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Handbook of Clean Energy Systems, 6 Volume Set

ISBN: 978-1-118-38858-7
4032 pages
June 2015
Handbook of Clean Energy Systems, 6 Volume Set (1118388585) cover image

Description

The Handbook of Clean Energy Systems brings together an international team of experts to present a comprehensive overview of the latest research, developments and practical applications throughout all areas of clean energy systems. Consolidating information which is currently scattered across a wide variety of literature sources, the handbook covers a broad range of topics in this interdisciplinary research field including both fossil and renewable energy systems. The development of intelligent energy systems for efficient energy processes and mitigation technologies for the reduction of environmental pollutants is explored in depth, and environmental, social and economic impacts are also addressed.

 

Topics covered include:

Volume 1 - Renewable Energy: Biomass resources and biofuel production; Bioenergy Utilization; Solar Energy; Wind Energy; Geothermal Energy; Tidal Energy.

Volume 2 - Clean Energy Conversion Technologies: Steam/Vapor Power Generation; Gas Turbines Power Generation; Reciprocating Engines; Fuel Cells; Cogeneration and Polygeneration.

Volume 3 - Mitigation Technologies: Carbon Capture; Negative Emissions System; Carbon Transportation; Carbon Storage; Emission Mitigation Technologies; Efficiency Improvements and Waste Management; Waste to Energy.

Volume 4 - Intelligent Energy Systems: Future Electricity Markets; Diagnostic and Control of Energy Systems; New Electric Transmission Systems; Smart Grid and Modern Electrical Systems; Energy Efficiency of Municipal Energy Systems; Energy Efficiency of Industrial Energy Systems; Consumer Behaviors; Load Control and Management; Electric Car and Hybrid Car; Energy Efficiency Improvement.

Volume 5 - Energy Storage: Thermal Energy Storage; Chemical Storage; Mechanical Storage; Electrochemical Storage; Integrated Storage Systems.

Volume 6 - Sustainability of Energy Systems: Sustainability Indicators, Evaluation Criteria, and Reporting; Regulation and Policy; Finance and Investment; Emission Trading; Modeling and Analysis of Energy Systems; Energy vs. Development; Low Carbon Economy; Energy Efficiencies and Emission Reduction.

 

Key features:

  • Comprising over 3,500 pages in 6 volumes, HCES presents a comprehensive overview of the latest research, developments and practical applications throughout all areas of clean energy systems, consolidating a wealth of information which is currently scattered across a wide variety of literature sources.
  • In addition to renewable energy systems, HCES also covers processes for the efficient and clean conversion of traditional fuels such as coal, oil and gas, energy storage systems, mitigation technologies for the reduction of environmental pollutants, and the development of intelligent energy systems. Environmental, social and economic impacts of energy systems are also addressed in depth.
  • Published in full colour throughout.
  • Fully indexed with cross referencing within and between all six volumes.
  • Edited by leading researchers from academia and industry who are internationally renowned and active in their respective fields.
  • Published in print and online. The online version is a single publication (i.e. no updates), available for one-time purchase or through annual subscription.
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Table of Contents

VOLUME 1: RENEWABLE ENERGY

Editorial Board v

International Advisory Board vii

Dedication ix

Contributors for Volume 1 xxiii

Preface xxvii

Part 1 Introduction 1

1 Introduction: Renewable Energy 3
Robert F. Boehm, Hongxing Yang, and Jinyue Yan

Part 2 Biomass Resources and Biofuel Production 9

2 Global Biomass Information: From Data Generation to Application 11
Dmitry Schepaschenko, Florian Kraxner, Linda See, Sabine Fuss, Ian McCallum, Steffen Fritz, Christoph Perger, Anatoly Shvidenko, Georg Kindermann, Stefan Frank, Markus Tum, Erwin Schmid, Juraj Balković, and Kurt Günther

