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Marine Proteins and Peptides: Biological Activities and Applications

Se-Kwon Kim (Editor)
ISBN: 978-1-118-37506-8
816 pages
May 2013, Wiley-Blackwell
Marine Proteins and Peptides: Biological Activities and Applications (1118375068) cover image

Food proteins and bioactive peptides play a vital role in the growth and development of the body’s structural integrity and regulation, as well as having a variety of other functional properties. Land animal-derived food proteins such as collagen and gelatine carry risks of contamination (such as BSE). Marine-derived proteins, which can provide equivalents to collagen and gelatin without the associated risks, are becoming more popular among consumers because of their numerous health beneficial effects. Most marine-derived bioactive peptides are currently underutilized. While fish and shellfish are perhaps the most obvious sources of such proteins and peptides, there is also the potential for further development of proteins and peptides from sources like algae, sea cucumber and molluscs. Marine-derived proteins and peptides also have potential uses in novel products, with the possibility of wide commercialization in the food, beverage, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries, as well as in other fields such as photography, textiles, leather, electronics, medicine and biotechnology.

Marine Proteins and Peptides: Biological Activities and Applications presents an overview of the current status, future industrial perspectives and commercial trends of bioactive marine-derived proteins and peptides. Many of the industrial perspectives are drawn from the food industry, but the book also refers to the pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries. There have recently been significant advances in isolating functional ingredients from marine bio-resources and seafood by-products for use in these industries, but little has been published, creating a knowledge gap, particularly with regard to the isolation and purification processes. This book is the first to fill that gap.

Marine Proteins and Peptides: Biological Activities and Applications is a valuable resource for researchers in marine biochemistry field as well as food industry managers interested in exploring novel techniques and knowledge on alternative food protein sources. It will become a standard reference book for researchers involved in developing marine bio-resources and seafood by-products for novel nutraceutical, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical applications. It will also appeal to managers and product developers in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries, particularly those looking to use marine-derived proteins and peptides as substitutes or replacements for unfashionable or outdated food components.

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List of Contributors xxiii

1 Marine-derived Peptides: Development and Health Prospects 1
Se-Kwon Kim and Isuru Wijesekara

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Development of Marine Peptides 1

1.3 Health Benefits of Marine Peptides 2

1.4 Conclusion 3

References 3

2 Bioactive Proteins and Peptides from Macroalgae, Fish, Shellfish and Marine Processing Waste 5
Pádraigín A. Harnedy and Richard J. FitzGerald

2.1 Introduction 5

2.2 Macroalgal, Fish and Shellfish Proteins: Potential Sources of Bioactive Hydrolysates and Peptides 5

2.3 Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Macroalgal, Fish and Shellfish Processing Waste Proteins: Bioactive Protein Hydrolysates and Peptides 8

2.4 Endogenous Bioactive Peptides from Macroalgae, Fish and Shellfish 22

2.5 Bioactive Proteins from Macroalgae, Fish and Shellfish 22

2.6 Commercial Products Containing Marine-Derived Bioactive Protein Hydrolysates and Peptides 24

2.7 Conclusion 27

Acknowledgement 27

References 27

3 Lectins with Varying Specificity and Biological Activity from Marine Bivalves 41
Bishnu Pada Chatterjee and Mausumi Adhya

3.1 Introduction 41

3.2 Lectins 45

3.3 Isolation, Molecular Characterization and Carbohydrate Specificity of Bivalve Lectins 46

3.4 Biological Functions of Bivalve Lectins 60

Acknowledgement 63

References 63

4 Digestive Enzymes from Marine Sources 69
Juan Antonio, Noriega Rodr´ıguez, Ramiro Baeza Jim´enez and Hugo Sergio García

4.1 Introduction 69

4.2 Biodiversity and Availability 70

4.3 Marine Biocatalysts 70

4.4 Digestive Enzymes 73

4.5 Lipases 78

4.5.3 Transglutaminase 80

4.6 Industrial Applications 81

References 83

5 Kamaboko Proteins as a Potential Source of Bioactive Substances 91
Takeshi Nagai, Yasuhiro Tanoue, Norihisa Kai and Nobutaka Suzuki

