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Integrative Organismal Biology

ISBN: 978-1-118-39878-4
344 pages
February 2015, Wiley-Blackwell
Integrative Organismal Biology (1118398785) cover image

Description

Integrative Organismal Biology synthesizes current understandings of the causes and consequences of individual variation at the physiological, behavioral and organismal levels. Emphasizing key topics such as phenotypic plasticity and flexibility, and summarizing emerging areas such as ecological immunology, oxidative stress biology and others, Integrative Organismal Biology pulls together information from diverse disciplines to provide a synthetic view of the role of the individual in evolution. 

Beginning with the role of the individual in evolutionary and ecological processes, the book covers theory and mechanism from both classic and modern perspectives. Chapters explore concepts such as phenotypic plasticity, genetic and epigenetic variation, physiological and phenotypic variation, homeostasis, and gene and physiological regulatory networks. A concluding section interweaves these concepts through a series of case studies of life processes such as aging, reproduction, and immune defense.

Written and edited by leaders in the field, Integrative Organismal Biology will be an important advanced textbook for students and researchers across a variety of subdisciplines of integrative biology.
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Table of Contents

Acknowledgments xiii

Notes on Contributors xv

1 PLASTICITY, COMPLEXITY, AND THE INDIVIDUAL 1
Cameron K. Ghalambor, Lynn B. Martin, and H. Arthur Woods

Introduction 1

Bridging the Conceptual Divide 3

Integrative Organismal Biology: Progress to Date 4

Phenotypic Plasticity: The Link between Individuals, Environments, and Evolution 6

The Problem of Complexity 9

Embracing the Individual and the Union of Functional and Evolutionary Biology 11

Conclusion 14

References 15

2 THE ECOLOGICAL AND EVOLUTIONARY IMPORTANCE OF VARIATION IN LIFE HISTORY REACTION NORMS 23
Daniel H. Nussey

Introduction 23

The Reaction Norm Approach and Individual by Environment Interactions (I × E) 25

Why Do Reaction Norms Vary? 27

Causes and Consequences of Variation in Avian Phenological Plasticity 29

Integrating Field and Laboratory Studies of Life History Plasticity 32

The Challenges Ahead 34

References 35

3 CURVE-THINKING: UNDERSTANDING REACTION NORMS AND DEVELOPMENTAL TRAJECTORIES AS TRAITS 39
Joel Kingsolver, Sarah Diamond, and Richard Gomulkiewicz

Introduction 39

Characterizing Curves 41

Variation among Curves 42

Simplicity and Biological Hypotheses 48

Summary and Future Directions 51

Acknowledgments 52

References 52

4 PLASTICITY AND PERSONALITY 55
Kimberley J. Mathot and Niels J. Dingemanse

Animal Personality: Moving beyond Optimality and Embracing Individual Differences 55

Individual Differences in Behavioral Plasticity 58

Personality-Related Differences in Plasticity 60

Adaptive Explanations for Personality-Related Differences in Plasticity 61

Ecological and Evolutionary Implications of Personality and Plasticity 63

Genetic and Environmental Underpinnings 64

Designs to Study Personality-Related Differences in Plasticity 65

Conclusions and Future Directions 66

References 66

5 INDUCTION AND FUNCTION OF POLYPHENIC MORPHS: PROXIMATE REGULATORY MECHANISMS AND EVOLUTIONARY IMPLICATIONS 71
Anthony J. Zera and Jennifer A. Brisson

Introduction 71

Background on Endocrinology and Gene Regulation 74

Case Studies 77

Summary and Future Directions 83

Acknowledgments 85

References 85

6 EVOLUTIONARY SYSTEMS BIOLOGY: SHIFTING FOCUS TO THE CONTEXT-DEPENDENCY OF GENETIC EFFECTS 91
Mihaela Pavli¡cev and Günter P. Wagner

Introduction 91

Two Ends of the Spectrum in Evolutionary Biology 92

Context-Dependency in Population Genetics: Epistasis 94

Genetic Effects Structured by Development: Pleiotropy 95

What Are the Consequences of Context-Dependency? 95

Generalizing SPC Model: Interaction of Gene Effects, or Effects of Interactions? 100

Conclusion 103

References 104

7 THE ROLE OF ECOLOGICAL EPIGENETICS IN INTEGRATIVE BIOLOGY 109
Aaron W. Schrey, Joshua Banta, Holly J. Kilvitis, and Christina L. Richards

Introduction 109

Ecological Epigenetics 112

Case Study: Arabidopsis Thaliana 114

Conclusion 115

References 115

8 AN ELEPHANT IN THE FOG: UNIFYING CONCEPTS OF PHYSIOLOGICAL STASIS AND CHANGE 119
H. Arthur Woods and J. Keaton Wilson

Introduction 119

Elaborations of Stasis and Change 120

Axes of (Dis)similarity 124

Constructing a Conceptual Elephant 126

Unification Diffuses Concepts and Tools 127

Costs and Constraints 130

Conclusion 131

Acknowledgments 132

References 132

9 PHYSIOLOGICAL REGULATORY NETWORKS: THE ORCHESTRA OF LIFE? 137
Lynn B. Martin and Alan A. Cohen

Introduction 137

What is a Physiological Regulatory Network (PRN)? 138

Known and Expected Characteristics of PRNs 140

Organismal Implications of PRNs: Stability and Resiliency 142

Ecological and Evolutionary Implications of PRNs: Constraints and Evolvability 146

