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Grid Integration of Electric Vehicles in Open Electricity Markets

ISBN: 978-1-118-44607-2
306 pages
August 2013
Grid Integration of Electric Vehicles in Open Electricity Markets (1118446070) cover image


Presenting the policy drivers, benefits and challenges for grid integration of electric vehicles (EVs) in the open electricity market environment, this book provides a comprehensive overview of existing electricity markets and demonstrates how EVs are integrated into these different markets and power systems.

Unlike other texts, this book analyses EV integration in parallel with electricity market design, showing the interaction between EVs and differing electricity markets. Future regulating power market and distribution system operator (DSO) market design is covered, with up-to-date case studies and examples to help readers carry out similar projects across the world.

With in-depth analysis, this book describes:

  • the impact of EV charging and discharging on transmission and distribution networks
  • market-driven EV congestion management techniques, for example the day-ahead tariff based congestion management scenario within electric distribution networks 
  • optimal EV charging management with the fleet operator concept and smart charging management
  • EV battery technology, modelling and tests 
  • the use of EVs for balancing power fluctuations from renewable energy sources, looking at power system operation support, including frequency reserve, power regulation and voltage support

An accessible technical book for power engineers and grid/distributed systems operators, this also serves as a reference text for researchers in the area of EVs and power systems. It provides distribution companies with the knowledge they need when facing the challenges introduced by large scale EV deployment, and demonstrates how transmission system operators (TSOs) can develop the existing system service market in order to fully utilize the potential of EV flexibility. With thorough coverage of the technologies for EV integration, this volume is informative for research professors and graduate students in power systems; it will also appeal to EV manufacturers, regulators, EV market professionals, energy providers and traders, mobility providers, EV charging station companies, and policy makers.

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Table of Contents

Contributors xi

Preface xiii

1 Electrification of Vehicles: Policy Drivers and Impacts in Two Scenarios 1
M. Albrecht, M. Nilsson and J. Åkerman

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Policy Drivers, Policies and Targets 2

1.3 Scenarios and Environmental Impact Assessment 11

1.4 Future Policy Drivers for a BEV and PHEV Breakthrough 16

1.5 Results and Conclusion 24

Acknowledgements 25

References 25

2 EVs and the Current Nordic Electricity Market 32
C. Bang, C. Hay, M. Togeby and C. Søndergren

2.1 Chapter Overview 32

2.2 Electricity Consumption by EVs 33

2.3 Market Actors 37

2.4 Nordic Electricity Markets 39

2.5 Electricity Price 44

2.6 Electricity Sales Products for Demand Response 46

2.7 EVs in Different Markets 48

References 53

3 Electric Vehicles in Future Market Models 54
C. Søndergren, C. Bang, C. Hay and M. Togeby

3.1 Introduction 54

3.2 Overview 54

3.3 Alternative Markets for Regulating Power and Reserves for EV Integration 56

3.4 Alternative Market Models for EV Integration 66

3.5 Management of Congestions in the Distribution Grid 69

References 81

4 Investments and Operation in an Integrated Power and Transport System 82
Nina Juul and Trine Krogh Boomsma

4.1 Introduction 82

4.2 The Road Transport System 83

4.3 The Energy Systems Analysis Model, Balmorel 84

4.4 Modelling of Electric Drive Vehicles 85

4.5 Case Study 96

4.6 Scenarios 101

4.7 Results 101

4.8 Results from EDVs Contributing to Capacity Credit Equation 108

4.9 Discussion and Conclusion 110

4.10 Summary 111

References 111

5 Optimal Charging of Electric Drive Vehicles: A Dynamic Programming Approach 113
Stefanos Delikaraoglou, Trine Krogh Boomsma and Nina Juul

5.1 Introduction 113

5.2 Hybrid Electric Vehicles 115

5.3 Optimal Charging on Market Conditions 115

5.4 Dynamic Programming 117

5.5 Fleet Operation 118

5.6 Electricity Prices 119

5.7 Driving Patterns 120

5.8 A Danish Case Study 121

5.9 Optimal Charging Patterns 122

5.10 Discussion and Conclusion 127

Acknowledgments 128

References 128

6 EV Portfolio Management 129
Lars Henrik Hansen, Jakob Munch Jensen and Andreas Bjerre

6.1 Introduction 129

6.2 EV Fleet Modelling and Charging Strategies 130

6.3 Case Studies of EV Fleet Management 140

References 152

7 Analysis of Regulating Power from EVs 153
Qiuwei Wu, Arne Hejde Nielsen, Jacob Østergaard and Yi Ding

7.1 Introduction 153

7.2 Driving Pattern Analysis for EV Grid Integration 154

7.3 Spot-Price-Based EV Charging Schedule 158

7.4 Analysis of Regulating Power from EVs 165

7.5 Summary 176

References 176

8 Frequency-Control Reserves and Voltage Support from Electric Vehicles 178
Jayakrishnan R. Pillai and Birgitte Bak-Jensen

8.1 Introduction 178

8.2 Power System Ancillary Services 179

8.3 Electric Vehicles to Support Wind Power Integration 179

8.4 Electric Vehicles as Frequency-Control Reserves 181

8.5 Voltage Support and Electric Vehicle Integration Trends in Power Systems 189

8.6 Summary 189

Acknowledgements 190

References 190

9 Operation and Degradation Aspects of EV Batteries 192
Claus Nygaard Rasmussen, Søren Højgaard Jensen and Guang Ya Yang

9.1 Introduction 192

9.2 Battery Modelling and Validation Techniques 193

9.3 Thermal Effects and Degradation of EV Batteries 209

9.4 Electric EC Model 221

References 231

10 Day-Ahead Grid Tariffs for Congestion Management from EVs 233
Niamh O’Connell, Qiuwei Wu and Jacob Østergaard

10.1 Introduction 233

10.2 Dynamic Tariff Concept 238

10.3 Case Studies 246

10.4 Conclusions 256

References 257

11 Impact Study of EV Integration on Distribution Networks 259
Qiuwei Wu, Arne Hejde Nielsen, Jacob Østergaard and Yi Ding

11.1 Introduction 259

11.2 Impact Study Methodology and Scenarios 260

11.3 Bornholm Power System 263

11.4 Conventional Demand Profile Modeling 268

11.5 Impact Study on 0.4 kV Grid 270

11.6 Impact Study on 10 kV Grid 276

11.7 Impact Study on 60 kV Grid 280

11.8 Conclusions 284

References 285


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Author Information

Professor Qiuwei Wu, Centre for Electric Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby

Qiuwei Wu is an assistant professor with the Centre for Electric Technology (CET), Technical University of Denmark (DTU) and is currently involved in the research of integration of electric vehicles (EVs), integration of wind power, market driven optimal operation of distribution systems, and the congestion management of distribution systems. He is co-work package leader of the first large scale demonstration project related to EV integration into power systems (WP2 of the EDISON project). Within this he is the main contributor on tasks of EV system architecture design, the potential of using EVs to provide ancillary services, and network impact of EVs on distribution and transmission systems. He has also worked on congestion management of distribution systems with large scale EV integration. Professor Wu gave a tutorial on “smart charging for electric vehicle(EV) fleet operators (FOs) and ICT implementation using IEC 61850” in the ISGT Europe 2011 conference. He contributed a chapter to the large edited book Modeling and Control of Sustainable Power Systems: Towards Smarter and Greener Electric Grids (Springer, 2011).

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