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Performance of the Jet Transport Airplane: Analysis Methods, Flight Operations, and Regulations

ISBN: 978-1-118-38486-2
688 pages
December 2017, ©2017
Performance of the Jet Transport Airplane: Analysis Methods, Flight Operations, and Regulations (1118384865) cover image

Description

Performance of the Jet Transport Airplane: Analysis Methods, Flight Operations, and Regulations presents a detailed and comprehensive treatment of performance analysis techniques for jet transport airplanes. Uniquely, the book describes key operational and regulatory procedures and constraints that directly impact the performance of commercial airliners.

Topics include: rigid body dynamics; aerodynamic fundamentals; atmospheric models (including standard and non-standard atmospheres); height scales and altimetry; distance and speed measurement; lift and drag and associated mathematical models; jet engine performance (including thrust and specific fuel consumption models); takeoff and landing performance (with airfield and operational constraints); takeoff climb and obstacle clearance; level, climbing and descending flight (including accelerated climb/descent); cruise and range (including solutions by numerical integration); payload–range; endurance and holding; maneuvering flight (including turning and pitching maneuvers); total energy concepts; trip fuel planning and estimation (including regulatory fuel reserves); en route operations and limitations (e.g. climb-speed schedules, cruise ceiling, ETOPS); cost considerations (e.g. cost index, energy cost, fuel tankering); weight, balance and trim; flight envelopes and limitations (including stall and buffet onset speeds, V–n diagrams); environmental considerations (viz. noise and emissions); aircraft systems and airplane performance (e.g. cabin pressurization, de-/anti icing, and fuel); and performance-related regulatory requirements of the FAA (Federal Aviation Administration) and EASA (European Aviation Safety Agency).

Key features:

  • Describes methods for the analysis of the performance of jet transport airplanes during all phases of flight
  • Presents both analytical (closed form) methods and numerical approaches
  • Describes key FAA and EASA regulations that impact airplane performance
  • Presents equations and examples in both SI (Système International) and USC (United States Customary) units
  • Considers the influence of operational procedures and their impact on airplane performance

Performance of the Jet Transport Airplane: Analysis Methods, Flight Operations, and Regulations provides a comprehensive treatment of the performance of modern jet transport airplanes in an operational context. It is a must-have reference for aerospace engineering students, applied researchers conducting performance-related studies, and flight operations engineers.

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Table of Contents

Foreword xi

Series Preface xiii

Acknowledgments xv

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Definitions of Performance 1