5.1 Introduction 91

5.2 Creation of Healthier and Safer Foods 94

5.3 Enzymatic Modification of Food Proteins 95

5.4 Kamaboko 95

5.5 Chemical Properties of Kamaboko 98

5.6 Expression of Health the Function of Kamaboko Proteins 98

5.7 Antioxidative Activities of Kamaboko Proteins 100

5.8 Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme-Inhibitory Activities of Kamaboko Proteins 104

5.9 Conclusion 108

References 108

6 Biological Activities of Fish-protein Hydrolysates 111
Irineu Batista

6.1 Introduction 111

6.2 Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors 111

6.3 Antioxidative Properties 116

6.4 Anticancer Activity 124

6.5 Antimicrobial and Antiviral Activity 125

6.6 Calcium-Binding Peptides 125

6.7 Appetite Suppression 125

6.8 Anticoagulant Activity 126

6.9 Immunostimulant Activity 126

6.10 Hypocholesterolemic Activity 126

6.11 Hormone-Regulating Properties 127

6.12 Other Biological Activities 127

References 127

7 Biological Activities of Proteins and Marine-derived Peptides from Byproducts and Seaweeds 139
Maria Hayes

7.1 Introduction 139

7.2 Bioactive Peptides 140

7.3 Marine-derived Bioactive Peptides 141

7.4 Isolation and Characterisation of Marine-derived Bioactive Peptides 141

7.5 Lectins 144

7.5.1 Isolation of Lectins 145

7.6 Phycobiliproteins 145

7.7 Other Amino Acids and Peptides Present in and Derived from Macroalgae 146

7.8 Membrane Processing 147

7.9 Bioactivities of Marine-derived Peptides—inhibiting Proteases for Health 147

7.10 Heart-health Bioactive Peptides 148

7.11 Commercially Available Bioactive Peptides 156

7.12 Conclusion 156

References 159

8 Ability of Diverse Marine Invertebrate Lectins to Regulate Cell Functions 167
Yasuhiro Ozeki, Sarkar M. A. Kawsar, Yuki Fujii, Yukiko Ogawa, Shigeki Sugawara, Imtiaj Hasan, Yasuhiro Koide, Hidetaro Yasumitsu and Robert A. Kanaly

8.1 Introduction 167

8.2 Does a Feather Star Lectin have a Role in Regenerative Biology? 169

8.3 A Novel Lectin from the Mediterranean Mussel Induces Apoptosis and Glycosphingolipid Interaction 174

8.4 Downregulation of the Gene Expression of an ABC Transporter by a Novel Lectin-glycosphingolipid Pathway Involving a Suel-type Lectin Domain 176

8.5 Perspectives on Studies of Invertebrate Lectins and Their Diverse Properties 180

References 181

9 Routes in Innate Immunity Evolution: Galectins and Rhamnose-binding Lectins in Ascidians 185
Loriano Ballarin, Matteo Cammarata, Nicola Franchi and Nicoló Parrinello

9.1 Animal Lectins 185

9.2 Ascidians 185

9.3 Galectins 188

9.4 Rhamnose-binding Lectins 194

9.5 Conclusion 198

Acknowledgement 200

References 200

10 Production of Lactobacilli Proteinases for the Manufacture of Bioactive Peptides: Part I—Upstream Processes 207
Dominic Agyei, Ravichandra Potumarthi and Michael K. Danquah

10.1 Introduction: Bioactive Peptides—Production and Functionalities 207

10.2 Lactobacilli Metabolism 209

10.3 The Proteolytic System of The Lactobacilli 209

10.4 Sources of Proteases and Advantages of Microbial Proteases 211

10.5 Marine Lactobacilli 212

10.6 Proteinase Production Requirements 212

10.7 Effect of Fermentation Modes on Cell Growth and Proteinase Production 220

10.8 Cell Systems for Proteinase Production 222

10.9 Statistical Methods and Mathematical Models 222

10.10 Conclusion 223

Acknowledgement 223

References 223

11 Production of Lactobacilli Proteinases for the Manufacture of Bioactive Peptides: Part II—Downstream Processes 231
Dominic Agyei, Ravichandra Potumarthi and Michael K. Danquah

