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Designing Interiors, 2nd Edition

ISBN: 978-1-118-41580-1
656 pages
March 2014
Designing Interiors, 2nd Edition (1118415809) cover image

Description

After its publication in 1992, Designing Interiors became a hugely successful reference tool and designing textbook. In Designing Interiors, Second Edition, updates on trends in sustainability and green design, building codes, universal design, and building information models amplify the already invaluable interior design tricks of trade. Design professors Rosemary and Otie Kilmer provide a fuller design history that incorporates non-Western design and dynamic color illustrations that flesh out technical concepts.
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Table of Contents

PREFACE  xix

Acknowledgements  xxiii

PART ONE: THE HISTORICAL AND THEORETICAL BASES OF DESIGN

CHAPTER 1 Interior Design, an Introduction 1

Current Issues in Design 1

Universal Design 1

Globalization 2

Sustainable Design 2

Historical Overview 4

Before the Nineteenth Century 5

The Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries: Decorating and Integrated Design 7

Interior Design as a Profession 9

The Interior Designer 9

Allied Professions 11

Professional Societies 12

Entering the Field of Interior Design 14

Academic Preparation 14

Work Experience and Internships 15

Career Opportunities 15

Licensing Interior Designers 16

For Further Reading 16

CHAPTER 2 The Origins of Design 17

The Meaning and Essence of Design 18

Originality in Design 19

Functional and Visual Design Concepts 20

The Development of Design 22

Context, Container, and Contents 22

Design and Style 23

Design History 24

Ancient Design 24

The Middle Ages 29

The Renaissance, 1400–1700 32

Baroque and Rococo, 1580–1760 39

Early American Architecture and Interiors 44

The Neoclassic Period and Other Revivals 49

The Victorian Era, 1830–1901 55

Non-European Architecture and Interiors 56

Africa—Prehistory to the Present 56

Islamic Design—622 to the Present 57

China—4000 BC to AD 1912 60

Japan—Prehistory to the Present 62

India—2500 BC to the Nineteenth Century 62

Pre-Columbian Era—300 BC to AD 1570 63

Note 64

For Further Reading 64

CHAPTER 3 The Evolution of Modern Design 65

New Technology and Innovative Design 65

Michael Thonet, 1796–1871 65

Shaker Furniture, 1747–c1860 66

The Arts and Crafts Movement, 1860–1900 67

Art Nouveau, 1890–1905 68

The Vienna Secession Movement, 1897–1911 72

The Twentieth Century 73

Pioneers of Modernism 73

de Stijl, 1917–1931 77

Bauhaus, 1919–1933 77

International Style 79

Art Deco, 1925–1940 80

Modernism 80

Early Modernism, 1930–1950 81

Middle Modernism, 1950–1970 86

Design Trends in the Millennium 95

Future Developments 101

Globalization 101

Interactive Design 102

Environmental Responsibility in Design 102

More for Less 104

Social Responsibility 104

User Participation 105

For Further Reading 106

CHAPTER 4 The Basic Theories of Design Composition 107

Design Approaches 107

Structural Design 107

Decorative or Applied Design 108

Naturalistic Design 108

Organic Design 109

Geometric Design 110

Abstract Design 113

Metamorphic Design 113

The Elements of Design 113

Space 114

Line 123

Form 124

Shape 124

Texture 128

Time 131

The Principles of Design 133

Balance 133

Rhythm 137

Emphasis 138

Proportion 138

Scale 139

Unity and Harmony 139

Variety 142

For Further Reading 142

CHAPTER 5 Color and Light 143

Light Sources 143

Modifiers of Light 146

Human Vision and Perception 147

Color Theory and Systems 148

Additive Method of Mixing Light 148

Subtractive Method of Mixing Light 149

Paint-Color Mixing 149

Color Properties 150

Color Systems 150

Color Schemes 158

Psychology of Color 165

Color Perception 166

Color Application in Interiors 167

Communicating Color Decisions 172

Note 175

For Further Reading 175

PART TWO: PLANNING RESIDENTIAL AND COMMERCIAL SPACES

CHAPTER 6 Design As a Process 177

The Design Process: The Sequential Steps 178

Commit (Accept the Problem) 181

State (Define the Problem) 181

Collect (Gather the Facts) 182

Analyze 183

Ideate 185

Choose (Select the Best Option) 189

Implement (Take Action) 191

Evaluate (Critically Review) 195

Notes 196

For Further Reading 196

CHAPTER 7 Programming Interior Spaces 197

Values in Programming 199

The Programming Process: The Sequential Steps 200

Establish the Goals 200

Research, Gather, and Analyze Facts 200

Specify Needs 205

Evaluate 210

