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LTE Security, 2nd Edition

ISBN: 978-1-118-35558-9
366 pages
December 2012
LTE Security, 2nd Edition (111835558X) cover image

A concise, updated guide to the 3GPP LTE Security Standardization specifications

A welcome Revised Edition of the successful LTE Security addressing the security architecture for SAE/LTE, which is based on elements of the security architectures for GSM and 3G, but which needed a major redesign due to the significantly increased complexity, and different architectural and business requirements of fourth generation systems. The authors  explain in detail the security mechanisms employed to meet these requirements. The specifications generated by standardization bodies only inform about how to implement the system (and this only to the extent required for interoperability), but almost never inform readers about why things are done the way they are. Furthermore, specifications tend to be readable only for a small group of experts and lack the context of the broader picture. The book fills this gap by providing first hand information from insiders who participated in decisively shaping SAE/LTE security in the relevant standardization body, 3GPP, and can therefore explain the rationale for design decisions in this area.

  • A concise, fully updated guide to the 3GPP LTE Security Standardization specifications
  • Describes the essential elements of LTE and SAE Security, written by leading experts who participated in decisively shaping SAE/LTE security in the relevant standardization body, 3GPP
  • Explains the rationale behind the standards specifications giving readers a broader understanding of the context to these specifications
  • Includes new chapters covering 3GPP work on system enhancements for MTC, plus application layer security in ETSI TC M2M and embedded smart card in ETSI SCP;  Security for Machine-type Communication, Relay Node Security, and Future Challenges, including Voice over LTE, MTC,  Home base stations, LIPA/SIPTO, and New Cryptographic Algorithms

Essential reading for System engineers, developers and people in technical sales working in the area of LTE and LTE security, communication engineers and software developers in mobile communication field.

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Preface xiii

Foreword to the First Edition xv

Acknowledgements xix

Copyright Acknowledgements xix

1 Overview of the Book 1

2 Background 5

2.1 Evolution of Cellular Systems 5

2.2 Basic Security Concepts 10

2.3 Basic Cryptographic Concepts 13

2.4 Introduction to LTE Standardization 21

2.5 Notes on Terminology and Specification Language 26

3 GSM Security 29

3.1 Principles of GSM Security 29

3.2 The Role of the SIM 30

3.3 Mechanisms of GSM Security 31

3.4 GSM Cryptographic Algorithms 34

4 Third-Generation Security (UMTS) 37

4.1 Principles of Third-Generation (3G) Security 37

4.2 Third-Generation Security Mechanisms 40

4.3 Third-Generation Cryptographic Algorithms 49

4.4 Interworking between GSM and 3G Security 55

4.5 Network Domain Security 59

4.6 Architectures with RNCs in Exposed Locations 65

5 3G–WLAN Interworking 67

5.1 Principles of 3G–WLAN Interworking 67

5.2 Security Mechanisms of 3G–WLAN Interworking 75

5.3 Cryptographic Algorithms for 3G–WLAN Interworking 81

6 EPS Security Architecture 83

6.1 Overview and Relevant Specifications 83

6.2 Requirements and Features of EPS Security 89

6.3 Design Decisions for EPS Security 97

6.4 Platform Security for Base Stations 103

7 EPS Authentication and Key Agreement 109

7.1 Identification 109

7.2 The EPS Authentication and Key Agreement Procedure 112

7.3 Key Hierarchy 123

7.4 Security Contexts 129

8 EPS Protection for Signalling and User Data 133

8.1 Security Algorithms Negotiation 133

8.2 NAS Signalling Protection 136

8.3 AS Signalling and User Data Protection 138

8.4 Security on Network Interfaces 141

8.5 Certificate Enrolment for Base Stations 143

8.6 Emergency Call Handling 151

9 Security in Intra-LTE State Transitions and Mobility 155

9.1 Transitions to and from Registered State 156

9.2 Transitions between Idle and Connected States 157

9.3 Idle State Mobility 158

9.4 Handover 161

9.5 Key Change on the Fly 169

9.6 Periodic Local Authentication Procedure 170

9.7 Concurrent Run of Security Procedures 171

10 EPS Cryptographic Algorithms 175

10.1 Null Algorithms 176

10.2 Ciphering Algorithms 177

10.3 Integrity Algorithms 180

10.4 Key Derivation Algorithms 180

11 Interworking Security between EPS and Other Systems 183

11.1 Interworking with GSM and 3G Networks 183

11.2 Interworking with Non-3GPP Networks 193

12 Security for Voice over LTE 215

12.1 Methods for Providing Voice over LTE 215

12.2 Security Mechanisms for Voice over LTE 220

12.3 Rich Communication Suite and Voice over LTE 230

13 Security for Home Base Station Deployment 233

13.1 Security Architecture, Threats and Requirements 234

13.2 Security Features 241

13.3 Security Procedures Internal to the Home Base Station 244

13.4 Security Procedures between Home Base Station and Security Gateway 247

13.5 Security Aspects of Home Base Station Management 261

13.6 Closed Subscriber Groups and Emergency Call Handling 275

13.7 Support for Subscriber Mobility 277

14 Relay Node Security 281

14.1 Overview of Relay Node Architecture 281

14.2 Security Solution 284

15 Security for Machine-Type Communications 293

15.1 Security for MTC at the Application Level 294

15.2 Security for MTC at the 3GPP Network Level 301

15.3 Security for MTC at the Credential Management Level 306

16 Future Challenges 309

16.1 Near-Term Outlook 309

16.2 Far-Term Outlook 314

Abbreviations 319

References 327

Index 337

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Dan Forsberg, Poplatek Oy, Finland
Dr. Dan Forsberg is currently a development manager at Poplatek Oy where he takes care of the payment terminals area and also works with payment card industry security. Earlier, Dan led the SAE/LTE security standardization work in Nokia. He was also nominated as one of the Nokia top inventors in 2007-2008. Dan started his Ph.D. studies while working in Nokia and has published several scientific papers in the area of "improving and distributing session key management for mobile networks". He joined Helsinki University of Technology in 2009 and finalized his PhD studies there before the end of 2009.

Günther Horn, Nokia Siemens Networks, Germany
Dr Horn is a senior standardization expert at Nokia Siemens Networks. The focus of his work is on the standardization of 3G and SAE/LTE security in the 3GPPP security group (SA3), of which he has been a member since it started in 1999.

Wolf-Dietrich Moeller, Nokia Siemens Networks, Germany
Wolf-Dietrich Moeller is a senior researcher with Nokia Siemens Networks.

Valtteri Niemi, University of Turku, Finland and Nokia Corporation, Finland
Dr Niemi is a Professor of Mathematics in University of Turku, Finland and also a Nokia Fellow, for which role he is based at the Nokia Research Center in Helsinki, Finland. Prof. Niemi’s work has been on security and privacy issues of future mobile networks and terminals, the main emphasis being on cryptological aspects. He participated in the 3GPP SA3 (security) standardization group from the beginning, and during 2003-2009 he was the chairman of the group.

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