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Chemical Ecology of Insect Parasitoids

Eric Wajnberg (Editor), Stefano Colazza (Editor)
ISBN: 978-1-118-40952-7
328 pages
May 2013, Wiley-Blackwell
Chemical Ecology of Insect Parasitoids (1118409523) cover image


Insect parasitoids are a fascinating group of animals in many respects. Perhaps the most fascinating point is that these insects, in the course of the evolutionary time, have developed an impressive way to use chemical compounds to dialogue with the different protagonists of their environment (i.e., conspecifics, their hosts and the plants on which their hosts are living). Unravelling the evolutionary meaning of such chemical communication networks can give new insights into the ecology of these insects and especially on how to improve their use for the control of noxious pests in biological control programmes.

Chemical Ecology of Insect Parasitoids is a timely publication, with organised chapters to present the most important knowledge and discoveries that have taken place over the last decade, and their potential use in pest control strategy. Specific relevant case studies are presented to enhance the reader's experience.

Suited to graduate students and professional researchers and practitioners in pest management, entomology, evolutionary biology, behavioural ecology, and chemical ecology, this book is essential for anyone needing information on this important group of insects.

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Table of Contents

Contributors xi

1 Chemical ecology of insect parasitoids: towards a new era 1
Stefano Colazza and Eric Wajnberg

Abstract 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Integrating behavioural ecology and chemical ecology in insect parasitoids 3

1.3 The use of chemical ecology to improve the efficacy of insect parasitoids in biological control programmes 4

1.4 Overview 5

1.5 Conclusions 6

Acknowledgements 6

References 7

Part 1 Basic concepts 9

2 Plant defences and parasitoid chemical ecology 11
Paul J. Ode

Abstract 11

2.1 Introduction 12

2.2 Plant defences against a diversity of attackers 13

2.2.1 Plant defence signalling pathways 13

2.2.2 Plant volatiles and parasitoids 16

2.2.3 Plant toxins and parasitoids 18

2.2.4 Cross-talk between plant defence pathways 21

2.3 Above-ground–below-ground interactions and parasitoids 24

2.4 Climate change and parasitoid chemical ecology 25

2.5 Conclusions 28

Acknowledgements 28

References 28

3 Foraging strategies of parasitoids in complex chemical environments 37
Nicole Wäschke, Torsten Meiners and Michael Rostás

Abstract 37

3.1 Introduction 37

3.2 Chemical complexity 40

3.2.1 Plant species diversity and habitat location 40

3.2.2 Variability in host plant traits and their effects on parasitoid host location 42

3.3 Foraging strategies of parasitoids in chemically complex environments 48

3.3.1 Behavioural responses to chemical complexity 48

3.3.2 Learning, sensory fi lters and neural constraints affecting strategies for dealing with complexity 50

3.3.3 Infl uences of life history traits on foraging strategy 51

3.4 Conclusions 53

References 54

4 Chemical ecology of insect parasitoids in a multitrophic above- and below-ground context 64
Roxina Soler, T. Martijn Bezemer and Jeffrey A. Harvey

Abstract 64

4.1 Introduction 65

4.2 Influence of root feeders on above-ground insect herbivores 67

4.3 Influence of soil-borne symbionts on above-ground insect herbivores 69

4.4 Plant-mediated effects of root feeders and soil-borne symbionts on growth and development of parasitoids 70

4.5 Effects of root-feeding insects on HIPVs and host location of parasitoids 74

4.6 Expanding an above–below-ground bitrophic reductionist perspective 76

Acknowledgement 79

References 79

5 A hitch-hiker’s guide to parasitism: the chemical ecology of phoretic insect parasitoids 86
Martinus E. Huigens and Nina E. Fatouros