Organize and Decide 211

Present Conclusions 212

Notes 214

For Further Reading 214

CHAPTER 8 Space Planning of Residential Interiors 217

Introduction to Space Planning 217

Space Planners and Interior Design 217

Categories of Interior Spaces 218

Planning Residential Spaces 221

Planning Guidelines 222

Space Organization 224

Closed Planning 224

Open Planning 225

Interior Zoning 227

Group/Social Spaces 227

Private Zones 233

Transitional Spaces and Circulation 249

Special Housing Needs 253

Accessibility and Adaptable Housing 253

Housing for the Elderly 254

For Further Reading 254

CHAPTER 9 Space Planning of Commercial Interiors 255

Office Design 255

Historical Development 256

Spatial Organization 260

Financial Institutions 268

Spatial Organization 269

Retail Design 271

Spatial Organization 274

Hospitality Design 275

Restaurants 275

Hotels, Motels, Inns, Bed & Breakfast, Hostels 278

Theaters, Concert Halls, Auditoriums, Arenas 280

Recreational 281

Healthcare Design 281

Institutional, Public, Government, and Other Facilities 283

Schools, Colleges, and Universities 283

Public and Government 284

Religious 284

Industrial and Transportation 284

Specialized Interiors 284

For Further Reading 285

PART THREE: THE EXTERIOR AND INTERIOR ENVIRONMENTS

CHAPTER 10 Environmental Concerns, Codes, and Regulations 287

The Total Environment: Influences on Interiors 287

Environmental Planning 288

Land Use and Development 289

Urban Planning 290

Cluster Planning 290

Specialized Planning 292

New Towns 292

Zoning 293

Form Determinants for Buildings 294

Site Planning 294

Site Analysis 295

Building Siting and Design 296

Building Codes 296

Building Codes and Interiors 297

Fire Resistance, Safety, and Fire Protection 299

Accessibility 300

Barrier-Free Access 302

General Guidelines 302

Historic Preservation, Restoration, and Adaptive Reuse 305

Background 306

Landmarks: Districts and Buildings 306

Historic Buildings and Interiors 306

For Further Reading 307

CHAPTER 11 Interior Environmental Control and Support Systems 309

Energy Conservation and Climate Control 309

The Human Comfort Zone 310

Solar Energy and Interiors 317

Electrical Systems for Buildings 323

Water Use in Buildings 328

Mechanical Conveying Systems 331

Acoustics 332

For Further Reading 335

CHAPTER 12 Lighting for Interiors 337

Natural Light 338

Controlling Daylight 339

Artificial Light 340

The Measurement of Light 340

Artificial Light Sources 343

Incandescent Lamps 343

Electric Discharge Sources 346

Color Appearance of Light 353

Lighting Needs and Application 354

Lighting for Special Groups 355

General or Ambient Lighting 355

Task Lighting 356

Accent or Special-Emphasis Lighting 356

Lighting Fixtures and Techniques 357

Manufactured Luminaires 357

Spatially Integrated Lighting Systems 359

Portable Lighting Fixtures 361

Electrical Controls for Lighting 362

Interior Applications of Lighting 363

Office Lighting 363

Retail Lighting 367

Restaurant Lighting 368

Healthcare Facilities Lighting 369

Lighting Codes and Regulations 370

For Further Reading 372

PART FOUR: INTERIOR MATERIALS, ARCHITECTURAL SYSTEMS, FINISHES, AND COMPONENTS

CHAPTER 13 Materials—Characteristics and Applications 373

Introduction to Selecting Materials 373

Materials, Environmental Concerns, and Sustainability 373

Natural Materials 375

Converted Materials 375

Artificial Materials 375

Material Selection 375

Wood 376

Physical Properties 376

Hardwoods and Softwoods 379

Wood Layering 380

Designing with Wood 383

Wood Finishes 386

Masonry 388

Stone 388

Brick 390

Concrete Masonry Units 392

Glass Block 395

Concrete 395

Cement Manufacturing 395

Plaster, Stucco, and Synthetic Mixtures 395

Ceramics 397

Earthenware and Stoneware 397

Porcelain and China 398

Ceramic Tiles 398

Glass 399

Manufactured Glass 399

Architectural Glass 400

Decorative Glass 402

Metals 402

Ferrous (Iron-Bearing) Metals 404

Nonferrous Metals 405

Finishing and Coating Metals 405

Plastics 405

Thermoplastics and Thermoset Plastic 406

Plastic Fabrication 406

Plastic Laminates 407

Solid Surface Materials 408

Carbon Fiber 408

Textiles 408

Selection and Application of Fabrics 409

Fibers 411

Yarns 413

Textile Construction 414

Textile Colorants 416

Fabric Finishes 417

Textiles for Interiors 419

Miscellaneous Materials 420

Rubber, Cork, and Leather 420

Paint and Related Coatings 421

For Further Reading 422

CHAPTER 14 Architectural Systems and Interior Finishes 423