Open Issues 147

Conclusion 148

Glossary 148

References 149

10 INTEGRATING COSTS OF REPRODUCTION BETWEEN THE SEXES 153
Robert M. Cox

Introduction 153

Integrating Costs of Reproduction through Common Currencies 154

Intralocus Sexual Conflict and Life-History Evolution 156

Immunocompetence Handicaps and Sex-Specific Costs 158

Integrating Sex-Specific Processes through Shared

Regulatory Axes 159

Summary 163

Acknowledgments 164

References 164

11 IMMUNE SYSTEMS: LINKING ORGANISMS, POPULATIONS, AND EVOLUTION THROUGH DISEASE 169
James S. Adelman

Introduction 169

Immune Systems: A Brief Overview 170

Proposed Divers of Immune Heterogeneity 172

Consequences of Immune Heterogeneity: Theoretical Studies 173

Consequences of Immune Heterogeneity: Empirical Studies 178

Bridging the Divide between Theory and Experiment 180

Acknowledgments 181

References 181

12 DEVELOPMENTAL PLASTICITY OF INDIVIDUAL VARIATION IN STRESS RESPONSES 187
Haruka Wada

Introduction 187

When is a Change in Environment a Stressor? 188

Organismal Responses to Stressors 189

Integrating Developmental Plasticity 191

Future Directions 196

Conclusion 200

References 200

13 A COMMON FRAMEWORK FOR THE REGULATION OF GROWTH AND SIZE: STEPPING AWAY FROM THE TREES TO SEE THE FOREST 207
Goggy Davidowitz and Bryan R. Helm

Introduction 207

A General Framework for the Regulation of Growth and Body Size 208

Commonalities in the Regulation of Body Size Across Taxa 209

Using the Framework to Address the Ecology and Evolution of Growth and Size 213

Acknowledgments 214

References 214

14 ADDING FUEL TO THE “FIRE OF LIFE”: ENERGY BUDGETS ACROSS LEVELS OF VARIATION IN ECTOTHERMS AND ENDOTHERMS 219
Vincent Careau, Shaun S. Killen, and Neil B. Metcalfe

Introduction 219

Intrinsic Factors that Explain Variation in MR 221

Extrinsic Factors that Explain Variation in MR 222

Energy Budgets 223

Metabolic Scopes: A Different Kind of Energetic Budgeting 226

Energetic Constraints on Individual Behavior 227

Conclusions and Future Perspectives 229

References 229

15 BIOLOGICAL TIMEKEEPING: INDIVIDUAL VARIATION, PERFORMANCE, AND FITNESS 235
Scott A. MacDougall-Shackleton, Heather E. Watts, and Thomas P. Hahn

Introduction 235

Endogenous versus Environmental Drivers 235

Responses to Entrainment by Endogenous Clocks Varies over Their Cycle 236

General Properties of Biological Rhythms 238

Circadian Rhythms 238

Circannual Cycles and Seasonality 244

Conclusion 250

Acknowledgments 250

References 250

16 SENESCENCE: INTEGRATING BIOLOGY FROM CRADLE TO THE GRAVE 257
Mark F. Haussmann and Lisa A. Treidel

Introduction 257

Ultimate Theories of Aging 258

Proximate Theories of Aging 259

Future Directions 265

References 269

17 LINKING PHYSIOLOGY, CLIMATE, AND SPECIES DISTRIBUTIONAL RANGES 277
Francisco Bozinovic and Daniel E. Naya

Introduction 277

Limits to Geographic Ranges: Examples Involving Capacities and Tolerances 278

Limits to Geographic Ranges: Examples Involving Tolerances and Plasticity 281

Proximate Causes behind Macrophysiological Patterns 283

Conclusions and Future Directions 286

Acknowledgments 287

References 287

18 TRADE-OFFS AND BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY: INTEGRATIVE ANSWERS TO ECOLOGICAL QUESTIONS 291
Paul R. Martin

Introduction 291

Evolutionary Trade-Offs and the Distributions of Species 298

Are Trade-Offs Universal? 299

Trade-Offs, Integrative Biology, and Moving Forward 300

Acknowledgments 303

References 303

19 CONCLUSIONS: THE CENTRAL ROLE OF THE ORGANISM IN BIOLOGY 309
H. Arthur Woods, Lynn B. Martin, and Cameron K. Ghalambor

Introduction 309

How Do Complex Traits Interact with Complex Environments? 311

Where Does Organismal Diversity Come From and How Does It Evolve? 312

How Useful is Reductionism? 313

What are the Consequences of Emergence for Organismal Biology? 314

Conclusions to the Conclusions 315

Acknowledgments 315

References 315

Index 319

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Reviews

“The organism was once the major driving focus of research questions, and this book should usher in a new era of technologically advanced organismcentered research.”  (The Quarterly Review of Biology, 1 December 2015)

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