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Sustainable Energy Conversion for Electricity and Coproducts: Principles, Technologies, and Equipment

ISBN: 978-1-118-39662-9
424 pages
April 2015
Sustainable Energy Conversion for Electricity and Coproducts: Principles, Technologies, and Equipment (1118396626) cover image

Description

Provides an introduction to energy systems going on to describe various forms of energy sources

  • Provides a comprehensive and a fundamental approach to the study of sustainable fuel conversion for the generation of electricity and for coproducing synthetic fuels and chemicals
  • Covers the underlying principles of physics and their application to engineering including thermodynamics of combustion and power cycles, fluid flow, heat transfer, and mass transfer
  • Details the coproduction of fuels and chemicals including key equipment used in synthesis and specific examples of coproduction in integrated gasification combined cycles are presented
  • Presents an introduction to renewables and nuclear energy, including a section on electrical grid stability and is included due to the synergy of these energy plants with fossil-fueled plants
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Table of Contents

PREFACE xi

ABOUT THE BOOK xiv

ABOUT THE AUTHOR xv

1 Introduction to Energy Systems 1

1.1 Energy Sources and Distribution of Resources 2

1.1.1 Fossil Fuels 2

1.1.2 Nuclear 16

1.1.3 Renewables 17

1.2 Energy and the Environment 21

1.2.1 Criteria and Other Air Pollutants 22

1.2.2 Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Capture, and Storage 26

