7.3 Health benefits of oat phytochemicals: Epidemiological evidence 185

7.4 Summary 189

References 189

8 Avenanthramides: Chemistry and Biosynthesis 195
Mitchell L. Wise

8.1 Introduction 195

8.2 Nomenclature 196

8.3 Synthesis 197

8.4 Chemical stability 197

8.5 Antioxidant properties 199

8.6 Solubility of avenanthramides 200

8.7 Analysis of avenanthramides 201

8.8 Biosynthesis of avenanthramides 201

8.9 Victorin sensitivity 206

8.10 Environment effects on avenanthramide production 207

8.11 Hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA: Hydroxyanthranilate N-hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HHT) 209

8.12 Cloning HHT 211

8.13 Metabolic flux of avenanthramides 214

8.14 Localization of avenanthramide biosynthesis 216

8.15 Plant defense activators 218

8.16 False malting 219

8.17 Conclusion 221

References 222

PART IV: EMERGING NUTRITION AND HEALTH RESEARCH

9 The Effects of Oats and Oat-Glucan on Blood Lipoproteins and Risk for Cardiovascular Disease 229
Tia M. Rains and Kevin C. Maki

9.1 Introduction 229

9.2 Hypocholesterolemic effects of fiber 230

9.3 Hypocholesterolemic effects of oats and oat-glucan 231

9.4 Summary/Conclusions 233

References 233

10 The Effects of Oats and -Glucan on Blood Pressure and Hypertension 239
Tia M. Rains and Kevin C. Maki

10.1 Introduction 239

10.2 Dietary patterns and blood pressure 240

10.3 Oats and oat-glucan: Effect on blood pressure and hypertension 246

10.4 Conclusion 251

References 251

11 Avenanthramides, Unique Polyphenols of Oats with Potential Health Effects 255
Mohsen Meydani

11.1 Introduction 255

11.2 Avenanthramides, the bioactive phenolics in oats 256

11.3 Anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative activity of avenanthramides 258

11.4 Summary and conclusion 261

Acknowledgements 261

References 261

12 Effects of Oats on Obesity, Weight Management, and Satiety 265
Chad M. Cook, Tia M. Rains, and Kevin C. Maki

12.1 Introduction 265

12.2 Effects of oats and oat-glucan on body weight 266

12.3 Effects of oats on appetite 271

12.4 Possible mechanisms of action 274

12.5 Summary 276

References 276

13 Effects of Oats on Carbohydrate Metabolism 281
Susan M. Tosh

13.1 Introduction 281

13.2 Epidemiology 281

13.3 Mechanisms of postprandial blood glucose reduction 282

13.4 Clinical studies using whole oat products 284

13.5 Clinical studies using oat bran products 286

13.6 Clinical studies using oat-derived-glucan preparations 289

13.7 Dose response 289

13.8 Longer-term glucose control 291

13.9 Summary 292

References 293

14 Effects of Oats and -Glucan on Gut Health 299
Renee Korczak and Joanne Slavin

14.1 Oats and -glucan 299

14.2 Digestive health 299

14.3 Short chain fatty acids and fiber fermentability 301

14.4 Large bowel effects of whole grains 302

14.5 Fermentation of individual dietary fibers 303

14.6 Prebiotics 303

14.7 Other mechanisms underlying the effect of oats on gut function 306

14.8 Conclusion 306

References 307

15 Oats and Skin Health 311
Joy Makdisi, Allison Kutner, and Adam Friedman

15.1 History of colloidal oatmeal use 311

15.2 Oat structure and composition 312

15.3 Clinical properties 313

15.4 Clinical applications of oats 318

15.5 Side effects of oats 323

15.6 Conclusions 326

References 326

PART V: PUBLIC HEALTH POLICIES AND CONSUMER RESPONSE

16 Health Claims for Oat Products: A Global Perspective 335
Joanne Storsley, Stephanie Jew, and Nancy Ames

16.1 Introduction 335

16.2 Definition of health claims 336

16.3 Substantiation of health claims 338

16.4 Health claims and dietary recommendations for oat products 339

16.5 Benefits of health claims 346

16.6 Nutritional information and health claims: How can health claims ensure clarity versus confusion? 348

16.7 Considerations in conducting research for health claim substantiation 349

References 351

17 Oh, What Those Oats Can Do: Quaker Oats, the US Food and Drug Administration, and the Market Value of Scientific Evidence 1984–2010 357
Robert Fitzsimmons

17.1 Introduction 357

17.2 Wild oats: The oat bran craze 1988–1990 363

17.3 Brantastic voyage: Oats through dietetic history 364

17.4 Gruel intentions: The NLEA and Quaker's health claim 1990–1997 382

17.5 Cash crop: Leveraging scientific evidence 1997–2010 395

17.6 Conclusions 413

References 420

PART VI: FUTURE RECOMMENDATIONS

18 Overview: Current and Future Perspectives on Oats and Health 429
Penny Kris-Etherton

18.1 Chapter summaries 429

18.2 Relevance to the nutrition and dietetic communities and the medical profession 433

18.3 Future needs and recommendations 434

References 436

Index 439

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Dr YiFang Chu is with Quaker Oats Center of Excellence, PepsiCo R&D Nutrition, Barrington, IL, USA
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