3 Bioenergy Potential from Forest Biomass 35
Sylvain Leduc, Georg Kindermann, Nicklas Forsell, and Florian Kraxner

4 New Energy Crops for Biofuel Production 49
Yunkai Jin, Jun Su, Chunlin Liu, and Chuanxin Sun

5 Enhanced Microbial Process in the Sustainable Fuel Production 63
Elias Hakalehto

6 Algae Biofuels 85
David Chiaramonti, Mario R. Tredici, Matteo Prussi, and Natascia Biondi

7 First-Generation Biofuels 101
Muhammad Naqvi and Jinyue Yan

8 Fuel Ethanol from Lignocellulosic Biomass 119
Chang Geun Yoo and Xuejun Pan

9 Clean and Sustainable Biodiesel Production 139
Lew P. Christopher and Hemanathan Kumar

10 Biomass Gasification and Pyrolysis 155
Sushil Adhikari and Nourredine Adoulmoumine

Part 3 Bioenergy Utilization 167

11 Biorefinery: Production of Biofuel, Heat, and Power Utilizing Biomass 169
Muhammad Naqvi and Jinyue Yan

12 Biomass for Polygeneration and District Heating 189
Marco Baratieri and Dario Prando

13 A Two-Phase Anaerobic Digestion Process for Biogas Production for Combined Heat and Power Generation for Remote Communities 213
Dongke Zhang, Mingming Zhu, Wenxu Zhou, Setyawati Yani, Zhezi Zhang, and Jinhu Wu

14 Life Cycle Assessment of Biogas Systems 231
Shaoqing Chen and Bin Chen

15 Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Generation Using Gas Engines Fueled with Pyrolysis Gases 245
Dongke Zhang, Mingming Zhu, Zhezi Zhang, and Jinhu Wu

Part 4 Solar Energy 263

16 Brief Introduction to Solar Energy Utilization 265
Robert F. Boehm

17 Basic Photovoltaic Theory 283
Yahia Baghzouz

18 Photovoltaics: Comparison of PV Cell Types 297
Lewis M. Fraas

19 Photovoltaics: Sun Tracking Systems 307
Lewis M. Fraas

20 Photovoltaics: Building-Integrated Photovoltaics 319
John R. Balfour

21 Solar Water Heating 335
Robert F. Boehm

22 Introduction: Concentrating Solar Power Systems 355
Thomas R. Mancini

23 Solar Thermal Power Systems in CSP Applications 363
Mary Jane Hale

24 Production of Hydrogen with Solar Energy 375
Joop Schoonman

Part 5 Wind Energy 399

25 Overview of Wind Energy Resource 401
John K. Kaldellis

26 Wind Energy Conversion Systems 431
Hongxing Yang, Xiaoxia Gao, Tao Ma, Xiaodong Guo, and Di Liu

27 Aerodynamics of Wind Turbine Technology 459
Theodosios Korakianitis, M. A. Rezaienia, X. Shen, E. J. Avital, A. Munjiza, P. H. Wen, and J. J. R. Williams

28 Grid Connection and Power Conditioning of Wind Farms 481
Mohit Singh, Alicia Allen, and Bri-Mathias S. Hodge

29 Offshore Wind Farms 493
Erik L. Petersen, Charlotte B. Hasager, Michael Courtney, Anand Natarajan, Torben J. Larsen, Henrik Bredmose, Gunner C. Larsen, Poul E. Sorensen, Nicolaos A. Cutululis, Niels Erik-Clausen, and Thomas Buhl

30 Stand-Alone Wind Power and Hybrid Solar–Wind Power 539
Lin Lu

31 Life Cycle Assessment of Wind Power Generation System 557
Jin Yang and Bin Chen

Part 6 Geothermal Energy 575

32 Overview of Geothermal Energy Resource 577
Ernst Huenges

33 Geothermal Reservoir Engineering 585
Malcolm A. Grant

34 Geothermal Fluids in Porous Media 597
Kewen Li, Huiyuan Bian, and Changhui Cheng

35 Direct Use of Geothermal Energy 621
Andrew Chiasson

36 Geothermal Power Generation 635
Mehdi Eghbal

37 Geothermal Heat Pumps 645
Ping Cui, Yi Man, and Zhaohong Fang

Part 7 Tidal Energy 667

38 Tidal Range 669
Andrew J. Baldock

39 Tidal Current 679
Mat Thomson and Andrew J. Baldock

Part 8 Other Renewable Energy 697

40 Distributed Energy Systems Based on Water Electrolysis Driven by Renewable Electricity 699
Dongke Zhang and Kai Zeng

41 Advances of Renewable Energy Powered Desalination 711
Essam Sh. Mohamed and G. Papadakis

42 The Potential of Crowdsourcing for the Renewable Energy Sector 721
Linda See, Florian Kraxner, Sabine Fuss, Christoph Perger, Christian Schill, Kentaro Aoki, Sylvain Leduc, Ian McCallum, Nicklas Forsell, and Steffen Fritz

