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Emerging Nanoelectronic Devices

An Chen (Editor), James Hutchby (Editor), Victor Zhirnov (Editor), George Bourianoff (Editor)
ISBN: 978-1-118-44774-1
570 pages
January 2015
Emerging Nanoelectronic Devices (1118447743) cover image

Description

Emerging Nanoelectronic Devices focuses on the future direction of semiconductor and emerging nanoscale device technology. As the dimensional scaling of CMOS approaches its limits, alternate information processing devices and microarchitectures are being explored to sustain increasing functionality at decreasing cost into the indefinite future.  This is driving new paradigms of information processing enabled by innovative new devices, circuits, and architectures, necessary to support an increasingly interconnected world through a rapidly evolving internet. This original title provides a fresh perspective on emerging research devices in 26 up to date chapters written by the leading researchers in their respective areas. It supplements and extends the work performed by the Emerging Research Devices working group of the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS). 

Key features: 

• Serves as an authoritative tutorial on innovative devices and architectures that populate the dynamic world of “Beyond CMOS” technologies.
• Provides a realistic assessment of the strengths, weaknesses and key unknowns associated with each technology.
• Suggests guidelines for the directions of future development of each technology.
• Emphasizes physical concepts over mathematical development.
• Provides an essential resource for students, researchers and practicing engineers.

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Table of Contents

Preface xix

List of Contributors xxi

Acronyms xxiii

PART ONE INTRODUCTION 1

1 The Nanoelectronics Roadmap 3
James Hutchby

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 Technology Scaling: Impact and Issues 4

1.3 Technology Scaling: Scaling Limits of Charge-based Devices 4

1.4 The International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors 6

1.5 ITRS Emerging Research Devices International Technology Working Group 7

1.6 Guiding Performance Criteria 8

1.7 Selection of Nanodevices as Technology Entries 13

1.8 Perspectives 13

References 14

2 What Constitutes a Nanoswitch? A Perspective 15
Supriyo Datta, Vinh Quang Diep, and Behtash Behin-Aein

2.1 The Search for a Better Switch 15

2.2 Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor Switch: Why it Shows Gain 17