11.1 Introduction: Cell Recovery 231

11.2 Isolation: Proteinase-extraction Methodologies 231

11.3 Purification of Enzymes 237

11.4 Enzyme Concentration and Storage 244

11.5 Characterisation of Proteinase 244

11.6 Solvent and Enzyme Engineering for Enhanced Stability and Specificity 247

11.7 Conclusion 247

References 247

12 Recovery of Proteins and their Biofunctionalities from Marine Algae 253
You-Jin Jeon and Kalpa Samarakoon

12.1 Introduction 253

12.2 Importance of Proteolytic Enzyme-assisted Extractions 254

12.3 Marine-algal Functional Proteins and Peptides with Bioactivity 255

12.4 Marine-algal Proteins: Potential Sources for Future Applications 261

12.5 Conclusion 264

References 265

13 Fish Gelatin: A Versatile Ingredient for the Food and Pharmaceutical Industries 271
Venkateshwarlu Gudipati

13.1 Introduction 271

13.2 Structural Features of Fish Gelatin 272

13.3 Improvement of Functional Properties 273

13.4 Applications in the Food Industry 274

13.5 Applications in the Pharmaceutical Industry 284

13.6 Conclusion 287

References 288

14 Health Effects of Antioxidative and Antihypertensive Peptides from Marine Resources 297
Ida-Johanne Jensen, Karl-Erik Eilertsen, Hanne K. Mæhre, Edel O. Elvevoll and Rune Larsen

14.1 Introduction 297

14.2 Antioxidative Peptides 298

14.3 Antihypertensive Peptides 307

14.4 Conclusion 313

References 313

15 Potential Novel Therapeutics: Some Biological Aspects of Marine-derived Bioactive Peptides 323
Ruvini Liyanage, Barana C. Jayawardana and Suranga P. Kodithuwakku

15.1 Introduction 323

15.2 Marine-derived Proteins and Biopeptides with Antihypertensive Activity 325

15.3 Anticancer Effects of Marine-derived Bioactive Peptides 333

15.4 Antiviral Bioactivities of Marine-derived Bioactive Peptides 338

15.5 The Future of Marine Peptides as Therapeutics 340

References 341

16 Hormone-like Peptides Obtained by Marine-protein Hydrolysis and Their Bioactivities 351
Oscar Martínez-Alvarez

16.1 Introduction 351

16.2 Growth Hormone-Release Peptides 352

16.3 Opioid-Like Peptides 353

16.4 Immunomodulating Peptides 357

16.5 Glucose Uptake-Stimulating Peptides 358

16.6 Secretagogue and Calciotropic Activities 359

16.7 Limitations on the use of Hormone-like Peptides as Nutraceuticals 360

16.8 Further Development and Research Needs 361

References 362

17 Antimicrobial Activities of Marine Protein and Peptides 369
Mingyong Zeng, Zunying Liu, Yuanhui Zhao and Shiyuan Dong

17.1 Introduction 369

17.2 Preparation, Purification and Characterization 370

17.3 In Vitro Antimicrobial Studies 373

17.4 Antimicrobial Mechanisms 375

17.5 Applications and Prospects in Food Preservation 378

17.6 Conclusion 380

References 380

18 Production and Antioxidant Properties of Marine-derived Bioactive Peptides 385
Tao Wang, Qiancheng Zhao and Qiukuan Wang

18.1 Introduction 385

18.2 Production of Antioxidant Peptides 386

18.3 Antioxidant Mechanism and Structure–activity Relationship 392

18.4 Industrial Applications and Perspectives 400

References 401

19 Marine Peptides and Proteins with Cytotoxic and Antitumoral Properties 407
João Varela, Catarina Vizetto-Duarte, Luísa Custódio, Luísa Barreira and Fernando Albericio

19.1 Introduction 407

19.2 Current Pipeline of Oncological Drugs Based on Natural Products 407

19.3 Current Pipeline of Marine Peptides with Antitumoral Activity 408

19.4 Major Biological Sources of Marine Cytotoxic Peptides and Proteins 410

19.5 Structural Motifs in Cytotoxic Peptides 410

19.6 Cytotoxic Acyclic Peptides 416

19.7 Cytotoxic Cyclic Peptides 419

19.8 Cytotoxic (Poly)Peptides Obtained by Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Seafood 420

19.9 Cytotoxic Polypeptides 421

19.10 Conclusion 421

19.11 Acknowledgments 422

References 422

20 ACE-inhibitory Activities of Marine Proteins and Peptides 431
Mingyong Zeng, Yuanhui Zhao, Zunying Liu and Shiyuan Dong