VOLUME 2: CLEAN ENERGY CONVERSION TECHNOLOGIES

Editorial Board v

International Advisory Board vii

Dedication ix

Contributors for Volume 2 xxiii

Preface xxvii

Part 1 Introduction 737

1 Introduction: Clean Energy Conversion Technologies 739
Umberto Desideri and Jinyue Yan

Part 2 Steam/Vapor Power Generation 743

2 Steam Power Generation 745
Alberto Mirandola, Anna Stoppato, and Alberto Benato

3 Organic Rankine Cycles Including Fluid Selection 763
Vincent Lemort, S´ebastien Declaye, and Sylvain Quoilin

4 Kalina Cycles for Power Generation 797
Emmanouil Rogdakis and Periklis Lolos

Part 3 Gas Turbines Power Generation 823

5 Gas Turbines for Power and Propulsion 825
Konstantinos G. Kyprianidis, Christos Gkoudesnes, and William Camilleri

6 Gas/Steam Combined Cycles Fueled by Various Energy Sources for Large-Scale Power Production 851
Ennio Macchi, Giovanni Lozza, Matteo C. Romano, Giampaolo Manzolini, and Paolo Chiesa

7 Evaporative Gas Turbine (EvGT)/Humid Air Turbine (HAT) Cycles 887
Ashok Rao

Part 4 Reciprocating Engines 905

8 Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) Fundamentals 907
Carlo N. Grimaldi and Federico Millo

9 Spark Ignition Engines: State-of-the-Art and Current Technologies. Future Trends and Developments 939
Giovanni Cipolla and Fabio Bozza

10 Compression Ignition Engines: State-of-the-Art and Current Technologies. Future Trends and Developments 975
Francisco Payri, José-María Desantes, and Jesús Benajes

11 Homogeneous Combustion Catalysts for Efficiency Improvements and Emission Reduction in Diesel Engines 1011
Dongke Zhang, Mingming Zhu, Yu Ma, and Noel Millin

12 Internal Combustion Engine Performance and Emissions Aspects When Fueled by Conventional and Sustainable Fuels 1027
Theodosios Korakianitis, Shahid Imran, David R. Emberson, Ashand M. Namasivayam, and Roy J. Crookes

13 Internal Combustion Engine Simulation 1061
Shijin Shuai, Zhi Wang, and Hongming Xu

14 Aftertreatment Technologies: State-of-the-Art and Emerging Technologies 1083
Debora Fino, Nunzio Russo, and Samir Bensaid

Part 5 Fuel Cells 1111

15 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) 1113
Umberto Desideri and Linda Barelli

16 Microbial Fuel Cell for Biomass Energy Conversion 1127
Rengasamy Karthikeyan, Jin Xuan, and Michael K. H. Leung

17 Fuel Cells for Commercial Applications 1149
Joseph W. Pratt, Lennie Klebanoff, Aaron Harris, and Ryan Sookhoo

18 Materials Issues for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Design 1165
Miguel Morales and Mercé Segarra

Part 6 Cogeneration and Polygeneration 1183

19 Combined Heat and Power 1185
Eva Thorin, Jan Sandberg, and Jinyue Yan

20 Combined Cooling, Heating, and Power (CCHP) Systems 1197
Pedro J. Mago and Amanda D. Smith

21 Polygeneration Microgrids for Residential Applications 1213
George Kyriakarakos and George Papadakis

Part 7 Other Advanced Conversion Technologies 1225

22 Advanced Heat Exchangers for Clean and Sustainable Technology 1227
Bengt Sundén and Zan Wu

23 Gasification and Combustion of Biomass: Physical Description and Mathematical Modeling 1253
Hesameddin Fatehi and Xue-Song Bai

