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Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics, Student Solutions Manual and Student Study Guide , 7th Edition

ISBN: 978-1-118-37043-8
340 pages
May 2012, ©2013
Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics, Student Solutions Manual and Student Study Guide , 7th Edition (1118370430) cover image

This Student Solutions Manual is meant to accompany Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics, which is the number one text in its field, respected by professors and students alike for its comprehensive topical coverage, its varied examples and homework problems, its application of the visual component of fluid mechanics, and its strong focus on learning. The authors have designed their presentation to allow for the gradual development of student confidence in problem solving. Each important concept is introduced in simple and easy-to-understand terms before more complicated examples are discussed.

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1 Introduction 1

Learning Objectives 1

1.1 Some Characteristics of Fluids 3

1.2 Dimensions, Dimensional Homogeneity, and Units 4

1.3 Analysis of Fluid Behavior 11

1.4 Measures of Fluid Mass and Weight 11

1.5 Ideal Gas Law 12

1.6 Viscosity 14

1.7 Compressibility of Fluids 20

1.8 Vapor Pressure 23

1.9 Surface Tension 24

1.10 A Brief Look Back in History 27

1.11 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 29

2 Fluid Statics 40

Learning Objectives 40

2.1 Pressure at a Point 40

2.2 Basic Equation for Pressure Field 42

2.3 Pressure Variation in a Fluid at Rest 43

2.4 Standard Atmosphere 49

2.5 Measurement of Pressure 50

2.6 Manometry 52

2.7 Mechanical and Electronic Pressure-Measuring Devices 57

2.8 Hydrostatic Force on a Plane Surface 59

2.9 Pressure Prism 65

2.10 Hydrostatic Force on a Curved Surface 68

2.11 Buoyancy, Flotation, and Stability 70

2.12 Pressure Variation in a Fluid with Rigid-Body Motion 74

2.13 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 79

3 Elementary Fluid Dynamics—The Bernoulli Equation 101

Learning Objectives 101

3.1 Newton’s Second Law 101

3.2 F ma along a Streamline 104

3.3 F ma Normal to a Streamline 108

3.4 Physical Interpretation 110

3.5 Static, Stagnation, Dynamic, and Total Pressure 113

3.6 Examples of Use of the Bernoulli Equation 117

3.7 The Energy Line and the Hydraulic Grade Line 131

3.8 Restrictions on Use of the Bernoulli Equation 134

3.9 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 139

4 Fluid Kinematics 157

Learning Objectives 157

4.1 The Velocity Field 157

4.2 The Acceleration Field 166

4.3 Control Volume and System Representations 175

4.4 The Reynolds Transport Theorem 176

4.5 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 188

5 Finite Control Volume Analysis 199

Learning Objectives 199

5.1 Conservation of Mass—The Continuity Equation 200

5.2 Newton’s Second Law—The Linear Momentum and Moment-of-Momentum Equations 213

5.3 First Law of Thermodynamics—The Energy Equation 236

5.4 Second Law of Thermodynamics—Irreversible Flow 253

5.5 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 253

6 Differential Analysis of Fluid Flow 276

Learning Objectives 276

6.1 Fluid Element Kinematics 277

6.2 Conservation of Mass 282

6.3 Conservation of Linear Momentum 288

6.4 Inviscid Flow 292

6.5 Some Basic, Plane Potential Flows 286

6.6 Superposition of Basic, Plane Potential Flows 308

6.7 Other Aspects of Potential Flow Analysis 318

6.8 Viscous Flow 319

6.9 Some Simple Solutions for Viscous, Incompressible Fluids 321

6.10 Other Aspects of Differential Analysis 331

6.11 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 332

7 Dimensional Analysis, Similitude, and Modeling 346

Learning Objectives 346

7.1 Dimensional Analysis 347

7.2 Buckingham Pi Theorem 349

7.3 Determination of Pi Terms 350

7.4 Some Additional Comments about Dimensional Analysis 355

7.5 Determination of Pi Terms by Inspection 359

7.6 Common Dimensionless Groups in Fluid Mechanics 360

7.7 Correlation of Experimental Data 364

7.8 Modeling and Similitude 368

7.9 Some Typical Model Studies 374

7.10 Similitude Based on Governing Differential Equations 384

7.11 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 387

8 Viscous Flow in Pipes 400

Learning Objectives 400

8.1 General Characteristics of Pipe Flow 401

8.2 Fully Developed Laminar Flow 407

8.3 Fully Developed Turbulent Flow 416

8.4 Dimensional Analysis of Pipe Flow 426

8.5 Pipe Flow Examples 445

8.6 Pipe Flowrate Measurement 459

8.7 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 465

9 Flow Over Immersed Bodies 480

Learning Objectives 480

9.1 General External Flow Characteristics 481

9.2 Boundary Layer Characteristics 489

9.3 Drag 512

9.4 Lift 528

9.5 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 541

10 Open-Channel Flow 554

Learning Objectives 554

10.1 General Characteristics of Open-Channel Flow 555

10.2 Surface Waves 556

10.3 Energy Considerations 561

10.4 Uniform Depth Channel Flow 566

10.5 Gradually Varied Flow 575

10.6 Rapidly Varied Flow 576

10.7 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 589

11 Compressible Flow 601

Learning Objectives 601

11.1 Ideal Gas Relationships 602

11.2 Mach Number and Speed of Sound 607

11.3 Categories of Compressible Flow 610

11.4 Isentropic Flow of an Ideal Gas 614

11.5 Nonisentropic Flow of an Ideal Gas 631

11.6 Analogy between Compressible and Open-Channel Flows 655

11.7 Two-Dimensional Compressible Flow 657

11.8 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 658

12 Turbomachines 667

Learning Objectives 667

12.1 Introduction 668

12.2 Basic Energy Considerations 669

12.3 Basic Angular Momentum Considerations 673

12.4 The Centrifugal Pump 675

12.5 Dimensionless Parameters and Similarity Laws 688

12.6 Axial-Flow and Mixed-Flow Pumps 693

12.7 Fans 695

12.8 Turbines 695

12.9 Compressible Flow Turbomachines 707

12.10 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 713

References 715

Review Problems 715

Conceptual Questions 715

Problems 716

A Computational Fluid Dynamics 725

B Physical Properties of Fluids 737

C Properties of the U.S. Standard Atmosphere 742

D Compressible Flow Graphs for an Ideal Gas (k 1.4) 744

E Comprehensive Table of Conversion Factors See www.wiley.com/college/munson or WileyPLUS for this material.

F CFD Problems and Tutorials See www.wiley.com/college/munson or WileyPLUS for this material.

G Review Problems See www.wiley.com/college/munson or WileyPLUS for this material.

H Lab Problems See www.wiley.com/college/munson or WileyPLUS for this material.

I CFD Driven Cavity Example See www.wiley.com/college/munson or WileyPLUS for this material.

Answers ANS-1

Index I-1

Video Index VI-1

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