20.1 Introduction 431

20.2 Determination of ACE-inhibitory Peptide Activity 432

20.3 ACE-inhibitory Peptides from Marine Sources 433

20.4 Types of ACE-Inhibitor Peptide 435

20.5 Structure–Activity Relationships of ACE-Inhibitory Peptides 435

20.6 Conclusion 437

References 437

21 Isolation and Biological Activities of Peptides from Marine Microalgae by Fermentation 441
BoMi Ryu and Se-Kwon Kim

21.1 Introduction 441

21.2 Utilization of Fermentation to Hydrolyze Protein 442

21.3 Microalgae As a Source of Protein 442

21.4 Metabolites of Proteolytic Hydrolysis by Fermentation 443

21.5 Hydrolyzed Microalgal Peptide Application 444

21.6 Conclusion 445

References 446

22 Antioxidant Activities of Marine Peptides from Fish and Shrimp 449
Mingyong Zeng, Shiyuan Dong, Yuanhui Zhao and Zunying Liu

22.1 Introduction 449

22.2 Production, Isolation, and Purification of Antioxidant Peptides 450

22.3 Methods Used to Measure Antioxidant Activity 453

22.4 Antioxidant Activity of Peptides 456

22.5 Antioxidant Mechanisms of Peptides 461

22.6 Applications and Prospects 462

References 464

23 Fish-elastin Hydrolysate: Development and Impact on the Skin and Blood Vessels 467
Eri Shiratsuchi, Misako Nakaba, Yasutaka Shigemura, Michio Yamada and Kenji Sato

23.1 Introduction 467

23.2 Starter Materials for Fish-elastin Hydrolysate 468

23.3 Preparation of Skipjack-elastin Hydrolysate 470

23.4 Impact of Ingestion of Skipjack-elastin Hydrolysate on Skin Conditions 471

23.5 Impact of Skipjack-elastin Hydrolysate on Blood Vessels 477

23.6 Safety of Skipjack-elastin Hydrolysate 479

23.7 Identification of Food-derived Elastin Peptide in Human Blood 480

23.8 Effect of Food-derived Elastin-peptide Pro-gly on Cells 482

23.9 Conclusion 483

References 484

24 Free Radical-scavenging Activity of Marine Proteins and Peptides 487
Dai-Nghiep Ngo

24.1 Introduction 487

24.2 Formation of Free Radicals and Methods of Assaying Antioxidant Activity 487

24.3 Free Radical-scavenging Activity of Marine Proteins and Peptides 491

24.4 Conclusion 494

References 494

25 Marine-derived Bioactive Peptides: Their Cardioprotective Activities and Potential Applications 499
M. Vijayakumar, A. Noorlidah, Abdul Bakrudeen Ali Ahmed, K. Priya and M. T. Rosna

25.1 Introduction 499

25.2 Cardiovascular Diseases and Nutraceuticals 500

25.3 Sources of Marine Peptides 500

25.4 Development of Marine Bioactive Peptides 502

25.5 Oxidative Stress 502

25.6 Antihypertensive Activity 503

25.7 Anticoagulant Activity 504

25.8 Conclusion 505

References 506

26 Biological Activities of Marine Bioactive Peptides 509
Dai-Hung Ngo, Thanh-Sang Vo and Se-Kwon Kim

26.1 Introduction 509

26.2 Physiological Properties of Marine Bioactive Peptides 510

26.3 Conclusion 517

Acknowledgement 517

References 518

27 Shark Fin Cartilage: Uses, Extraction and Composition Analysis 523
Chamila Jayasinghe

27.1 Introduction 523

27.2 History 523

27.3 Uses 524

27.4 Shark-fin Processing 525

27.5 Extraction of Elastoidin and Chondroitin Sulfate 526

27.6 Composition Analysis 526

References 530

28 Marine Bioactive Peptide Sources: Critical Points and the Potential for New Therapeutics 533
Ratih Pangestuti and Se-Kwon Kim

28.1 Introduction 533

28.2 Marine Bioactive Peptide Sources 534

28.3 Critical Points and the Potential for New Therapeutics 541

28.4 Conclusion 541

References 542

29 Applications of Marine-derived Peptides and Proteins in the Food Industry 545
D. M. Dilan Rasika, C. Senaka Ranadheera and Janak K. Vidanarachchi