24 High Temperature Electrolysis for Hydrogen or Syngas Production from Nuclear or Renewable Energy 1279
Yixiang Shi, Yu Luo, Wenying Li, Meng Ni, and Ningsheng Cai

VOLUME 3: MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES

Editorial Board v

International Advisory Board vii

Dedication ix

Contributors for Volume 3 xxiii

Preface xxv

Part 1 Introduction 1299

1 Introduction: Mitigation Technologies 1301
Ashwani K. Gupta and Jinyue Yan

Part 2 Carbon Capture 1305

2 Post-Combustion Carbon Capture 1307
Xianfeng Fan

3 Pre-Combustion Carbon Capture 1337
Robert Pardemann and Bernd Meyer

4 Oxyfuel Combustion for CO2 Capture 1365
Yukun Hu and Jinyue Yan

5 Membrane Technologies for CO2 Capture 1395
Xinhai Yu, Jie Yang, Jinyue Yan, and Shan-Tung Tu

6 Chemical Looping Combustion and Gasification 1409
Liang-Shih Fan, Elena Y. Chung, Samuel C. Bayham, Mandar V. Kathe, Andrew Tong, and Liang Zeng

7 Reduction of CO2 Emissions Through Waste Materials Recycling by Mineral Carbonation 1431
Aimaro Sanna

8 Properties of CO2 Mixtures and Impacts on Carbon Capture and Storage 1445
Hailong Li, Oivind Wilhelmsen, and Jinyue Yan

Part 3 Negative Emissions System 1463

9 The Role of Bioenergy with Carbon Capture and Storage (BECCS) for Climate Policy 1465
Florian Kraxner, Sabine Fuss, Volker Krey, Dennis Best, Sylvain Leduc, Georg Kindermann, Yoshiki Yamagata, Dmitry Schepaschenko, Anatoly Shvidenko, Kentaro Aoki, and Jinyue Yan

10 Biomass Cofiring for Emissions Management 1485
David A. Tillman

Part 4 Carbon Transportation 1507

11 Impacts of Impurities on CO2 Pipeline Transportation 1509
Yewen Tan and Ligang Zheng

12 CO2 Transport by Ship 1523
Byeong-Yong Yoo

Part 5 Carbon Storage 1537

13 CO2 Storage Capacity 1539
B. J. Hedley and J. G. Gluyas

14 CO2 Geological Storage 1553
Matteo Loizzo

15 The Potential for Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Subsurface Geological Formations 1573
Mohammad A. Nomeli and Amir Riaz

16 Physical Modeling and Numerical Simulation of CO2 Storage Security 1583
Xi Jiang

Part 6 Emission Mitigation Technologies 1603

17 NOx Emission and Mitigation Technologies 1605
Michele Vascellari

18 SOx Mitigation Technologies for Combustion Systems 1629
Siqiang Qin, Reinhold Spörl, and Jörg Maier

19 Hot Gas Filtration Technologies for Particles in Gasification and Combustion Systems 1647
M. Lupion

20 Fugitive Particulate Control Technologies for Bulk Material Handling Sources 1681
Christopher F. Blazek

Part 7 Efficiency Improvements and Waste Management 1699

21 Enhanced Coal Bed Methane Recovery: Using Injection of Nitrogen and Carbon Dioxide Mixture 1701
M. S. A. Perera and P. G. Ranjith

22 Energetic and Environmental Evaluation of Waste Recycling 1721
Krzysztof Pikón

23 Efficiency Improvement for Medical Waste Management 1737
Somrat Kerdsuwan and Krongkaew Laohalidanond

24 Advancements in Biomass and Waste Gasification for Power Generation 1749
Somrat Kerdsuwan and Krongkaew Laohalidanond

25 Improving Efficiency in Electricity Generation: A Technological Perspective 1763
David A. Tillman

26 Hazardous Wastes: Standards and Regulations 1777
Joseph J. Santoleri

Part 8 Waste to Energy 1795

27 Waste and Biomass to Clean Energy 1797
Ashwani K. Gupta

28 Emerging Technologies for Waste-to-Energy and Fuel Conversion 1821
Kunio Yoshikawa

29 Anaerobic Granulation for Wastewater Treatment and Bioenergy Production: Advances and Prospects 1833
Kuan-Yeow Show, Duu-Jong Lee, and Yuegen Yan

