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Understanding LTE with MATLAB: From Mathematical Modeling to Simulation and Prototyping

ISBN: 978-1-118-44341-5
508 pages
March 2014
Understanding LTE with MATLAB: From Mathematical Modeling to Simulation and Prototyping (1118443411) cover image

An introduction to technical details related to the Physical Layer of the LTE standard with MATLAB

The LTE (Long Term Evolution) and LTE-Advanced are among the latest mobile communications standards, designed to realize the dream of a truly global, fast, all-IP-based, secure broadband mobile access technology.

This book examines the Physical Layer (PHY) of the LTE standards by incorporating three conceptual elements: an overview of the theory behind key enabling technologies; a concise discussion regarding standard specifications; and the MATLAB algorithms needed to simulate the standard.

The use of MATLAB, a widely used technical computing language, is one of the distinguishing features of this book. Through a series of MATLAB programs, the author explores each of the enabling technologies, pedagogically synthesizes an LTE PHY system model, and evaluates system performance at each stage. Following this step-by-step process, readers will achieve deeper understanding of LTE concepts and specifications through simulations.

Key Features:

• Accessible, intuitive, and progressive; one of the few books to focus primarily on the modeling, simulation, and implementation of the LTE PHY standard
• Includes case studies and testbenches in MATLAB, which build knowledge gradually and incrementally until a functional specification for the LTE PHY is attained
• Accompanying Web site includes all MATLAB programs, together with PowerPoint slides and other illustrative examples

Dr Houman Zarrinkoub has served as a development manager and now as a senior product manager with MathWorks, based in Massachusetts, USA. Within his 12 years at MathWorks, he has been responsible for multiple signal processing and communications software tools. Prior to MathWorks, he was a research scientist in the Wireless Group at Nortel Networks, where he contributed to multiple standardization projects for 3G mobile technologies. He has been awarded multiple patents on topics related to computer simulations. He holds a BSc degree in Electrical Engineering from McGill University and MSc and PhD degrees in Telecommunications from the Institut Nationale de la Recherche Scientifique, in Canada.

www.wiley.com/go/zarrinkoub

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Preface xiii

List of Abbreviations xvii

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Quick Overview of Wireless Standards 1

