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Handbook of Coal Analysis, 2nd Edition

ISBN: 978-1-118-36924-1
368 pages
March 2015
Handbook of Coal Analysis, 2nd Edition (1118369246) cover image

Description

Provides users with everything they need to know about testing and analysis of coal


  • Includes new coverage on environmental issues and regulations as related to coal
  • Provides the reader with the necessary information about testing and analyzing coal and relays the advantages and limitations in understanding the quality and performance of coal
  • Explains the meaning of test results and how these results can predict coal behavior and its corresponding environmental impact during use
  • Includes a comprehensive Glossary which defines items in straightforward language that enable readers to better understand the terminology related to coal
  • Treats issues related to sampling, and accuracy and precision of analysis
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Table of Contents

Author Biography xi

Preface xiii

1 History and Terminology 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Definitions and Terminology 2

1.3 Precursors of Coal 4

1.4 Coal-Forming Processes 7

1.5 Heteroatoms in Coal 8

1.5.1 Nitrogen 9

1.5.2 Oxygen 10

1.5.3 Sulfur 11

1.5.4 Other Elements 12

1.6 Physical Structure 13

1.7 Petrology and Petrography 14

1.7.1 Petrology 14

1.7.2 Petrography 15

1.7.3 Microlithotypes 17

1.7.4 Inorganic Constituents 17

1.7.5 Petrology, Petrography, and Behavior 18

1.8 Coal and Coal Analysis 21

References 23

2 Identification of Coal 27

2.1 Introduction 27

2.2 Analytical Techniques 31

2.3 Standard Test Methods 35

2.4 Coal Classification 37

2.5 Use of Coal 43

2.5.1 PreModern Use of Coal 44

2.5.2 Modern Use of Coal 47

2.6 The Future 49

References 50

3 Sampling and Sample Preparation 54

3.1 Introduction 54

3.2 Sampling 56

3.2.1 General Aspects 57

3.2.2 Manual Sampling 61

3.2.3 Mechanical Sampling 65

3.3 Sample Preparation 66

3.4 Washability 68

3.5 Accuracy and Precision 73

3.5.1 Accuracy 73

3.5.2 Precision 74

3.5.3 Repeatability 74

3.5.4 Bias 75

3.5.5 Method Validation 76

3.6 Reporting Coal Analyses 78

3.7 Interrelationships of the Data 80

References 81

4 Mineral Matter 84

4.1 Introduction 84

4.2 Origin and Occurrence 85

4.2.1 Origin 87

4.2.2 Occurrence 88

4.3 Mineral Types 90

4.3.1 Clay Minerals 91

4.3.2 Silicate Minerals 92

4.3.3 Carbonate Minerals 93

4.3.4 Sulfide and Sulfate Minerals 93

4.3.5 Other Minerals 94

4.3.6 Effect of Mineral Matter on Coal Use 94

4.4 Evaluation 95

4.4.1 Ashing Techniques 97

4.4.2 Ash Analysis and/or Direct Mineral Analysis 99

4.4.3 Non-Ashing Techniques 106

4.4.4 Data Handling and Interpretation 108

4.5 Chemistry of ASH Formation 110

References 112

5 Proximate Analysis 116

5.1 Introduction 116

5.2 Moisture Content 118

5.2.1 Test Methods 124

5.2.2 Data Handling and Interpretation 126

5.3 ASH 127

5.3.1 Test Methods 128

5.3.2 Data Handling and Interpretation 131

5.4 Volatile Matter 132

5.4.1 Test Methods 133

5.4.2 Data Handling and Interpretation 135

5.5 Fixed Carbon 136

5.6 Coal Assay 137

5.6.1 Gray–King Assay at 600 ∘C (1112 ∘F) 137

5.6.2 Gray–King Assay at 900 ∘C (1652 ∘F) 138

5.6.3 Other Carbonization Tests 138

5.7 Other Methods 140

References 140

6 Ultimate Analysis 144

6.1 Introduction 144

6.2 Carbon and Hydrogen 145

6.2.1 Test Methods 145

6.2.2 Data Handling and Interpretation 147

6.3 Nitrogen 148

6.3.1 Test Methods 148

6.3.2 Data Handling and Interpretation 150

6.4 Oxygen 150

6.4.1 Test Methods 151

6.4.2 Data Handling and Interpretation 153

6.5 Sulfur 155

6.5.1 Test Methods 156

6.5.2 Determination of the Forms of Sulfur 158