VOLUME 4: INTELLIGENT ENERGY SYSTEMS

Editorial Board v

International Advisory Board vii

Dedication ix

Contributors for Volume 4 xxiii

Preface xxvii

Part 1 Introduction 1851

1 Introduction: Intelligent Energy Systems 1853
Antonio J. Conejo, Erik Dahlquist, and Jinyue Yan

Part 2 Future Electricity Markets 1855

2 Market Design for Future Clean Electricity Systems: Advances Based on Optimization Under Uncertainty 1857
Juan M. Morales, Salvador Pineda, and Marco Zugno

3 Short-Term Power Generation Scheduling via Robust Optimization 1877
Chaoyue Zhao, Yonghong Chen, Yongpei Guan, Qianfan Wang, and Xing Wang

4 Investment in Conventional and Renewable Generating Units 1889
S. Jalal Kazempour and Luis Baringo

Part 3 Diagnostic and Control of Energy Systems 1907

5 Diagnostic and Control of Energy Systems in Power Generation Systems and Process Industries 1909
Erik Dahlquist and Anders Avelin

6 Control and Stability of Future Transmission Networks 1927
Federico Milano

Part 4 New Electric Transmission Systems 1943

7 New Electric Transmission Systems: An Overview 1945
Anders Aabakken, Mikael Halonen, and Anders Boström

8 Robust Corrective Topology Control 1963
Akshay S. Korad, Pranavamoorthy Balasubramanian, and Kory W. Hedman

9 New Electric Transmission Systems: Experiences from Turkey 1981
Ümmühan Başaran Filik, Tansu Filik, and Ömer Nezih Gerek

Part 5 Smart Grid and Modern Electrical Systems 1995

10 Optimal Dispatch and Design of Microgrid System 1997
Chengshan Wang, Li Guo, and Peng Li

11 Smart Grid Impact on Operation and Planning of Electric Energy Systems 2015
Wencong Su, Jianhui Wang, and Dan Ton

12 Smart Grids with Large-Scale Implementation of Automatic Meter Reading: Experiences from Finland 2029
Pertti Järventausta

Part 6 Energy Efficiency of Municipal Energy Systems 2037

13 Energy Efficiency of Municipal Energy Systems: An Introduction 2039
Erik Dahlquist and Fredrik Wallin

14 Energy Efficiency Improvement in Office Buildings by Benchmarking Models 2051
William Chung and M. H. Iris Yeung

15 Smart Cities 2061
Erik Dahlquist and Terence Fell

16 Efficient Residential Indoor Thermal Environment Control 2073
Shiming Deng and Ning Li

17 Energy-Efficient District Heating 2095
Hongwei Li

18 Smart Homes as Integrated Living Environments 2119
Javier Campillo, Erik Dahlquist, and Ralf Späth

Part 7 Energy Efficiency of Industrial Energy Systems 2133

19 Thermal Energy Efficiency in Industrial Processes 2135
Keerthi Rajendran, Janie Ling-Chin, and Anthony P. Roskilly

20 Environmental Management in Manufacturing Industries 2165
Monica Bellgran and Jessica Bruch

21 Energy Conservation in Industry: Steam Energy Fingerprint of Paper Machine 2175
Carl-Fredrik Lindberg, Naveen Bhutani, Kevin Starr, and Robert Horton

Part 8 Load Control and Management 2183

22 Demand Side Management in Power Systems with High Penetration of Non-Dispatchable Sources 2185
Mohammad Shahidehpour and Hongyu Wu

23 Load Control and Management of Systems with Thermal Power, Hydro Power, and Wind 2201
Lennart Söder

24 Control of Electricity Loads in Future Electric Energy Systems 2213
Henrik Madsen, Jacopo Parvizi, Rasmus Halvgaard, Leo E. Sokoler, John B. Jorgensen, Lars H. Hansen, and Klaus B. Hilger