2.3 Switch Based on Magnetic Tunnel Junctions: Would it Show Gain? 20

2.4 Giant Spin Hall Effect: A Route to Gain 23

2.5 Other Possibilities for Switches with Gain 27

2.6 What do Alternative Switches Have to Offer? 29

2.7 Perspective 32

2.8 Summary 32

Acknowledgments 32

References 33

PART TWO NANOELECTRONIC MEMORIES 35

3 Memory Technologies: Status and Perspectives 37
Victor V. Zhirnov and Matthew J. Marinella

3.1 Introduction: Baseline Memory Technologies 37

3.2 Essential Physics of Charge-based Memory 38

3.3 Dynamic Random Access Memory 39

3.4 Flash Memory 43

3.5 Static Random Access Memory 49

3.6 Summary and Perspective 52

Appendix: Memory Array Interconnects 52

Acknowledgments 54

References 54

4 Spin Transfer Torque Random Access Memory 56
Jian-Ping Wang, Mahdi Jamali, Angeline Klemm, and Hao Meng

4.1 Chapter Overview 56

4.2 Spin Transfer Torque 57

4.3 STT-RAM Operation 60

4.4 STT-RAM with Perpendicular Anisotropy 63

4.5 Stack and Material Engineering for Jc Reduction 66

4.6 Ultra-Fast Switching of MTJs 71

4.7 Spin–Orbit Torques for Memory Application 72

4.8 Current Demonstrations for STT-RAM 73

4.9 Summary and Perspectives 73

References 74

5 Phase Change Memory 78
Rakesh Jeyasingh, Ethan C. Ahn, S. Burc Eryilmaz, Scott Fong, and H.-S. Philip Wong

5.1 Introduction 78

5.2 Device Operation 79

5.3 Material Properties 80

5.4 Device and Material Scaling to the Nanometer Size 88

5.5 Multi-Bit Operation and 3D Integration 93

5.6 Applications 97

5.7 Future Outlook 100

5.8 Summary 103

Acknowledgments 103

References 103

6 Ferroelectric FET Memory 110
Ken Takeuchi and An Chen

6.1 Introduction 110

6.2 Ferroelectric FET for Flash Memory Application 111

6.3 Ferroelectric FET for SRAM Application 115

6.4 System Consideration: SSD System with Fe-NAND Flash Memory 118

6.5 Perspectives and Summary 119

References 120

7 Nano-Electro-Mechanical (NEM) Memory Devices 123
Adrian M. Ionescu

7.1 Introduction and Rationale for a Memory Based on NEM Switch 123

7.2 NEM Relay and Capacitor Memories 126

7.3 NEM-FET Memory 130

7.4 Carbon-based NEM Memories 132

7.5 Opportunities and Challenges for NEM Memories 133

References 135

8 Redox-based Resistive Memory 137
Stephan Menzel, Eike Linn, and Rainer Waser

8.1 Introduction 137

8.2 Physical Fundamentals of Redox Memories 139

8.3 Electrochemical Metallization Memory Cells 144

8.4 Valence Change Memory Cells 149

8.5 Performance 154

8.6 Summary 158

References 158

9 Electronic Effect Resistive Switching Memories 162
An Chen

9.1 Introduction 162

9.2 Charge Injection and Trapping 164

9.3 Mott Transition 167

9.4 Ferroelectric Resistive Switching 170

9.5 Perspectives 173

9.6 Summary 176

References 176

10 Macromolecular Memory 181
Benjamin F. Bory and Stefan C.J. Meskers

10.1 Chapter Overview 181

10.2 Macromolecules 181

10.3 Elementary Physical Chemistry of Macromolecular Memory 184

10.4 Classes of Macromolecular Memory Materials and Their Performance 187

10.5 Perspectives 190

10.6 Summary 190

Acknowledgments 190

References 191

11 Molecular Transistors 194
Mark A. Reed, Hyunwook Song, and Takhee Lee

11.1 Introduction 194

11.2 Experimental Approaches 194

11.3 Molecular Transistors 213

11.4 Molecular Design 218

11.5 Perspectives 222

Acknowledgments 223

References 223

12 Memory Select Devices 227
An Chen

12.1 Introduction 227

12.2 Crossbar Array and Memory Select Devices 227

12.3 Memory Select Device Options 230

12.4 Challenges of Memory Select Devices 241

12.5 Summary 242

References 242

13 Emerging Memory Devices: Assessment and Benchmarking 246
Matthew J. Marinella and Victor V. Zhirnov

13.1 Introduction 246

13.2 Common Emerging Memory Terminology and Metrics 248

13.3 Redox RAM 249

13.4 Emerging Ferroelectric Memories 254

13.5 Mott Memory 258

13.6 Macromolecular Memory 259

13.7 Carbon-based Resistive Switching Memory 260

13.8 Molecular Memory 262

13.9 Assessment and Benchmarking 263

13.10 Summary and Conclusions 271

Acknowledgments 271

References 271

PART THREE NANOELECTRONIC LOGIC AND INFORMATION PROCESSING 277

14 Re-Invention of FET 279
Toshiro Hiramoto

14.1 Introduction 279

14.2 Historical and Future Trend of MOSFETs 279

14.3 Near-term Solutions 282

14.4 Long-term Solutions 285

14.5 Summary 295

References 296

15 Graphene Electronics 298
Frank Schwierz

15.1 Introduction 298

15.2 Properties of Graphene 300

15.3 Graphene MOSFETs for Mainstream Logic and RF Applications 303

15.4 Graphene MOSFETs for Nonmainstream Applications 308

15.5 Graphene NonMOSFET Transistors 309

15.6 Perspectives 310

Acknowledgment 311

References 311

16 Carbon Nanotube Electronics 315
Aaron D. Franklin

16.1 Carbon Nanotubes – The Ideal Transistor Channel 315

16.2 Operation of the CNTFET 319

16.3 Important Aspects of CNTFETs 320

16.4 Scaling CNTFETs to the Sub-10 Nanometer Regime 324