6.5.3 Data Handling and Interpretation 160

6.6 Chlorine 161

6.6.1 Test Methods 161

6.6.2 Data Handling and Interpretation 162

6.7 Mercury 163

6.7.1 Test Methods 163

6.7.2 Data Handling and Interpretation 164

6.8 Other Constituents 164

6.8.1 Carbon Dioxide 164

6.8.2 Arsenic and Selenium 166

References 166

7 Physical Properties 170

7.1 Introduction 170

7.2 Density and Specific Gravity 172

7.3 Porosity and Surface Area 180

7.4 Reflectance 186

7.5 Refractive Index 190

7.6 Electrical Conductivity 190

7.7 Dielectric Constant 193

7.8 Dielectric Strength 194

References 194

8 Thermal Properties 198

8.1 Introduction 198

8.2 Calorific Value 198

8.2.1 Test Methods 203

8.2.2 Data Handling and Interpretation 205

8.3 Heat Capacity 206

8.3.1 Test Methods 206

8.3.2 Data Handling and Interpretation 206

8.4 Thermal Conductivity 209

8.4.1 Test Methods 209

8.4.2 Data Handling and Interpretation 209

8.5 Plastic and Agglutinating Properties 210

8.5.1 Test Methods 211

8.5.2 Data Handling and Interpretation 212

8.5.3 Data Handling and Interpretation 215

8.6 Free Swelling Index 216

8.6.1 Test Method 216

8.6.2 Data Handling and Interpretation 219

8.7 ASH Fusibility 220

8.7.1 Test Methods 221

8.7.2 Data Handling and Interpretation 222

8.8 Thermal Conductivity 223

8.8.1 Test Methods 223

8.8.2 Data handling and Interpretation 223

References 224

9 Mechanical Properties 226

9.1 Introduction 226

9.2 Strength 228

9.2.1 Test Methods 229

9.2.2 Data Handling and Interpretation 231

9.3 Hardness 231

9.3.1 Test Methods 232

9.3.2 Data Handling and Interpretation 233

9.4 Friability 234

9.4.1 Test Methods 236

9.4.2 Data Handling and Interpretation 237

9.5 Grindability 238

9.5.1 Test Methods 238

9.5.2 Data Handling and Interpretation 239

9.6 Other Mechanical Properties 242

9.6.1 Cleat Structure 242

9.6.2 Deformation and Flow under Stress 244

References 245

10 Solvent Properties and Spectroscopic Properties 249

10.1 Introduction 249

10.2 Solvent Properties 250

10.2.1 Action of Specific Solvents 253

10.2.2 Influence of Coal Rank 254

10.2.3 Influence of Petrographic Composition 255

10.2.4 Analysis of Coal Extracts 256

10.3 Spectroscopic Properties 257

10.3.1 Infrared Spectroscopy 257

10.3.2 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance 261

10.3.3 Mass Spectrometry 263

10.3.4 Ultraviolet Spectroscopy 264

10.3.5 X-Ray Diffraction 265

10.3.6 Electron Spin Resonance 265

10.3.7 Miscellaneous Methods 266

References 267

11 The Need for Coal Analysis 275

11.1 Introduction 275

11.2 Identification and Character of Coal 276

11.3 Physical Properties 278

11.4 Production 279

11.4.1 Dust 280

11.4.2 Fugitive Emissions 281

11.4.3 Mine Waste Disposal 281

11.4.4 Subsidence 282

11.5 Preparation, Transportation, and Storage 283

11.5.1 Preparation 283

11.5.2 Transportation 283

11.5.3 Storage 284

11.6 Utilization 285

11.6.1 Combustion 285

11.6.2 Carbonization 292

11.6.3 Liquefaction 293

11.6.4 Gasification 293

References 294

Glossary 298

Common Conversion Factors Used in Coal Technology 338

Index 341

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Author Information

James G. Speight has doctorate degrees in Chemistry, Geological Sciences, and Petroleum Engineering and is the author of more than 60 books in petroleum science, petroleum engineering, fossil fuel science and technology, and environmental sciences. He has more than 45 years of experience in the process industries, is the author of numerous invited book chapters and papers, is the senior editor of three journals, and has won numerous international awards and distinctions. 

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