Part 9 Electric Car and Hybrid Car 2239

25 Electric Vehicles and the Electric Grid 2241
Miguel A. Ortega-Vazquez and Michael Kintner-Meyer

26 Integration of Electric Vehicles in the Electric Energy System 2255
Peter B. Andersen and Qiuwei Wu

27 Combined Design and Control Optimization of Hybrid Vehicles 2265
Nikolce Murgovski, Xiaosong Hu, Lars Johannesson, and Bo Egardt

28 Electric, Hybrid, and Advanced Vehicles: Finding a Lane on the Road Ahead 2279
Richard A. Simmons and Suresh V. Garimella

Part 10 Energy Efficiency Improvement 2301

29 Limits to Efficiency for Energy Utilization 2303
Marc A. Rosen

30 Compact Heat Exchangers in Clean Energy Systems 2317
Shan-Tung Tu and Guo-Yan Zhou

31 Thermal Performance Prediction and Optimization of “Heat Exchangers” by Artificial Intelligence Techniques 2337
Xueping Du, Min Zeng, Gongnan Xie, and Qiuwang Wang

VOLUME 5: ENERGY STORAGE

Editorial Board v

International Advisory Board vii

Dedication ix

Contributors for Volume 5 xxiii

Preface xxvii

Part 1 Introduction and Overview 2383

1 Introduction: Energy Storage Technologies 2385
Ramteen Sioshansi, Luisa F. Cabeza, and Jinyue Yan

2 Modern Energy Storage Applications 2389
Dimitrios Zafirakis

3 Economic, Market Design, and Regulatory Issues that Pertain to Energy Storage in the United States 2417
Rahul Walawalkar, Judith Judson, Pramod Kulkarni, and Raj Chintapalli

4 Barriers to the Development of Energy Storage Systems 2433
Francisco Díaz-González and Miguel Cruz-Zambrano

Part 2 Thermal Energy Storage 2447

5 Ice Storage 2449
Masaya Okumiya

6 PCM Storage 2455
Luisa F. Cabeza, Ana Inés Fernández, Camila Barreneche, and Svetlana Ushak

7 Seasonal Thermal Storage 2479
Philip Griffiths and Shane Colclough

8 Mobilized Thermal Energy Storage (M-TES) Technology for Industry Heat Recovery 2497
Weilong Wang and Jinyue Yan

9 Thermal Energy Storage for CSP Processes 2509
Xavier Py and Regis Olives

10 Cryogenic Energy Storage 2525
Yulong Ding, Yongliang Li, Dacheng Li, Jonathan Radcliffe, and Yun Huang

11 Use of Thermal Mass in Building Energy Storage 2541
Rongxin Yin

12 Thermal Energy Storage: Selection and Sizing Criteria 2557
Brian Norton

Part 3 Chemical Storage 2571

13 Hydrogen Energy Storage Systems for Grid and Community Applications 2573
Marc W. Melaina, Darlene Steward, Joshua Eichman, and Jarett Zuboy

14 Clean Energy-Based Production of Hydrogen: An Energy Carrier 2593
Babatunde Olateju and Amit Kumar

15 Hydrogen Production by Electrolysis and Photoelectrochemical System 2623
Uk Sim, Kyoungsuk Jin, Seungtaeg Oh, Donghyuk Jeong, Junsang Moon, Jihun Oh, and Ki Tae Nam
16 Materials for Hydrogen Storage 2665
David Harrison, Evan Welchman, Yves Jean Chabal, and Timo Thonhauser

17 Hydrogen Blending in Natural Gas Pipelines 2685
Marc W. Melaina, Michael Penev, and Jarett Zuboy

Part 4 Mechanical Storage 2699

18 Pumped Hydro Energy Storage 2701
Paul Deane and Brian ´O Gallachóir

19 Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) 2717
Frank S. Barnes, David A. Budd, Michelle Lim, and Eugene R. Freeman

