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Risk Assessment for Environmental Health

ISBN: 978-1-118-42406-3
660 pages
February 2007, Jossey-Bass
Risk Assessment for Environmental Health (1118424069) cover image
Written by experts in the field, this important book provides an introduction to current risk assessment practices and procedures and explores the intrinsic complexities, challenges, and controversies associated with analysis of environmental health risks.

Environmental Health Risk Assessment for Public Health offers 27 substantial chapters on risk-related topics that include:

  • What Is Risk and Why Study Risk Assessment
  • The Risk Assessment–Risk Management Paradigm
  • Risk Assessment and Regulatory Decision-Making in Environmental Health
  • Toxicological Basis of Risk Assessment
  • The Application of PBPK Modeling to Risk Assessment
  • Probabilistic Models to Characterize Aggregate and Cumulative Risk
  • Molecular Basis of Risk Assessment
  • Comparative Risk Assessment
  • Occupational Risk
  • Radiological Risk Assessment
  • Microbial Risk Assessment
  • Children’s Risk Assessment
  • Life Cycle Risk
  • Environmental Laws and Regulations
  • Precautionary Principles
  • Risk Communication
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Figures, Tables, and Exhibits xi

Preface xvii

About the Editors xxi

About the Contributors xxiii

1 Introduction to Risk Assessment in Public Health 1
Mark Robson and Fred Ellerbusch

2 The Risk Assessment–Risk Management Paradigm 11
Gilbert S. Omenn

3 Risk Assessment and Regulatory Decision Making in Environmental Health 31
Felicia Wu and William H. Farland

4 Toxicological Basis for Risk Assessment 55
Tee L. Guidotti and Marina S. Moses

5 The Application of Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK) Modeling to Risk Assessment 85
Raymond S. H. Yang and Yasong Lu

6 Probabilistic Models for Characterizing Aggregate and Cumulative Risk 121
John L. Adgate and Gurumurthy Ramachandran

7 Molecular Tools for Risk Assessment 155
William A. Toscano and Chisato Mori

8 Comparative Risk Assessment 173
Michele Morrone

9 Risk in the Workplace: Where Analysis Began and Problems Remain Unsolved 187
Adam M. Finkel and P. Barry Ryan

10 Radiological Risk Assessment 239
Ronald O. Rahn and Arthur C. Upton

11 Microbial Risk Assessment 285
Rebecca T. Parkin

12 Children’s Risk Assessment 315
Natalie C. G. Freeman

13 Biological Monitoring of Exposure to Environmental Chemicals Throughout the Life Stages: Requirements and Issues to Consider for Birth Cohort Studies 345
Dana B. Barr, Richard Y. Wang, and Larry L. Needham

14 Overview of Environmental Public Health Laws and Their Relation to Risk 383
Russellyn S. Carruth and Bernard D. Goldstein

15 Why Risk Assessment Is Not Enough to Protect Health: Rationale for a Precautionary Approach to Science and Policy 423
Joel A. Tickner

16 Risk Communication 463
Susan L. Santos

CASE STUDIES IN RISK ASSESSMENT

17 Improvement of Risk Assessments for Multicontaminant Sites in the Face of Critical Data Gaps 489
Yoram Cohen and Adrienne Katner

18 Intraspecies Differences in Acute Acrylonitrile Toxicity 511
Gwendolyn Ball, Clif McLellan, and Lori Bestervelt

19 Drinking Water Contamination by Perchlorates from Department of Defense Rocket Fuel Facilities 517
Terry Gratton and Norman Trieff

20 Multi-Pathway Risk Assessment for Children Living Near a Hazardous Waste Site 523
Serap Erdal

21 Child with Asthma Living in a Moisture-Damaged Home 531
Myrtis Sullivan

22 Endocrine Disruption Through Phthalates/Plasticizers 541
Christine Ziebold

23 Estimation of Health and Safety Risks from Exposure to Chlorine and Chloroform for Swimmers in Pools 547
Richard P. Hubner

24 U-Shaped Dose-Response Curve for Risk Assessment of Essential Trace Elements: Copper as a Case Study 555
Bonnie Ransom Stern

25 Ecosystem Risk Assessment: The Neuse River Estuary, North Carolina 563
Craig A. Stow, Mark E. Borsuk, and Kenneth H. Reckhow

26 The Ohio Comparative Risk Project 587
Michele Morrone

27 Community-Based Risk Assessment: DDT Contamination in Triana, Alabama 597
Padma Tadi-Uppala

Name Index 605

Subject Index 611

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Mark G. Robson, Ph.D., M.P.H., is director of the New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station and profesor of entomology at Rutgers University, School of Environmental and Biological Sciences, New Brunswick, New Jersey.

William A. Toscano, Ph.D., is professor and division head, Environmental and Occupational Health, University of Minnesota School of Public Health, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

The Association of Schools of Public Health (ASPH), sponsor, is the only national organization representing the deans, faculty, and students of the CEPH accredited schools of Public Health in the United States and Mexico.

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  • Strategic fit: With the publication of a major textbook, Environmental Health: From Global to Local, this book is the perfect follow up.
  • Platform: Sponsored by the Environmental and Occupational Health Council of the Association of Schools of Public Health, the absolute leaders in this field. Volume editors Robson and Toscano are recognized experts. The ASPH has agreed to send a copy to each SPH dean and each EOH department chair, which almost guarantees sizeable adoptions of the book.
  • Timeliness: The outlook for this field is fantastic and makes the timing of this book all them more fortunate. Reportedly, there are tens of thousand of unfilled positions in state and county environmental health departments, and schools are working double-time to recruit students to this area in both undergraduate and graduate areas. Associated professions such as environmental law and environmental policy, also markets for this book, remain strong. With environmental health employment growing faster than the average through 2012 (BLS), the academic major of Environmental Sciences is also going to grow. It is the fourth largest area of specialization for graduate students in public health (after health services administration, health behavior/health ed, and epidemiology – see pie chart, next page) and achieved the third highest growth rate (41 percent growth) during the last 10 years of all those majors. (Souce: 2003 Data Report, ASPH).
  • Leading edge – the post 9/11 world requires a complete understanding of public health risks and a way to manage and communicate them. The professional audience for this book will be significant. There simply is no single text that covers risk assessment and communications from this uniquely practical public health perspective.
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