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Handbook of Measurement in Science and Engineering, Volume 2

Myer Kutz (Editor)
ISBN: 978-1-118-38464-0
1072 pages
January 2013
Handbook of Measurement in Science and Engineering, Volume 2 (1118384644) cover image

A multidisciplinary reference of engineering measurement tools, techniques, and applications—Volume 2

"When you can measure what you are speaking about, and express it in numbers, you know something about it; but when you cannot measure it, when you cannot express it in numbers, your knowledge is of a meager and unsatisfactory kind; it may be the beginning of knowledge, but you have scarcely in your thoughts advanced to the stage of science." — Lord Kelvin

Measurement falls at the heart of any engineering discipline and job function. Whether engineers are attempting to state requirements quantitatively and demonstrate compliance; to track progress and predict results; or to analyze costs and benefits, they must use the right tools and techniques to produce meaningful, useful data.

The Handbook of Measurement in Science and Engineering is the most comprehensive, up-to-date reference set on engineering measurements—beyond anything on the market today. Encyclopedic in scope, Volume 2 spans several disciplines—Materials Properties and Testing, Instrumentation, and Measurement Standards—and covers:

  • Viscosity Measurement
  • Corrosion Monitoring
  • Thermal Conductivity of Engineering Materials
  • Optical Methods for the Measurement of Thermal Conductivity
  • Properties of Metals and Alloys
  • Electrical Properties of Polymers
  • Testing of Metallic Materials
  • Testing and Instrumental Analysis for Plastics Processing
  • Analytical Tools for Estimation of ParticulateComposite Material Properties
  • Input and Output Characteristics
  • Measurement Standards and Accuracy
  • Tribology Measurements
  • Surface Properties Measurement
  • Plastics Testing
  • Mechanical Properties of Polymers
  • Nondestructive Inspection
  • Ceramics Testing
  • Instrument Statics
  • Signal Processing
  • Bridge Transducers
  • Units and Standards
  • Measurement Uncertainty
  • Data Acquisition and Display Systems

Vital for engineers, scientists, and technical managers in industry and government, Handbook of Measurement in Science and Engineering will also prove ideal for members of major engineering associations and academics and researchers at universities and laboratories.