1.2.3 Water Usage 28

1.3 Holistic Approach 29

1.3.1 Supply Chain and Life Cycle Assessment 29

1.4 Conclusions 31

References 31

2 Thermodynamics 33

2.1 First Law 34

2.1.1 Application to a Combustor 36

2.1.2 Efficiency Based on First Law 45

2.2 Second Law 46

2.2.1 Quality Destruction and Entropy Generation 51

2.2.2 Second Law Analysis 53

2.2.3 First and Second Law Efficiencies 57

2.3 Combustion and Gibbs Free Energy Minimization 58

2.4 Nonideal Behavior 60

2.4.1 Gas Phase 60

2.4.2 Vapor–Liquid Phases 62

References 64

3 Fluid Flow Equipment 66

3.1 Fundamentals of Fluid Flow 66

3.1.1 Flow Regimes 67

3.1.2 Extended Bernoulli Equation 68

3.2 Single-Phase Incompressible Flow 69

3.2.1 Pressure Drop in Pipes 69

3.2.2 Pressure Drop in Fittings 70

3.3 Single-Phase Compressible Flow 71

3.3.1 Pressure Drop in Pipes and Fittings 72

3.3.2 Choked Flow 72

3.4 Two-Phase Fluid Flow 72

3.4.1 Gas–Liquid Flow Regimes 73

3.4.2 Pressure Drop in Pipes and Fittings 74

3.4.3 Droplet Separation 74

3.5 Solid Fluid Systems 77

3.5.1 Flow Regimes 77

3.5.2 Pressure Drop 78

3.5.3 Pneumatic Conveying 80

3.6 Fluid Velocity in Pipes 80

3.7 Turbomachinery 81

3.7.1 Pumps 81

3.7.2 Compressors 90

3.7.3 Fans and Blowers 97

3.7.4 Expansion Turbines 98

References 99

4 Heat Transfer Equipment 101

4.1 Fundamentals of Heat Transfer 101

4.1.1 Conduction 102

4.1.2 Convection 103

4.1.3 Radiation 112

4.2 Heat Exchange Equipment 117

4.2.1 Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers 118

4.2.2 Plate Heat Exchangers 124

4.2.3 Air-Cooled Exchangers 127

4.2.4 Heat Recovery Steam Generators (HRSGs) 128

4.2.5 Boilers and Fired Heaters 129

References 130

5 Mass Transfer and Chemical Reaction Equipment 131

5.1 Fundamentals of Mass Transfer 131

5.1.1 Molecular Diffusion 132

5.1.2 Convective Transport 133

5.1.3 Adsorption 134

5.2 Gas–Liquid Systems 135

5.2.1 Types of Mass Transfer Operations 135

5.2.2 Types of Columns 144

5.2.3 Column Sizing 146

5.2.4 Column Diameter and Pressure Drop 157

5.3 Fluid–Solid Systems 159

5.3.1 Adsorbers 159

5.3.2 Catalytic Reactors 162

References 167

6 Prime Movers 169

6.1 Gas Turbines 170

6.1.1 Principles of Operation 171

6.1.2 Combustor and Air Emissions 176

6.1.3 Start-Up and Load Control 177

6.1.4 Performance Characteristics 177

6.1.5 Fuel Types 179

6.1.6 Technology Developments 182

6.2 Steam Turbines 185

6.2.1 Principles of Operation 185

6.2.2 Load Control 186

6.2.3 Performance Characteristics 187

6.2.4 Technology Developments 189

6.3 Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines 190

6.3.1 Principles of Operation 190

6.3.2 Air Emissions 193

6.3.3 Start-up 193

6.3.4 Performance Characteristics 194

6.3.5 Fuel Types 194

6.4 Hydraulic Turbines 195

6.4.1 Process Industry Applications 195

6.4.2 Hydroelectric Power Plant Applications 196

References 196

7 Systems Analysis 198

7.1 Design Basis 198

7.1.1 Fuel or Feedstock Specifications 200

7.1.2 Mode of Heat Rejection 200

7.1.3 Ambient Conditions 200

7.1.4 Other Site-Specific Considerations 201

7.1.5 Environmental Emissions Criteria 202

7.1.6 Capacity Factor 203

7.1.7 Off-Design Requirements 204

7.2 System Configuration 205

7.3 Exergy and Pinch Analyses 207

7.3.1 Exergy Analysis 207

7.3.2 Pinch Analysis 208

7.4 Process Flow Diagrams 212

7.5 Dynamic Simulation and Process Control 215

7.5.1 Dynamic Simulation 215

7.5.2 Automatic Process Control 219

7.6 Cost Estimation and Economics 220

7.6.1 Total Plant Cost 220

7.6.2 Economic Analysis 225

7.7 Life Cycle Assessment 227

References 228

8 Rankine Cycle Systems 230

8.1 Basic Rankine Cycle 231

8.2 Addition of Superheating 233

8.3 Addition of Reheat 236

8.4 Addition of Economizer and Regenerative Feedwater Heating 238

8.5 Supercritical Rankine Cycle 241

8.6 The Steam Cycle 241

8.7 Coal-Fired Power Generation 244

8.7.1 Coal-Fired Boilers 244

8.7.2 Emissions and Control 245

8.7.3 Description of a Large Supercritical Steam Rankine Cycle 251

8.8 Plant-Derived Biomass-Fired Power Generation 255

8.8.1 Feedstock Characteristics 255

8.8.2 Biomass-Fired Boilers 256

8.8.3 Cofiring Biomass in Coal-Fired Boilers 256

8.8.4 Emissions 257

8.9 Municipal Solid Waste Fired Power Generation 258

8.9.1 MSW-Fired Boilers 258

8.9.2 Emissions Control 259

8.10 Low-Temperature Cycles 260

8.10.1 Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) 260

References 262

9 Brayton–Rankine Combined Cycle Systems 264

9.1 Combined Cycle 264

9.1.1 Gas Turbine Cycles for Combined Cycles 265

9.1.2 Steam Cycles for Combined Cycles 266

9.2 Natural Gas-Fueled Plants 267

9.2.1 Description of a Large Combined Cycle 267

9.2.2 NOx Control 272

9.2.3 CO and Volatile Organic Compounds Control 272

9.2.4 CO2 Emissions Control 273

9.2.5 Characteristics of Combined Cycles 276

9.3 Coal and Biomass Fueled Plants 279

9.3.1 Gasification 280

9.3.2 Gasifier Feedstocks 282

9.3.3 Key Technologies in IGCC Systems 283

9.3.4 Description of an IGCC 287

9.3.5 Advantages of an IGCC 291

9.3.6 Economies of Scale and Biomass Gasification 291

9.4 Indirectly Fired Cycle 291

References 294

10 Coproduction and Cogeneration 296

10.1 Types of Coproducts and Synergy in Coproduction 297

10.2 Syngas Generation for Coproduction 298

10.2.1 Gasifiers 298

10.2.2 Reformers 299

10.2.3 Shift Reactors 300

10.3 Syngas Conversion to Some Key Coproducts 302

10.3.1 Methanol 302

10.3.2 Urea 305

10.3.3 Fischer–Tropsch Liquids 309

10.4 Hydrogen Coproduction from Coal and Biomass 315

10.4.1 Current Technology Plant 315

10.4.2 Advanced Technology Plant 318

10.5 Combined Heat and Power 322

10.5.1 LiBr Absorption Refrigeration 325

References 328

11 Advanced Systems 330

11.1 High Temperature Membrane Separators 330

11.1.1 Ceramic Membranes 331

11.1.2 Application of Membranes to Air Separation 333

11.1.3 Application of Membranes to H2 Separation 334

11.2 Fuel Cells 334

11.2.1 Basic Electrochemistry and Transport Phenomena 337

11.2.2 Real Fuel Cell Behavior 339

11.2.3 Overall Cell Performance 342

11.2.4 A Fuel Cell Power Generation System 345

11.2.5 Major Fuel Cell Type Characteristics 347

11.2.6 Hybrid Cycles 351

11.2.7 A Coal-Fueled Hybrid System 354

11.3 Chemical Looping 354

11.4 Magnetohydrodynamics 356

References 357

12 Renewables and Nuclear 359

12.1 Wind 360

12.1.1 Wind Resources and Plant Siting 361

12.1.2 Key Equipment 363

12.1.3 Economics 364

12.1.4 Environmental Issues 365

12.2 Solar 365

12.2.1 Solar Resources and Plant Siting 366

12.2.2 Key Equipment 366

12.2.3 Economics 368

12.2.4 Environmental Issues 369

12.3 Geothermal 371

12.3.1 Geothermal Resources and Plant Siting 371

12.3.2 Key Equipment 372

12.3.3 Economics 376

12.3.4 Environmental Issues 377

12.4 Nuclear 378

12.4.1 Nuclear Fuel Resources and Plant Siting 379

12.4.2 Key Equipment 380

12.4.3 Economics 381

12.4.4 Environmental Issues 382

12.5 Electric Grid Stability and Dependence on Fossil Fuels 383

12.5.1 Super and Micro Grids 385

References 385

APPENDIX: Acronyms and Abbreviations, Symbols and Units 387

INDEX 396

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Author Information

Ashok Rao, PhD, is a well-acknowledged national and international leader in the field of energy conversion and has made wide-ranging contributions in these fields over the past 40 years in industry as well as at the University of California’s Advanced Power and Energy Program where he is currently its Chief Scientist for Power Systems. While working at Fluor as a Director in Process Engineering, he was honoured by being made a Senior Fellow. In 2011 he was invited to be the associate editor for the ASME Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power and a keynote speaker at the 2011 International Conference on Applied Energy, Perugia, Italy. He also has a number of patents to his credit in the field of energy conversion as well as numerous high quality publications.
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