29.1 Introduction 545

29.2 Marine-derived Proteins and Peptides Used in the Food Industry 546

29.3 Collagen and Gelatin 554

29.4 Extraction and Isolation of Marine-derived Proteins and Peptides 556

29.5 Food-related Applications of Marine-derived Proteins and Peptides 560

29.6 Conclusion 576

References 576

30 Processing and Industrial Aspects of Fish-scale Collagen: A Biomaterials Perspective 589
Santanu Dhara, Pallab Datta, Pallabi Pal and Soumi Dey Sarkar

30.1 Introduction 589

30.2 Structure and Composition of Collagen 589

30.3 Synthesis of Collagen 590

30.4 Type-I Collagen 591

30.5 Recombinant Collagen 593

30.6 Fish’s Potential as an Alternative Source of Collagen 594

30.7 Emerging Applications of Type-I Collagen 613

30.8 Conclusion 621

Acknowledgement 622

References 622

31 Properties, Biological Advantages and Industrial Significance of Marine Peptides 631
Abdul Bakrudeen Ali Ahmed, M. Vijayakumar, R. Pallela, N. Abdullah, and R. M. Taha

31.1 Introduction 631

31.2 Marine-peptide Properties 633

31.3 Industrial Development of Marine Bioactive Peptides 634

31.4 Biological Applications of Marine Peptides 636

31.5 Conclusion 638

References 638

32 Muscle Proteins of Fish and Their Functions 641
Byul-Nim Ahn and Se-Kwon Kim

32.1 Introduction 641

32.2 Fish Muscles 641

32.3 Myoglobin and Myofibrillar Proteins of Fish Muscle 642

32.4 Sarcoplasmic Protein 643

32.5 Antifreeze Proteins 643

References 644

33 Marine-derived Collagen: Biological Activity and Application 647
W. M. Niluni Methsala Wijesundara and Buddika O. Malaweera

33.1 Introduction 647

33.2 Sources of Marine Collagen 650

33.3 Applications of Marine Collagen 652

References 660

34 Marine Antifreeze Proteins: Types, Functions and Applications 667
Sung Gu Lee, Jun Hyuck Lee, Sung-Ho Kang and Hak Jun Kim

34.1 Introduction 667

34.2 Types of Marine AFP 670

34.3 Preparation of Fish AFPS 677

34.4 AFP Applications 679

34.5 Conclusion 684

References 685

35 Antimicrobial Peptides in Marine Mollusks and their Potential Applications 695
Mahanama De Zoysa

35.1 Introduction 695

35.2 Characteristics of AMPS 696

35.3 Diversity of AMPS in Marine Mollusks 696

35.4 Applications of Mollusk-derived AMPS 703

References 704

36 Protein Hydrolysates and Bioactive Peptides from Seafood and Crustacean Waste: Their Extraction, Bioactive Properties and Industrial Perspectives 709
Anil Kumar Anal, Athapol Noomhorm and Punchira Vongsawasdi

36.1 Introduction 709

36.2 Overall Chemical Composition of Seafood and Crustaceans 710

36.3 Extraction of Protein Hydrolysates and Bioactive Peptides from Seafood and Crustacean Waste 713

36.4 Characterization of Fish-protein Hydrolysates and Bioactive Peptides 722

36.5 Functional and Bioactive Properties of Proteins and Peptides from Seafood and Crustacean Waste 724

36.6 Conclusion 729

References 730

37 Production and Health Effects of Peptides from Fish Proteins 737
Mahinda Senevirathne and Se-Kwon Kim

37.1 Introduction 737

37.2 Sources of Fish Peptides 738

37.3 Production of Fish Peptides 739

37.4 Health-promoting ability of fish peptides 740

37.5 Future Trends of Peptides from Fish Proteins 746

37.6 Conclusion 746

References 747

Index 753

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Se-Kwon Kim, PhD is a Senior Professor at the Department of Chemistry and director of Marine Bioprocess Research Center (MBPRC) at Pukyong National University in the Republic of Korea. He is the editor of the Handbook of Marine Macroalgae, also published by Wiley-Blackwell.

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