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Polymer Nanocomposites based on Inorganic and Organic Nanomaterials

Smita Mohanty (Editor), Sanjay K. Nayak (Editor), B. S. Kaith (Editor), Susheel Kalia (Editor)
ISBN: 978-1-118-38509-8
600 pages
July 2015
Polymer Nanocomposites based on Inorganic and Organic Nanomaterials (1118385098) cover image

Description

This book covers all aspects of the different classes of nanomaterials – from synthesis to application. It investigates in detail the use and feasibility of developing nanocomposites with these nanomaterials as reinforcements.  The book encompasses synthesis and properties of cellulose nanofibers, bacterial nanocellulose, carbon nanotubes / nanofibers, graphene, nanodiamonds, nanoclays, inorganic nanomaterials and their nanocomposites for high-end applications such as electronic devices, energy storage, structural and packaging. The book also provides insight into various modification techniques for improving the functionality of nanomaterials apart from their compatibility with the base matrix.

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Table of Contents

Part I: Nanomaterials

1 Cellulose Nanofibers: Synthesis, Properties and Applications 3
Mahuya Das and Rupa Bhattacharyya

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 Synthesis of Cellulose Nanofibers 4

1.3 Properties of Cellulose Nanofibers 14

1.4 Applications of Nanocellulose Fibers 28

1.5 Conclusion 32

References 33

2 Bacterial Nanocellulose: Synthesis, Properties and Applications 39
M.L. Foresti, P. Cerrutti and A. Vazquez

2.1 Introduction 39

2.2 Bacterial Nanocellulose Synthesis 41

2.3 Bacterial Nanocellulose Properties 49

2.4 Bacterial Nanocellulose Applications 52

2.5 Conclusions 57

References 58

3 Carbon Nanofibers: Synthesis, Properties and Applications 63
Tanmoy Rath

3.1 Introduction 63

3.2 Carbon Nanofiber Structure and Defects 65

3.3 Synthesis 67

3.4 Growth Mechanism of CNFs 77

3.5 Properties 78

3.6 Applications 82

3.7 Conclusion 84

References 85

4 Carbon Nanotubes: Synthesis, Properties and Applications 89
Raghunandan Sharma Poonam Benjwal and Kamal K. Kar

4.1 Introduction 89

4.2 Carbon Nanostructures 91

4.3 Structure: Chirality 97

4.4 Synthesis 99

4.5 Characterizations 103

4.6 Properties 108

4.7 Applications 112

4.8 Conclusions 131

Acknowledgement 132

References 132

5 Graphene: Synthesis, Properties and Application 139
Subash Chandra Sahu, Aneeya K. Samantara, Jagdeep Mohanta, Bikash Kumar Jena and Satyabrata Si

5.1 Introduction 140

5.2 History of Graphene 142

5.3 Natural Occurrence 143

5.4 Carbon Allotropes 144

5.5 Molecular Structure and Chemistry of Graphene 147

5.6 Properties of Graphene 147

5.7 Synthesis of Graphene 153

5.8 Biomedical Application of Graphene 155

5.9 Graphene in Energy 166

5.10 Graphene in Electronics 174

5.11 Graphene in Catalysis 177

5.12 Graphene Composites 177

5.13 Conclusion and Perspective 179

Acknowledgement 180

References 181

6 Nanoclays: Synthesis, Properties and Applications 195
Biswabandita Kar and Dibyaranjan Rout

6.1 Introduction 195

6.2 Structure and Properties of Nanoclays 196Contents ix

6.3 Synthesis of Polymer-Clay Nanocomposites 203

6.4 Applications of Nanoclays 206

6.5 Conclusion 211

References 212

7 Applications for Nanocellulose in Polyolefins-Based Composites 215
Alcides Lopes Leao, Bibin Mathew Cherian, Suresh Narine, Mohini Sain, Sivoney Souza and Sabu Thomas

7.1 Introduction 215

7.2 Flexural Strength 224

References 227

8 Recent Progress in Nanocomposites Based on Carbon Nanomaterials and Electronically Conducting Polymers 229
Jayesh Cherusseri and Kamal K. Kar