Sustainable Architecture and Engineering 423

Building Shell and Structural Systems 424

Structural Design 424

Structural Characteristics of Materials 424

Basic Structural Elements 424

Structural Systems 431

Floor Systems 431

Wood Floor Systems 433

Steel Floor Systems 433

Concrete Floor Systems 434

Specialized Floor Systems 434

Floor Finishes and Specification Criteria 434

Hard Flooring 435

Resilient Flooring 440

Soft Floor Coverings 441

Wall Systems 449

Wall Construction 449

Wall Finishes and Specification Criteria 451

Ceiling Systems 458

Ceiling Construction 458

Ceiling Surface Materials 460

For Further Reading 462

CHAPTER 15 Interior Components 463

Stairs 463

Stair Construction and Design 463

Doors 464

Door Types 464

Door Styles and Construction 468

Door Frames and Hardware 470

Windows 471

Window Types 471

Window Construction 474

Interior Window Treatments 476

Functional Considerations 476

Aesthetic Factors 477

Cost Factors 477

Types of Window Treatments 477

Cabinetry 482

Cabinet Specifications 483

Cabinet Construction 483

Cabinet Hardware 485

Cabinet Tops 486

Fireplaces 486

Fireplace Construction 486

Fireplace Types 488

Fireplace Locations 488

For Further Reading 489

PART FIVE: FURNITURE, FURNISHINGS, AND EQUIPMENT

CHAPTER 16 Furniture 491

Designing with Furniture 491

Programming for Furniture 492

Space Planning and Furniture 492

Furniture Plans and Panel Installation 493

Selection Criteria for Furniture 494

Function 495

Furniture for Special Groups 496

Design Characteristics 496

Life-Cycle Assessments and Costs 498

Furniture Types 498

Seating 498

Tabular Units (Tables) 505

Sleeping Units 505

Storage Units 506

Task Units (Desks) 510

Systems Furniture 512

Specialized Furniture 516

Furniture Materials and Construction 517

Wood 517

Metals 519

Plastics 521

Upholstered Furniture 521

For Further Reading 523

CHAPTER 17 Furnishings and Equipment 525

Furnishings 525

Accessories 527

Artwork 529

Plants 536

Signage and Graphics 540

Equipment 544

Residential Equipment 545

Office Equipment 545

Healthcare Equipment 546

Hospitality Equipment 546

Retail Equipment 546

Institutional Equipment 546

For Further Reading 547

PART SIX: ASPECTS OF PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE

CHAPTER 18 Design Communication 549

Drawing as Design Communication 552

Architectural Graphics 553

Architectural Drawings 553

Three-Dimensional Drawings 566

Digital Media for Design Communication 573

Photography 574

Videos 574

Models as Design Communication 574

Conceptual Models 575

Study Models 575

Presentation Models 575

Building the Model 575

Materials, Techniques, and Reproduction 578

Drawing Papers and Boards 578

Drawing and Lettering Aids 578

Blueprints and Photographic Reproduction 578

Oral and Written Communication 578

Oral Dialogue 578

Written Communication 579

Computers in Interior Design 580

Computer Digital Manipulation 580

Databases and Spreadsheets 580

Word Processing 581

Putting the Presentation Together 581

For Further Reading 582

CHAPTER 19 The Professional Practice of Interior Design—Business and Management 583

Interior Design as a Business 583

Residential and Nonresidential Practice 583

Specialization 584

Types of Services Offered 584

Entering the Business World 584

Business Operations 585

Types of Business Organizations 585

Operational Goals and Objectives 586

Marketing, Public Relations, Ethics 590

Business Consultants 590

Fees and Compensation 591

Contractual Agreements 591

Bookkeeping and Accounting 594

Project Management 594

Design Teams and Staff Organization 596

Project Consultants and Resources 597

The Client’s Budget and Costs 598

Project Scheduling 598

Professionalism and Regulation in Interior Design 606

For Further Reading 606

Glossary 607

index 619

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Author Information

ROSEMARY KILMER, ASID, IDEC, LEED® AP, and W. OTIE KILMER, AIA, are both Professors Emeritis of interior design at Purdue University. Rosemary Kilmer has served on the Board of Directors for the NCIDQ exam. She is also a member of professional associations, as well as being an Accredited LEED Professional. W. Otie Kilmer has taught design and drawing for over 30 years. His successful career as an architect and interior designer has included work with high-profile international design firms. The authors lead their own design practice, Kilmer and Associates.

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