1.2 Commercial Air Transportation 3

1.3 Jet Transport Airplanes: A Short History 4

1.4 Regulatory Framework 8

1.5 Performance-Related Activities 9

1.6 Analysis Techniques and Idealizations 12

References 14

2 Engineering Fundamentals 17

2.1 Introduction 17

2.2 Notation, Units, and Conversion Factors 18

2.3 Mass, Momentum, Weight, and Gravity 21

2.4 Basics of Rigid Body Dynamics 26

2.5 Basics of Fluid Dynamics 33

2.6 Further Reading 43

References 43

3 Aerodynamic Fundamentals 45

3.1 Introduction 45

3.2 Standard Definitions and Notation 45

3.3 Coordinate Systems and Conventions 53

3.4 Aerodynamic Forces and Moments 55

3.5 Compressibility 63

3.6 Boundary Layers 65

3.7 High Lift Devices 67

3.8 Controls for Pitch, Roll, and Yaw 71

3.9 Further Reading 75

References 75

4 Atmosphere and Weather 77

4.1 Introduction 77

4.2 International Standard Atmosphere 77

4.3 Non-Standard and Off-Standard Atmospheres 85

4.4 The Real Atmosphere 89

4.5 Weather 91

4.6 Stability of the Atmosphere 96

References 98

5 Height Scales and Altimetry

5.1 Introduction 101

5.2 Height Scales 101

5.3 Altimetry 104

5.4 Flight Levels, Tracks, and Airspace 111

References 114

6 Distance and Speed 115

6.1 Introduction 115

6.2 Distance 115

6.3 True Airspeed, Ground Speed, and Navigation 118

6.4 Speed of Sound and Mach Number 120

6.5 Dynamic Pressure and Equivalent Airspeed 121

6.6 Calibrated Airspeed 122

6.7 Indicated Airspeed 127

6.8 Relationship Between Airplane Speeds 128

References 130

7 Lift and Drag 131

7.1 Introduction 131

7.2 Airplane Lift 132

7.3 Airplane Drag 137

7.4 Drag Polar 143

7.5 Drag Polar Corrections 150

7.6 Lift-to-Drag Ratio 158

7.7 Minimum Drag Condition 162

7.8 Minimum Drag Power (Required Power) Condition 164

7.9 Minimum Drag-to-Speed Ratio Condition 166

7.10 Summary of Expressions Based on the Parabolic Drag Polar 169

References 171

8 Propulsion 175

8.1 Introduction 175

8.2 Basic Description of the Turbofan Engine 176

8.3 Engine Thrust 184

8.4 Fuel Flow and Thrust Specific Fuel Consumption 190

8.5 Thrust Control, Engine Design Limits, and Ratings 194

8.6 Thrust Variation 202

8.7 Fuel Flow and TSFC Variation 209

8.8 Installation Losses and Engine Deterioration 212

8.9 Further Reading 217

References 218

9 Takeoff Performance 221

9.1 Introduction 221

9.2 Takeoff Distances 222

9.3 Forces Acting on the Airplane During the Ground Run 227

9.4 Evaluation of the Takeoff Distance from Brake Release to Rotation 232

9.5 Rotation and Climb-Out to Clear the Screen Height 238

9.6 Empirical Estimation of Takeoff Distances 241

9.7 Evaluation of Rejected Takeoff Runway Distances 244

9.8 Wheel Braking 247

9.9 Takeoff on Contaminated Runways 252

References 255

10 Takeoff Field Length and Takeoff Climb Considerations 257

10.1 Introduction 257

10.2 Takeoff Reference Speeds 258

10.3 Takeoff Weight Limitations 261

10.4 Runway Limitations and Data 265

10.5 Operational Field Length and Runway-Limited Takeoff Weight 268

10.6 Takeoff Climb Gradient Requirements 272

10.7 Takeoff Climb Obstacle Clearance 274

10.8 Derated Thrust and Reduced Thrust Takeoff 277

References 280

11 Approach and Landing 283

11.1 Introduction 283

11.2 Procedure for Approach and Landing 284

11.3 Forces Acting on the Airplane During the Ground Run 287

11.4 Landing Distance Estimation 291

11.5 Empirical Estimation of the Landing Distance 297

11.6 Landing on Contaminated Runways 298

11.7 Flight Operations 300

11.8 Rejected Landing 307

References 308

12 Mechanics of Level, Climbing, and Descending Flight 311

12.1 Introduction 311

12.2 Basic Equations of Motion 312

12.3 Performance in Level Flight 315

12.4 Performance in Climbing Flight 319

12.5 Performance in Descending Flight 334

12.6 Further Reading 337

References 338

13 Cruising Flight and Range Performance 339

13.1 Introduction 339

13.2 Specific Air Range and Still Air Range Determination 340

13.3 Analytical Integration 345