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VOLUME 2

PREFACE xxiii

CONTRIBUTORS xxvii

PART IV MATERIALS PROPERTIES AND TESTING 945

31 Viscosity Measurement 947
Ann M. Anderson, Bradford A. Bruno, and Lilla Safford Smith

31.1 Viscosity Background, 947

31.2 Common Units of Viscosity, 949

31.3 Major Viscosity Measurement Methods, 959

31.4 ASTM Standards for Measuring Viscosity, 974

31.5 Questions to Ask When Selecting a Viscosity Measurement Technique, 976

References, 979

32 Tribology Measurements 981
Prasanta Sahoo

32.1 Introduction, 982

32.2 Measurement of Surface Roughness, 983

32.3 Measurement of Friction, 988

32.4 Measurement of Wear, 992

32.5 Measurement of Test Environment, 994

32.6 Measurement of Material Characteristics, 998

32.7 Measurement of Lubricant Characteristics, 1001

32.8 Wear Particle Analysis, 1004

32.9 Industrial Measurements, 1005

32.10 Summary, 1006

33 Corrosion Monitoring 1007
Pierre R. Roberge

33.1 What is Corrosion Monitoring?, 1007

33.2 The Role of Corrosion Monitoring, 1008

33.3 Corrosion Monitoring System Considerations, 1010

References, 1116

34 Surface Properties Measurement 1121
Mrinalini Mulukutla and Sandip P. Harimkar

34.1 Introduction, 1121

34.2 Surface Properties, 1122

34.3 Microstructural Analysis, 1125

34.4 Compositional Analysis, 1128

34.5 Phase Analysis, 1130

34.6 Mechanical Testing, 1131

34.7 Corrosion Properties, 1141

34.8 Standards for Surface Engineering Measurement, 1145

References, 1147

35 Thermal Conductivity of Engineering Materials 1151
Juergen Blumm

35.1 Introduction, 1151

35.2 Stationary Methods for Measurement of the Thermal Conductivity, 1157

35.3 Transient Methods for the Measurement of the Thermal Conductivity, 1163

35.4 Test Results on Various Engineering Materials, 1173

References, 1188

36 Optical Methods for the Measurement of Thermal Conductivity 1189
Prabhakar R. Bandaru and Max S. Aubain

36.1 Thermal Boundary Resistance May Limit Accuracy in Contact-Based Thermal Conductivity (k) Measurements, 1189

36.2 Optical Measurements of k May Avoid Contact-Related Issues, 1192

36.3 Thermoreflectance (TR), 1196

36.4 Characteristics of Thermoreflectance from Si Thin Films—Modeling and Calibration, 1199

36.5 Experimental Procedures, 1202

36.6 Results and Discussion, 1204

36.7 Summary and Outlook, 1208

Acknowledgments, 1209

References, 1209

37 Selection of Metals for Structural Design 1213
Matthew J. Donachie

37.1 Introduction, 1214

37.2 Common Alloy Systems, 1215

37.3 What are Alloys and What Affects their Use?, 1215

37.4 What are the Properties of Alloys and How are Alloys Strengthened?, 1218

37.5 Manufacture of Alloy Articles, 1221

37.6 Alloy Information, 1221

37.7 Metals at Lower Temperatures, 1231

37.8 Metals at High Temperatures, 1233

37.9 Melting and Casting Practices, 1236

37.10 Forging, Forming, Powder Metallurgy, and Joining of Alloys, 1242

37.11 Surface Protection of Materials, 1245

37.12 Postservice Refurbishment and Repair, 1248

37.13 Alloy Selection: A Look at Possibilities, 1249

37.14 Level of Property Data, 1252

37.15 Thoughts on Alloy Systems, 1252

37.16 Selected Alloy Information Sources, 1259

Further Readings, 1261

38 Mechanical Properties of Polymers 1263
Daniel Liu, Jackie Rehkopf, and Maureen Reitman

38.1 Microstructure and Morphology of Polymers—Amorphous Versus Crystalline, 1264

38.2 General Stress–Strain Behavior, 1265

38.3 Viscoelasticity, 1271

38.4 Mechanical Models of Viscoelasticity, 1272

38.5 Time–Temperature Dependence, 1274

38.6 Deformation Mechanisms, 1274

38.7 Crazing, 1277

38.8 Fracture, 1279

38.9 Modifying Mechanical Properties, 1284

38.10 Load-Bearing Applications: Creep, Fatigue Resistance, and High Strain Rate Behavior, 1285

References, 1290

39 Electrical Properties of Polymers 1291
Evaristo Riande and Ricardo Diaz-Calleja

39.1 Introductory Remarks, 1291

39.2 Polarity and Permittivity, 1292

39.3 Measurements of Dielectric Permittivity, 1293

39.4 Polarization and Dipole Moments in Isotropic Systems, 1297

39.5 Thermostimulated Depolarization Currents, 1316

39.6 Conductivity in Polyelectrolytes and Polymer-Electrolytes as Separators for Low Temperature Fuel Cells and Electrical Batteries, 1318

39.7 Semiconductors and Electronic Conducting Polymers, 1324

39.8 Ferroelectricity, Pyroelectricity, and Piezoelectricity in Polymers, 1328

39.9 Nonlinear Polarization in Polymers, 1331

39.10 Elastomers for Actuators and Sensors, 1333

39.11 Electrical Breakdown in Polymers, 1336

References, 1338

40 Nondestructive Inspection 1343
Robert L. Crane and Jeremy S. Knopp

40.1 Introduction, 1344

40.2 Liquid Penetrants, 1347

40.3 Radiography, 1351

40.4 Ultrasonic Methods, 1361

40.5 Magnetic Particle Method, 1370

40.6 Thermal Methods, 1373

40.7 Eddy Current Methods, 1375

References, 1410

41 Testing of Metallic Materials 1413
Peter C. McKeighan

41.1 Mechanical Test Laboratory, 1414

41.2 Tensile and Compressive Property Testing, 1418

41.3 Creep and Stress Relaxation Testing, 1420

41.4 Hardness and Impact Testing, 1422

41.5 Fracture Toughness Testing, 1425

41.6 Fatigue Testing, 1429

41.7 Other Mechanical Testing, 1433

41.8 Environmental Considerations, 1434

Acknowledgments, 1436

References, 1436

42 Ceramics Testing 1437
Shawn K. McGuire and Michael G. Jenkins

42.1 Introduction, 1437

42.2 Mechanical Testing, 1438

42.3 Thermal Testing, 1451

42.4 Nondestructive Evaluation Testing, 1458

42.5 Electrical Testing, 1460

42.6 Summary, 1461

References, 1461

43 Plastics Testing 1463
Vishu Shah

43.1 Introduction, 1464

43.2 Mechanical Properties, 1464

43.3 Thermal Properties, 1481

43.4 Electrical Properties, 1484

43.5 Weathering Properties, 1488

43.6 Optical Properties, 1492

Further Readings, 1496

44 Testing and Instrumental Analysis for Plastics Processing: Key Characterization Techniques 1499
Maria del Pilar Noriega