20 Flywheel Energy Storage Systems 2743
Mohammed Daoud, Ayman Abdel-Khalik, Ahmed Elserogi, Shehab Ahmed, and Ahmed Massoud

21 Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) Systems 2757
Weijia Yuan and Min Zhang

Part 5 Electrochemical Storage 2773

22 Electrochemical Supercapacitors for Energy Storage and Conversion 2775
Brian Kihun Kim, Serubbable Sy, Aiping Yu, and Jinjun Zhang

23 Rechargeable Battery Energy Storage System Design 2801
David A. Howey and S. M.Mahdi Alavi

24 Flow Battery Technology 2819
Huamin Zhang

25 Sodium–Sulfur Batteries 2831
Karina Beatriz Hueso, Verónica Palomares, Gurpreet Singh, Michel Armand, and Teófilo Rojo

26 Lithium-Ion Batteries: Thermomechanics, Performance, and Design Optimization 2849
Nansi Xue, Wenbo Du, Joaquim R. R. A. Martins, and Wei Shyy

27 Recycling of Lithium-Ion Batteries 2865
Christian Hanisch, Jan Diekmann, Alexander Stieger, Wolfgang Haselrieder, and Arno Kwade

Part 6 Integrated Storage Systems 2889

28 Coordinated Operation of PV and Battery Energy Storage Systems 2891
Md Nayim Kabir, Yateendra Mishra, and Ramesh C. Bansal

29 Electric Vehicles as a Mobile Storage Device 2903
Paul Codani, Yannick Perez, and Marc Petit

30 Integration of Energy Storage into Energy Systems 2919
Andreas Hauer and Amadeus Teuffel

Part 7 Materials for Energy Storage 2933

31 Thermal Energy Storage Materials Challenges and Availability 2935
Ana Inés Fernández, Camila Barreneche, Mónica Martínez, Mercé Segarra, Ingrid Martorell, and Luisa F. Cabeza

32 TES Materials: Embodied Energy and CO2 Footprint 2947
Ana Inés Fernández, Camila Barreneche, Mónica Martínez, Laia Miró, and Luisa F. Cabeza

33 Nanotechnology and Nanomaterials for Thermal Energy Storage 2957
Rosa Mondragón, Raúl Martínez-Cuenca, Leonor Hernández, Patricia Andreu-Cabedo, Luis Cabedo, and J. Enrique Juliá

VOLUME 6: SUSTAINABILITY OF ENERGY SYSTEMS

Editorial Board v

International Advisory Board vii

Dedication ix

Contributors for Volume 6 xxiii

Preface xxvii

Part 1 Introduction 2971

1 Introduction: Sustainability of Energy Systems 2973
S. K. Chou, Yi-Ming Wei, and Jinyue Yan

Part 2 Sustainability Indicators, Evaluation Criteria, and Reporting 2983

2 Sustainability Assessment for Energy Technologies 2985
Stefan Hirschberg and Peter Burgherr

3 Methods for Measuring and Evaluating Sustainability: State-of-the Art, Challenges, and Future Developments 3007
Kirstin Kleeberg, Katja Schneider, and Michael Nippa

4 Energy Efficiency Index via Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA): Methodology and Application 3033
Ke Wang

5 The Role of National Agencies as Honest Brokers Between Science and Policy: Case Studies on Environmental Sustainability Indicators 3051
Michael Bordt and Soheil Rastan

6 Development and Validation of an Ecosystem Sustainability Indicator for Metropolitan Areas: A Case Study 3059
Soheil Rastan and Hugo Larocque

7 Re-Evaluating the Sustainability of Energy Systems: The Nexus of Energy, Water, and Land-Use 3075
Peter Stigson, Susanna Roth, and Anja Karlsson

8 The Simple Logistics of Biofuels, Sustainability, and Indirect Energy Needs 3089
David Bonilla and Carly Whittaker

9 Sustainable Energy Indicator System and Its Application in China 3101
Shaofeng Chen, Liyang Su, and Mingjing Qiu

Part 3 Regulation and Policy 3121

10 The General Development of Energy Law and Climate Policy in the World 3123
Xiangqian Gong and Yidie Cai

11 Adapting Policies for a New Energy Future 3139
Richard A. Simmons, Peter F. Secor, and Suresh V. Garimella

12 Policies and Modeling of Energy Systems for Reaching European Bioenergy Targets 3165
Sylvain Leduc, Elisabeth Wetterlund, Erik Dotzauer, Johannes Schmidt, Karthikeyan Natarajan, and Dilip Khatiwada

