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Emerging Epidemics: Management and Control

ISBN: 978-1-118-39323-9
760 pages
September 2013, Wiley-Blackwell
Emerging Epidemics: Management and Control (1118393236) cover image

Description

A global perspective on the management and prevention of emerging and re-emerging diseases

Emerging infectious diseases are newly identified or otherwise previously unknown infections that cause public health challenges. Re-emerging infectious diseases are due to both the reappearance of and an increase in the number of infections from a disease that is known, but which had formerly caused so few infections that it was no longer considered a public health problem. The factors that cause the emergence or re-emergence of a disease are diverse.

This book takes a look at the world's emerging and re-emerging diseases. It covers the diagnosis, therapy, prevention, and control of a variety of individual diseases, and examines the social and behavioral issues that could contribute to epidemics. Each chapter focuses on an individual disease and provides scientific background and social history as well as the current basics of infection, epidemiology, and control.

Emerging Epidemics: Management and Control offers five topics of coverage:

FUNDAMENTALS

  • Epidemics fundamentals
  • Disasters and epidemics
  • Biosafety

RE-EMERGING EPIDEMICS

  • Tuberculosis
  • Plague

NEWLY EMERGING EPIDEMICS

  • Leptospirosis
  • Dengue
  • Japanese Encephalitis
  • Chikungunya Fever
  • West Nile Virus
  • Chandipura Virus Encephalitis
  • Kyasanur Forest Disease
  • Hantavirus
  • Human, Avian, and Swine Influenza
  • Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
  • Nipah Virus
  • Paragonimiasis
  • Melioidosis

POTENTIAL EPIDEMICS

  • Biowarfare and bioterrorism
  • Food contamination and food terrorism
  • Antimicrobial resistance

VECTOR CONTROL METHODS

  • Mosquito control
  • Other disease vectors and their control

Offering an integrated, worldwide overview of the complexity of the epidemiology of infections, Emerging Epidemics will be a valuable resource for students, physicians, and scientists working in veterinary, medical, and the pharmaceutical sciences.