44.1 FTIR Spectroscopy, 1499

44.2 Chromatography (GC, GC-MSD, GC-FID, and HPLC), 1500

44.3 DSC and Thermogravimetry (TGA), 1510

44.4 Rheometry, 1518

References, 1527

45 Analytical Tools for Estimation of Particulate Composite Material Properties 1529
Tarek I. Zohdi and Magd E. Zohdi

45.1 Introduction, 1529

45.2 Concepts in Statistical Quality Control, 1530

45.3 Effective Property Estimates, 1531

45.4 Summary, 1535

References, 1537

PART V INSTRUMENTATION 1539

46 Instrument Statics 1541
Jerry Lee Hall, Sriram Sundararajan, and Mahmood Naim

46.1 Terminology, 1541

46.2 Static Calibration, 1544

46.3 Statistics in the Measurement Process, 1547

References, 1570

47 Input and Output Characteristics 1573
Adam C. Bell

47.1 Introduction, 1574

47.2 Familiar Examples of Input–Output Interactions, 1575

47.3 Energy, Power, Impedance, 1578

47.4 Operating Point of Static Systems, 1586

47.5 Transforming the Operating Point, 1598

47.6 Measurement Systems, 1602

47.7 Distributed Systems in Brief, 1607

47.8 Concluding Remarks, 1609

References, 1610

48 Bridge Transducers 1611
Patrick L. Walter

48.1 Terminology, 1612

48.2 Flexural Devices in Measurement Systems, 1612

48.3 The Resistance Strain Gage, 1615

48.4 The Wheatstone Bridge, 1625

48.5 Resistance Bridge Balance Methods, 1634

48.6 Resistance Bridge Transducer Measurement System Calibration, 1636

48.7 Resistance Bridge Transducer Measurement System Considerations, 1646

48.8 AC Impedance Bridge Transducers, 1655

References, 1660

Further Readings, 1661

49 Signal Processing 1663
John Turnbull

49.1 Frequency-Domain Analysis of Linear Systems, 1663

49.2 Basic Analog Filters, 1666

49.3 Basic Digital Filter, 1672

49.4 Stability and Phase Analysis, 1680

49.5 Extracting Signal from Noise, 1682

References, 1683

50 Data Acquisition and Display Systems 1685
Philip C. Milliman

50.1 Introduction, 1686

50.2 Data Acquisition, 1687

50.3 Process Data Acquisition, 1688

50.4 Data Conditioning, 1691

50.5 Data Storage, 1699

50.6 Data Display and Reporting, 1704

50.7 Data Analysis, 1707

50.8 Data Communications, 1708

50.9 Other Data Acquisition and Display Topics, 1712

50.10 Summary, 1715

References, 1715

PART VI MEASUREMENT STANDARDS 1517

51 Mathematical and Physical Units, Standards, and Tables 1719
Jack H. Westbrook

51.1 Symbols and Abbreviations, 1720

Bibliography for Letter Symbols, 1731

Bibliography for Graphic Symbols, 1737

51.2 Mathematical Tables, 1742

51.3 Statistical Tables, 1765

51.4 Units and Standards, 1775

Bibliography for Units and Measurements, 1802

51.5 Tables of Conversion Factors, 1802

51.6 Standard Sizes, 1833

51.7 Standard Screws, 1886

52 Measurement Uncertainty 1911
David Clippinger

52.1 Introduction, 1911

52.2 Literature, 1914

52.3 Evaluation of Uncertainty, 1915

52.4 Discussion, 1924

Disclaimer, 1924

References, 1925

53 Measurements 1927
E. L. Hixson and E. A. Ripperger

53.1 Standards and Accuracy, 1927

53.2 Impedance Concepts, 1930

53.3 Error Analysis, 1935

References, 1942

INDEX I-1

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MYER KUTZ holds engineering degrees from MIT and RPI. He was vice president and general manager of Wiley's STM Division and has consulted and/or authored for most of the major professional and technical publishing houses. He is the author of nine books and the editor of more than a dozen handbooks.

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