1.2 Historical Profile of Data Rates 4

1.3 IMT-Advanced Requirements 4

1.4 3GPP and LTE Standardization 5

1.5 LTE Requirements 5

1.6 Theoretical Strategies 6

1.7 LTE-Enabling Technologies 7

1.8 LTE Physical Layer (PHY) Modeling 9

1.9 LTE (Releases 8 and 9) 11

1.10 LTE-Advanced (Release 10) 11

1.11 MATLAB and Wireless System Design 11

1.12 Organization of This Book 11

References 12

2 Overview of the LTE Physical Layer 13

2.1 Air Interface 13

2.2 Frequency Bands 14

2.3 Unicast and Multicast Services 14

2.4 Allocation of Bandwidth 16

2.5 Time Framing 17

2.6 Time–Frequency Representation 17

2.7 OFDM Multicarrier Transmission 20

2.8 Single-Carrier Frequency Division Multiplexing 23

2.9 Resource Grid Content 24

2.10 Physical Channels 25

2.11 Physical Signals 31

2.12 Downlink Frame Structures 34

2.13 Uplink Frame Structures 35

2.14 MIMO 35

2.15 MIMO Modes 40

2.16 PHY Processing 41

2.17 Downlink Processing 41

2.18 Uplink Processing 43

2.19 Chapter Summary 45

References 46

3 MATLAB for Communications System Design 47

3.1 System Development Workflow 47

3.2 Challenges and Capabilities 48

3.3 Focus 49

3.4 Approach 49

3.5 PHY Models in MATLAB 49

3.6 MATLAB 49

3.7 MATLAB Toolboxes 50

3.8 Simulink 51

3.9 Modeling and Simulation 52

3.10 Prototyping and Implementation 53

3.11 Introduction to System Objects 54

3.12 MATLAB Channel Coding Examples 60

3.13 Chapter Summary 68

References 69

4 Modulation and Coding 71

4.1 Modulation Schemes of LTE 72

4.2 Bit-Level Scrambling 79

4.3 Channel Coding 85

4.4 Turbo Coding 85

4.5 Early-Termination Mechanism 93

4.6 Rate Matching 99

4.7 Codeblock Segmentation 105

4.8 LTE Transport-Channel Processing 107

4.9 Chapter Summary 112

References 113

5 OFDM 115

5.1 Channel Modeling 115

Examples 117

5.2 Scope 121

5.3 Workflow 121

5.4 OFDM and Multipath Fading 122

5.5 OFDM and Channel-Response Estimation 123

5.6 Frequency-Domain Equalization 124

5.7 LTE Resource Grid 124

5.8 Configuring the Resource Grid 125

5.9 Generating Reference Signals 130

5.10 Resource Element Mapping 132

5.11 OFDM Signal Generation 136

5.12 Channel Modeling 137

5.13 OFDM Receiver 140

5.14 Resource Element Demapping 141

5.15 Channel Estimation 143

5.16 Equalizer Gain Computation 145

5.17 Visualizing the Channel 146

5.18 Downlink Transmission Mode 1 147

5.19 Chapter Summary 164

References 165

6 MIMO 167

6.1 Definition of MIMO 167

6.2 Motivation for MIMO 168

6.3 Types of MIMO 168

6.4 Scope of MIMO Coverage 170

6.5 MIMO Channels 170

Implementation 171

6.6 Common MIMO Features 178

6.7 Specific MIMO Features 197

6.8 Chapter Summary 260

References 262

7 Link Adaptation 263

7.1 System Model 264

7.2 Link Adaptation in LTE 265

7.3 MATLAB Examples 266

7.4 Link Adaptations between Subframes 275

7.5 Adaptive Modulation 277

7.6 Adaptive Modulation and Coding Rate 283

7.7 Adaptive Precoding 287

7.8 Adaptive MIMO 291

7.9 Downlink Control Information 294

7.10 Chapter Summary 302

References 303

8 System-Level Specification 305

8.1 System Model 306

8.2 System Model in MATLAB 315

8.3 Quantitative Assessments 316

8.4 Throughput Analysis 325

8.5 System Model in Simulink 326

8.6 Qualitative Assessment 349

8.7 Chapter Summary 351

References 352

9 Simulation 353

9.1 Speeding Up Simulations in MATLAB 353

9.2 Workflow 354

9.3 Case Study: LTE PDCCH Processing 355

9.4 Baseline Algorithm 356

9.5 MATLAB Code Profiling 358

9.6 MATLAB Code Optimizations 360

9.7 Using Acceleration Features 383

9.8 Using a Simulink Model 387

9.9 GPU Processing 399

9.10 Case Study: Turbo Coders on GPU 406

9.11 Chapter Summary 419

10 Prototyping as C/C++ Code 421

10.1 Use Cases 422

10.2 Motivations 422

10.3 Requirements 422

10.4 MATLAB Code Considerations 423

10.5 How to Generate Code 423

10.6 Structure of the Generated C Code 429

10.7 Supported MATLAB Subset 432

10.8 Complex Numbers and Native C Types 436

10.9 Support for System Toolboxes 438

10.10 Support for Fixed-Point Data 444

10.11 Support for Variable-Sized Data 447

10.12 Integration with Existing C/C++ Code 458

10.13 Chapter Summary 471

References 471

11 Summary 473

11.1 Modeling 473

11.2 Simulation 476

11.3 Directions for Future Work 477

11.4 Concluding Remarks 480

Index 483

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Dr Houman Zarrinkoub has served as a development manager and now as a senior product manager with MathWorks, based in Massachusetts, USA. Within his 12 years at MathWorks, he has been responsible for multiple signal processing and communications software tools. Prior to MathWorks, he was a research scientist in the Wireless Group at Nortel Networks, where he contributed to multiple standardization projects for 3G mobile technologies. He has been awarded multiple patents on topics related to computer simulations. He holds a BSc degree in Electrical Engineering from McGill University and MSc and PhD degrees in Telecommunications from the Institut Nationale de la Recherche Scientifique, in Canada.

www.wiley.com/go/zarrinkoub

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