8.1 Introduction 230

8.2 Electronically Conducting Polymers 230

8.3 Carbon Nanomaterials 233

8.4 Why Nanocomposites? 235

8.5 Electronically Conducting Polymer/Fullerene Nanocomposites 236

8.6 Electronically Conducting Polymer/Carbon Nanofiber Nanocomposites 240

8.7 Electronically Conducting Polymer/Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposites 243

8.8 Electronically Conducting Polymer/Graphene Nanocomposites 246

8.9 Applications 249

8.10 Conclusions 252

Acknowledgement 253

References 253

Part II: Nanocomposites Based on Inorganic Nanoparticles

9 Nanocomposites Based on Inorganic Nanoparticles 259
M. Balasubramanian, and P. Jawahar

9.1 Introduction 260

9.2 Processing of Clay-Polymer Nanocomposites (CPN) 273

9.3 Particulate-Polymer Nanocomposites Processing 283

9.4 Characterization of Polymer Nanocomposites 292

9.5 Properties of Polymer Nanocomposites 301

9.6 Application of Nanocomposites 336

References 342xii Contents

10 Polymer Nanocomposites Reinforced with Functionalized Carbon Nanomaterials: Nanodiamonds, Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene 347
F. Navarro-Pardo, A.L. Martínez-Hernández and C. Velasco-Santos

10.1 Introduction 348

10.2 Synthesis of Carbon Nanomaterials 349

10.3 Functionalization 351

10.4 Methods of Nanocomposite Preparation 358

10.5 Properties 360

10.6 Concluding Remarks 386

References 386

Part III: Green Nanocomposites

11 Green Nanocomposites from Renewable Resource-Based Biodegradable Polymers and Environmentally Friendly Blends 403
P. J. Jandas, S. Mohanty and S. K. Nayak

11.1 Introduction 404

11.2 Organically Modified Layered Silicates Reinforced Biodegradable Nanocomposites: New Era of Polymer Composites 407

11.3 Environmentally Friendly Polymer Blends from Renewable Resources 425

11.4 Applications and Prototype Development 436

11.5 Future Perspectives 436

11.6 Conclusion 437

References 438

Part IV: Applications of Polymer Nanocomposites

12 Nanocomposites for Device Applications 445
Sreevalsa VG

12.1 Introduction 446

12.2 Nonvolatile Memory Devices 447

12.3 Fabrication of Nonvolatile Memory Devices Utilizing Graphene Materials Embedded in a Polymer Matrix 451

12.4 Electric-Field-Induced Resistive Switching 452

12.5 Nanocomposite Solar Cells 455

12.6 Thin-Film Capacitors for Computer Chips 457

12.7 Solid Polymer Electrolyes for Batteries 457

12.8 Automotive Engine Parts and Fuel Tanks 458

12.9 Oxygen and Gas Barriers 459

12.10 Printing Technologies 459

12.11 Capacitors 461

12.12 Inductors 461

12.13 Optical Waveguides 462

12.14 Low-K and Low-Loss Composites 463

12.15 ZnO-Based Nanocomposites 463xiv Contents

12.16 Functional Polymer Nanocomposites 464

12.17 Plasmonics 464

12.18 Polymer Nanocomposites 465

12.19 Magnetically Active Nanocomposites 475

12.20 Nanocomposites of Nature 479

References 479

13 Polymer Nanocomposites for Energy Storage Applications 483
Sutapa Ghosh and Naresh Chilaka

13.1 Introduction 483

13.2 Energy Storage Mechanism in Supercapacitor and Batteries 485

13.3 Synthesis of Conducting Polymers 488

13.4 Characterization of Nanocomposites: Structure, Electrical, Chemical Composition and Surface Area 491

13.5 Conducting Polymer Nanocomposites for Energy Storage Application 494

13.6 Future of Graphene and Conducting Polymer Nancomposites 499

13.7 Conclusions and Future Research Initiatives 500

References 501

14 Polymer Nanocomposites for Structural Applications 505
M. Mollo and C. Bernal

14.1 Introduction 506

14.2 Nanocomposite Fibers 510

14.3 Nano-Enhanced Conventional Composites 512

14.4 Nano-Enhanced All-Polymer Composites 513

14.5 Single Polymer Nanocomposites 514

14.6 Summary, Conclusions and Future Trends 515Contents xv

References 517

15 Nanocomposites in Food Packaging 519
Mahuya Das

15.1 Introduction 519

15.2 Nanoreinforcements in Food Packaging Materials 523

15.3 Polymer Matrix for Nanocomposite 538

15.4 Recent Trends in Packaging Developed by Application of Nanocomposites 541

15.5 Application of Nanocomposites as Nanosensor for Smart/Intelligent Packaging 551

15.6 Conclusion 556

References 557

Index 573

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