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Table of Contents

Preface xv

Acknowledgments xvii

Chapter 1 Prologue 3

Introduction 3

Causative Factors 7

Salient Features 11

Emerging Epidemics 11

Re-Emerging Epidemics 17

Antimicrobial Resistance 18

Public Health Implications 20

References 22

Chapter 2 Epidemics Fundamentals 24

Introduction 24

Definitions 24

Types of Epidemics 26

Epidemiological Triad 29

Forecasting an Epidemic 31

Contingency Plan 33

Investigation of Epidemics 35

Management of Epidemics 38

Control of Epidemics 39

Principles of Planning Emergency Services 41

References 44

Chapter 3 Disasters and Epidemics 46

Fundamentals 46

Contributory Factors 51

Investigation of Rumors 52

References 54

viii contents

Chapter 4 Biosafety 56

Introduction 56

Components 57

Hand Washing 61

Preventing Needlestick Injuries 62

Safe Transport of Biological Material 64

Safe Decontamination of Spills 65

Safe Handling of Dead Bodies 67

Personal Protective Equipment 69

Management of Biomedical Waste 69

Infection Control Check List 71

Biosafety Levels 71

Accreditation of Hospitals and Laboratories 74

References 75

Chapter 5 Tuberculosis 76

History 76

Magnitude 78

Agent Factors 81

Host Factors and High-Risk Groups 88

Environmental Factors 89

Modes of Transmission 90

Pathology and Immunology 91

Clinical Manifestations 96

Diagnosis of Tuberculosis 101

Directly Observed Treatment, Short Course (DOTS) 119

Tuberculosis and HIV 135

Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis 140

Prevention and Control 142

Social and Cultural Factors 145

References 148

Chapter 6 Plague 154

History of Plague 154

Magnitude 155

Agent Factors 157

Host Factors 158

Environmental Factors 159

Reservoir 159

Mode of Transmission 160

Clinical Manifestations 161

Laboratory Diagnosis 164

Differential Diagnosis 170

Clinical Management 170

Prevention and Control 172

References 174

Contents ix

Chapter 7 Leptospirosis 176

Introduction 176

Magnitude 176

Agent Factors 177

Host Factors 179

Environmental Factors 182

Mode of Transmission 183

Pathology and Immunology 183

Clinical Manifestations 185

Laboratory Diagnosis 189

Clinical Management 206

Surveillance 210

Investigation of an Outbreak 211

Prevention and Control 213

References 217

Chapter 8 Dengue 220

Introduction 220

Magnitude 221

Agent Factors 222

Host Factors 228

Environmental Factors 230

Vector Biology 231

Clinical Features 235

Laboratory Diagnosis 244

Immune Response to Dengue Virus 245

Clinical Management 248

Investigation of Outbreaks 253

Prevention and Control 257

References 259

Chapter 9 Japanese Encephalitis 263

History 263

Magnitude of the Problem 264

Epidemiology 266

Vector Biology 270

Clinical Features 270

Differential Diagnosis 271

Laboratory Diagnosis 272

Case Management 275

Prevention and Control 278

References 280

Chapter 10 Chikungunya Fever 283

Introduction 283

Epidemiology 284

x contents

The Chikungunya Virus 284

Clinical Features 291

Laboratory Diagnosis 298

Differential Diagnosis 300

Clinical Management 301

Investigation of Outbreaks 306

Treatment 307

Prevention and Control 308

References 311

Chapter 11 West Nile Fever 316

Epidemiology 316

Global Scenario 317

The Etiological Agent 318

Clinical Features 322

Laboratory Diagnosis 324

Clinical Management 326

Investigation of Outbreaks 327

Prevention and Control 330

References 336

Chapter 12 Chandipura Virus Encephalitis 340

Epidemiology 340

The Chandipura Virus 341

Clinical Features 350

Laboratory Diagnosis 351

Differential Diagnosis 353

Clinical Management 354

Investigation of Outbreaks 356

Prevention and Control 358

References 359

Chapter 13 Kyasanur Forest Disease 361

Introduction 361

Epidemiology 362

Vector Biology 363

Clinical Features 366

Differential Diagnosis 366

Laboratory Diagnosis 368

Case Management 369

Prevention and Control 371

References 374

Chapter 14 Hantavirus Disease 375

Introduction 375

Epidemiology and Global Scenario 376

The Etiological Agent 381

Clinical Features 387

Contents xi

Differential Diagnosis 390

Laboratory Diagnosis 390

Case Management 393

Prevention and Control 394

References 396

Chapter 15 Influenza 400

Historical Aspects 400

Global Scenario 402

Agent Factors 405

Host Factors 418

Environmental Factors 419

Mode of Transmission 421

Clinical Manifestations 422

Immune Response to Influenza 424

Laboratory Diagnosis 427

Clinical Management 431

Surveillance 434

Investigation of an Outbreak 437

Prevention and Control 441

Avian Influenza 445

Swine Influenza 447

References 450

Chapter 16 Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome 455

Introduction 455

Epidemiology 455

Causative Agent 456

Transmission of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Virus 456

Clinical Features 457

Laboratory Diagnosis 457

Treatment 458

Prevention and Control 461

References 461

Chapter 17 Nipah Virus 462

Introduction 462

Epidemiology 463

Etiological Agent 463

Transmission 463

Clinical Features 466

Laboratory Diagnosis 467

Prevention and Control 468

References 469

Chapter 18 Paragonimiasis 470

Magnitude of the Problem 470

The Parasite: Paragonimus 471

xii contents

Epidemiology 475

Clinical Manifestations 478

Radiological Features of Paragonimiasis 481

Laboratory Diagnosis 484

Differential Diagnosis 487

Clinical Management 487

Public Health Importance 488

References 489

Chapter 19 Melioidosis 492

Introduction 492

Epidemiology 493

The Etiological Agent: Burkholderia pseudomallei 495

Clinical Manifestations 498

Laboratory Diagnosis 501

Clinical Management 503

Investigation of an Outbreak 504

Prevention and Control of Melioidosis 506

Public Health Importance 508

References 508

Chapter 20 Biowarfare and Bioterrorism 513

Introduction 513

Historical Aspects 514

Potential Agents 519

Epidemiological Clues 545

Laboratory Diagnosis 548

Clinical Management 566

Biosurveillance 568

Investigation of an Outbreak 573

Preparedness and Containment 576

References 578

Chapter 21 Antimicrobial Resistance 585

Introduction 585

Global Scenario 586

Drug-Resistant Organisms 588

Causes of Drug Resistance 593

Mechanisms of Drug Resistance 595

Host Factors 598

Health-Related and Economic Hazards 599

Laboratory Diagnosis 601

Managing Antimicrobial Resistance 607

Prevention and Control 610

References 612

Chapter 22 Conventional Methods for Mosquito Control 615

Mosquito: Habits and Attractants 615

Environmental Management 618

Contents xiii

Antilarval Measures 623

Chemical Adulticides 627

Repellents 630

Insecticide-Impregnated Bed Nets and Screens 632

References 633

Chapter 23 New and Potential Techniques: Mosquito Control 635

Myco-Insecticides 635

Entomopathogenic Bacteria and Viruses 637

Hormonomimetic and Plant-Derived Substances 639

Larvivorous Fish and Crustaceans 640

Dragonfly Nymphs 643

Protozoa 643

Mermithid Nematodes 644

Predator Larvae 645

Genetic Engineering 646

References 648

Chapter 24 Other Disease Vectors and Their Control 651

Housefly 651

Sand Fly 653

Deer Fly 653

Black Fly 655

Tsetse Fly 655

Water Flea (Cyclops) 656

Sand Flea (Jigger or Chigoe Flea) 657

Rat Flea 658

Reduviid Bug 658

Ticks (Hard and Soft) 659

Lice 662

Cockroach 663

Mites (Chiggers) 664

General Principles of Vector Control 666

Integrated Vector Management 667

Rodents 670

Methods for Rodent Control 671

References 672

Glossary 674

Index 683

 

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