13.4 Numerical Integration 351

13.5 Cruise Optimization Based on Aerodynamic Parameters 354

13.6 Best Cruise Speeds and Cruise Altitudes 360

13.7 Further Details on the Use of the Bre´guet Range Equation 363

13.8 Influence of Wind on Cruise Performance 366

References 370

14 Holding Flight and Endurance Performance 373

14.1 Introduction 373

14.2 Basic Equation for Holding/Endurance 374

14.3 Analytical Integration 375

14.4 Numerical Integration 378

14.5 Flight Conditions for Maximum Endurance 379

14.6 Holding Operations 382

References 384

15 Mechanics of Maneuvering Flight 385

15.1 Introduction 385

15.2 Turning Maneuvers 386

15.3 Level Coordinated Turns 389

15.4 Climbing or Descending Turns 396

15.5 Level Uncoordinated Turns 398

15.6 Limits and Constraints in Turning Maneuvers 400

15.7 Pitching Maneuvers 403

15.8 Total Energy 404

References 409

16 Trip Fuel Requirements and Estimation 411

16.1 Introduction 411

16.2 ICAO Requirements 412

16.3 FAA Requirements 412

16.4 EASA Requirements 414

16.5 Trip Fuel Computational Procedure 416

16.6 Payload–Range Performance 418

16.7 Trip Fuel Breakdown and Fuel Fractions 422

16.8 Trip Fuel Estimation 424

16.9 Estimating Trip Distances (To Be Flown) 428

16.10 Transporting (Tankering) Fuel 429

16.11 Reclearance 430

16.12 Factors That Can Impact Cruise Fuel 432

16.13 Impact of Small Changes on Cruise Fuel 435

References 437

17 En Route Operations and Limitations 439

17.1 Introduction 439

17.2 Climb to Initial Cruise Altitude (En Route Climb) 440

17.3 Cruise Altitude Selection 443

17.4 En Route Engine Failure 446

17.5 En Route Cabin Pressurization Failure 450

17.6 Extended Operations 451

17.7 Continuous Descent Operations 454

References 455

18 Cost Considerations 457

18.1 Introduction 457

18.2 Airplane Operating Costs 458

18.3 Cost Index 461

18.4 Unit Energy Cost 468

References 474

19 Weight, Balance, and Trim 477

19.1 Introduction 477

19.2 Airplane Weight Definitions 477

19.3 Center of Gravity 481

19.4 Longitudinal Static Stability and Stabilizer Trim 485

19.5 Center of Gravity Control 490

19.6 Operational Weights and Dispatch Procedures 491

19.7 Performance Implications 494

References 496

20 Limitations and Flight Envelope 497

20.1 Introduction 497

20.2 Stall 497

20.3 High-Speed Buffet 502

20.4 Altitude–Speed Limitations 505

20.5 Key Regulatory Speeds 507

20.6 Structural Design Loads and Limitations 510

20.7 V–n Diagram (Flight Load Envelope) 512

References 520

21 Noise and Emissions 523

21.1 Introduction 523

21.2 Airplane Noise 523

21.3 Noise Regulations and Restrictions 526

21.4 Noise Abatement and Flight Operations 530

21.5 Airplane Emissions 532

21.6 Mitigating the Effects of Airplane Emissions 537

References 540

22 Airplane Systems and Performance 543

22.1 Introduction 543

22.2 Reliability Requirements for Airplane Systems 543

22.3 Cabin Pressurization System 544

22.4 Environmental Control System 548

22.5 De-Icing and Anti-Icing Systems 549

22.6 Auxiliary Power System 550

22.7 Fuel and Fuel Systems 551

References 559

23 Authorities, Regulations, and Documentation 563

23.1 Introduction 563

23.2 International Civil Aviation Organization 563

23.3 Aviation Authorities 565

23.4 Regulations, Certification, and Operations 567

23.5 Safety Investigation Authorities 571

23.6 Non-Governmental Organizations 572

23.7 Airplane and Flight Crew Documentation 573

23.8 Airplane Performance Data 577

References 578

A International Standard Atmosphere (ISA) Table 583

B Units and Conversion Factors 591

C Coordinate Systems and Conventions 597

D Miscellaneous Derivations 601

E Trim and Longitudinal Static Stability 613

F Regulations (Fuel Policy) 627

G Abbreviations and Nomenclature 629

Index 645

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Author Information

Trevor M. Young, University of Limerick, Ireland

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