13 Between Climate Change and Energy Security Objectives: The Potential Role of Shale Gas 3183
Francesco Gracceva and Peter Zeniewski

14 The Energy and Climate Policies of the European Union 3209
Fabio Genoese, Christian Egenhofer, and Julian Wieczorkiewicz

15 The Future of Energy Policy in East Asia: Prospects and Risks for a Sustainable Framework 3219
Hideaki Shiroyama, Hisashi Yoshikawa, Roberto Orsi, and Chiaki Sato

Part 4 Finance and Investment 3239

16 Theory and Model of Energy Investment and Financing 3241
Bin Lu, Xiaowei Ma, and Chao Feng

17 Finance and Investments in Renewable Energy in Asia 3265
Sagar Gubbi, Maura C. Lillis, Jia Li, and Pradeep Tharakan

Part 5 Emission Trading 3293

18 Market Instruments for Environmental Regulation: Emissions Trading in Practice 3295
Julien Chevallier

19 Carbon Trading and Carbon Market 3309
Zhen-Hua Feng

20 Clean Development Mechanism Development in China 3319
Maosheng Duan

21 Analysis of the Core Problems in China’s Carbon Emission Trading Market 3329
Lan-Cui Liu and Qiao-Mei Liang

Part 6 Modeling and Analysis of Energy Systems 3341

22 Environmental Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of Energy Systems 3343
Geoffrey P. Hammond, Craig I. Jones, and Aíne O’Grady

23 Energy Economy Modeling of the Electricity Sector 3369
Victor Nian

24 Modeling and Simulation of Smart Energy Systems 3403
David Connolly, Henrik Lund, and Brian Vad Mathiesen

Part 7 Energy vs. Development 3431

25 The Revealed Relationships between Energy Consumption and Economic Growth: Causality, Macroeconomics, New Trend, and Implications 3433
Youngho Chang and Yanfei Li

26 Energy Security and Sustainable Development Opportunities in Pacific Island Countries 3449
Xianbin Yao, Robert Guild, and J. Michael Trainor

27 Energy Consumption and Economy Development: An Empirical Case Study for China 3461
Hao Yu

28 Natural Gas as a Clean Fuel 3477
Guy C. K. Leung

29 Germany’s “Energiewende” as a Role Model for Reaching Sustainability of National Energy Systems? History, Challenges, and Success Factors 3493
Michael Nippa and Stephan Meschke

30 Future Petroleum Geopolitics: Consequences of Climate Policy and Unconventional Oil and Gas 3517
Indra Overland

Part 8 Low Carbon Economy 3545

31 Energy and Socioeconomic Systems to Realize Low Carbon Society (LCS) 3547
Mikiko Kainuma and Rahul Pandey

32 Low Carbon Development for Cities: Methods and Measures 3565
Stephanie Ohshita, Nan Zhou, Lynn Price, David Fridley, Nina Khanna, Lixuan Hong, Hongyou Lu, Cecilia Fino-Chen, and Gang He

33 An Institutional Perspective on the Low Carbon Transition 3589
Philip Andrews-Speed

34 Low Carbon Economy in China 3611
Jinjun Xue and Quan Bai

35 Low Carbon Economy in Japan 3629
Jinjun Xue and Satoshi Watanabe

Part 9 Energy Efficiencies and Emission Reduction 3643

36 Modeling Energy Efficiency and CO2 Emissions Reduction 3645
Rocco De Miglio, Maurizio Gargiulo, Alessandro Chiodi, Paul Deane, and Brian ´O Gallachóir

37 Green Labels and Standards for Appliances, Equipment, and Lighting 3661
Lei Zeng, Yang Yu, and Jiayang Li

38 Energy Efficiencies in ASEAN Region 3681
Xunpeng Shi

Subject Index 3701

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