Abstract 86

5.1 Phoresy 87

5.2 Prevalence of phoretic parasitoids 87

5.3 Important parasitoid and host traits 90

5.3.1 Parasitoid traits 90

5.3.2 Host traits 92

5.4 Chemical espionage on host pheromones 93

5.4.1 Espionage on male aggregation pheromone 93

5.4.2 Espionage on sex pheromones 98

5.4.3 Espionage on anti-sex pheromones 99

5.5 Coevolution between phoretic spies and hosts 100

5.6 Biological control 103

5.7 Future perspectives 103

Acknowledgements 104

References 105

6 Novel insights into pheromone-mediated communication in parasitic hymenopterans 112
Joachim Ruther

Abstract 112

6.1 Introduction 113

6.2 Pheromones and sexual behaviour 119

6.2.1 Volatile sex attractants 119

6.2.2 Female-derived courtship pheromones 124

6.2.3 Male-derived courtship pheromones 127

6.3 Other pheromones 128

6.3.1 Marking pheromones 128

6.3.2 Putative alarm and appeasement pheromones 129

6.3.3 Aggregation pheromones 130

6.3.4 Anti-aggregation pheromones 130

6.4 Variability in pheromone-mediated sexual behaviour 131

6.4.1 Innate plasticity of pheromone behaviour 131

6.4.2 Learnt plasticity of pheromone behaviour 131

6.4.3 Plasticity of pheromone behaviour caused by abiotic factors 132

6.5 Pheromone biosynthesis 132

6.6 Evolution of parasitoid sex pheromones 133

6.7 Conclusions and outlook 135

References 136

7 Chemical ecology of tachinid parasitoids 145
Satoshi Nakamura, Ryoko T. Ichiki and Yooichi Kainoh

Abstract 145

7.1 Introduction 146

7.2 Long-range orientation 155

7.2.1 Long-range orientation by direct type parasitoids 155

7.2.2 Long-range orientation by indirect type parasitoids 157

7.2.3 Host pheromones used by direct type parasitoids 158

7.3 Short-range orientation 159

7.3.1 Short-range orientation by direct type parasitoids 159

7.3.2 Short-range orientation by indirect type parasitoids 161

7.4 Conclusions 163

Acknowledgements 163

References 164

8 Climate change and its effects on the chemical ecology of insect parasitoids 168
Jarmo K. Holopainen, Sari J. Himanen and Guy M. Poppy

Abstract 168

8.1 On climate change and chemical ecology 169

8.2 Direct climate change impacts on parasitoids 171

8.3 Climate change and bottom-up impacts on parasitoids: herbivore host and plant host quality 172

8.4 Impacts of climate change-related abiotic stresses on parasitoid ecology and behaviour 175

8.4.1 Impacts of elevated temperature 175

8.4.2 Precipitation and drought 176

8.4.3 Gaseous reactive air pollutants 177

8.4.4 Atmospheric CO2 concentration 179

8.4.5 Parasitoid response to combined abiotic stresses 180

8.5 Climate change impacts on biological control 181

8.6 Ecosystem services provided by parasitoids: impact of changing climate 182

8.7 Future research directions and conclusions 184

References 185

Part 2 Applied concepts 191

9 Chemical ecology of insect parasitoids: essential elements for developing effective biological control programmes 193
Torsten Meiners and Ezio Peri

Abstract 193

9.1 Introduction 194

9.2 Essential elements in parasitoid chemical ecology 196

9.3 Manipulation of the population levels of natural enemies by semiochemicals 201

9.4 Limits and perspectives of behavioural manipulation of parasitoids by applying semiochemicals 204

9.5 Cautionary example: interspecifi c competitive interactions in parasitoids 210

9.6 Conclusions 212

References 213

10 The application of chemical cues in arthropod pest management for arable crops 225
Maria Carolina Blassioli-Moraes, Miguel Borges and Raul Alberto Laumann

Abstract 225

10.1 Arable crops: characteristics of the systems and trophic interactions mediated by chemical cues 226

10.2 Methodologies for using chemical cues to attract and retain parasitoids in arable crops 227

10.2.1 Direct application of semiochemicals 228

10.2.2 Environmental manipulation 236

10.3 Final considerations 237

Acknowledgements 239

References 239

11 Application of chemical cues in arthropod pest management for orchards and vineyards 245
Stefano Colazza, Ezio Peri and Antonino Cusumano

Abstract 245

11.1 Introduction 246

11.2 Pheromone-based tactics in orchards and vineyards 247

11.2.1 Host sex pheromones 247

11.2.2 Parasitoid pheromones 248

11.3 Allelochemical-based manipulation in orchards and vineyards 249

11.3.1 Herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) 249

11.3.2 Host-associated volatiles (HAVs) 257

11.4 Conclusions 260

Acknowledgement 261

References 261

12 Application of chemical cues in arthropod pest management for organic crops 266
Marja Simpson, Donna M.Y. Read and Geoff M. Gurr

Abstract 266

12.1 Introduction: organic farming and compatibility of chemical cues 267

12.2 Overview of plant defences involving plant volatiles 268

12.3 The use of synthetic HIPVs in pest management 269

12.4 Arthropod pest management strategies used in organic farming 273

12.5 Potential for extending chemical cue use in organic systems 275

12.6 Conclusions 277

References 277

13 Application of chemical cues in arthropod pest management for forest trees 282
Timothy D. Paine

Abstract 282

13.1 Forest insect herbivores and natural enemy host/prey finding 283

13.2 Introduction to forest systems 285

13.3 Examples from North America 287

13.3.1 Native bark beetles in plantation and unmanaged forests 287

13.3.2 Introduced defoliator in urban and unmanaged forests 288

13.3.3 Introduced wood borer in plantation and urban environments 289

13.4 Conclusions 290

References 291

Index 296

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Author Information

Eric Wajnberg is a research scientist working at the Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), Sophia Antipolis, France. He is a population biologist specializing in behavioural ecology, population genetics and statistical modelling. He is also an expert in biological control, with almost 30 years experience working on insect parasitoids.

Stefano Colazza is based at the University of Palermo, Italy. He is a specialist in infochemicals and behavioural ecology of plant, insect herbivores, and insect parasitoid interactions, with a special interest in the chemical ecology of plant volatile organic compounds in a tri-trophic context. He has been involved in these research areas for over 30 years.

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“This volume will contribute to future syntheses and help integrate insect parasitoids within chemical and community ecology and, hopefully, eventual strategic applications in pest management programs.  Summing Up: Recommended.  Graduate students, researchers/faculty, and professionals.”  (Choice, 1 January 2014)


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