16.5 Material Considerations 327

16.6 Perspective 329

16.7 Conclusion 331

References 331

17 Spintronics 336
Alexander Khitun

17.1 Introduction 336

17.2 Spin Transistors 337

17.3 Magnetic Logic Circuits 348

17.4 Summary 364

References 365

18 NEMS Switch Technology 370
Louis Hutin and Tsu-Jae King Liu

18.1 Electromechanical Switches for Digital Logic 370

18.2 Actuation Mechanisms 373

18.3 Electrostatic Switch Designs 379

18.4 Reliability and Scalability 383

References 386

19 Atomic Switch 390
Tsuyoshi Hasegawa and Masakazu Aono

19.1 Chapter Overview 390

19.2 Historical Background of the Atomic Switch 390

19.3 Fundamentals of Atomic Switches 391

19.4 Various Atomic Switches 395

19.5 Perspectives 401

References 402

20 ITRS Assessment and Benchmarking of Emerging Logic Devices 405
Shamik Das

20.1 Introduction 405

20.2 Overview of the ITRS Roadmap for Emerging Research Logic Devices 406

20.3 Recent Results for Selected Emerging Devices 407

20.4 Perspective 412

20.5 Summary 413

Acknowledgments 413

References 413

PART FOUR CONCEPTS FOR EMERGING ARCHITECTURES 417

21 Nanomagnet Logic: A Magnetic Implementation of Quantum-dot Cellular Automata 419
Michael T. Niemier, György Csaba, and Wolfgang Porod

21.1 Introduction 419

21.2 Technology Background 420

21.3 NML Circuit Design Based on Conventional, Boolean Logic Gates 423

21.4 Alternative Circuit Design Techniques and Architectures 432

21.5 Retrospective, Future Challenges, and Future Research Directions 437

References 439

22 Explorations in Morphic Architectures 443
Tetsuya Asai and Ferdinand Peper

22.1 Introduction 443

22.2 Neuromorphic Architectures 443

22.3 Cellular Automata Architectures 447

22.4 Taxonomy of Computational Ability of Architectures 450

22.5 Summary 452

References 452

23 Design Considerations for a Computational Architecture of Human Cognition 456
Narayan Srinivasa

23.1 Introduction 456

23.2 Features of Biological Computation 457

23.3 Evolution of Behavior as a Basis for Cognitive Architecture Design 460

23.4 Considerations for a Cognitive Architecture 460

23.5 Emergent Cognition 463

23.6 Perspectives 463

References 464

24 Alternative Architectures for NonBoolean Information Processing Systems 467
Yan Fang, Steven P. Levitan, Donald M. Chiarulli, and Denver H. Dash

24.1 Introduction 467

24.2 Hierarchical Associative Memory Models 475

24.3 N-Tree Model 484

24.4 Summary and Conclusion 494

Acknowledgments 496

References 496

25 Storage Class Memory 498
Geoffrey W. Burr and Paul Franzon

25.1 Introduction 498

25.2 Traditional Storage: HDD and Flash Solid-state Drives 499

25.3 What is Storage Class Memory? 499

25.4 Target Specifications for SCM 501

25.5 Device Candidates for SCM 502

25.6 Architectural Issues in SCM 504

25.7 Conclusions 508

References 509

PART FIVE SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND OUTLOOK FOR NANOELECTRONIC DEVICES 511

26 Outlook for Nanoelectronic Devices 513
An Chen, James Hutchby, Victor V. Zhirnov, and George Bourianoff

26.1 Introduction 513

26.2 Quantitative Logic Benchmarking for Beyond CMOS Technologies 514

26.3 Survey-based Critical Assessment of Emerging Devices 518

26.4 Retrospective Assessment of ERD Tracked Technologies 526

References 528

Index 529

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Author Information

An Chen is with GLOBALFOUNDRIES, working on emerging logic and memory technologies.  He is the Memory Technology Lead responsible for exploratory memory research with industrial consortia including IMEC and Sematech.  His memory research focuses primarily on RRAM and STTRAM.  Prior to GLOBALFOUNDRIES, he worked at Spansion LLC on emerging memory research and at Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) on nanoelectronics.  He is currently chairing the Emerging Research Device (ERD) working group in the International Technology Roadmap of Semiconductors (ITRS).  He is also a Senior Member of the IEEE. 

James Hutchby, Senior Scientist, Emeritus, was formerly Director of Device Sciences of Semiconductor Research Corporation (SRC). Prior to joining SRC he was founding Director of the Research Triangle Institute’s Center for Semiconductor Research, which consisted of five research groups performing research on: low-temperature growth of diamond; high efficiency multi-bandgap solar cells; complementary HBT devices and integrated circuits and high efficiency thermoelectrics and theremovoltaics. Dr Hutchby has authored or co-authored over 160 contributed and invited papers.  He is also a Life Fellow of the IEEE and a recipient of the IEEE Third Millennium Medal. 

Victor Zhirnov is Director of Special Projects at the SRC. His research interests include nanoelectronics devices and systems, properties of materials at the nanoscale and bio-inspired electronic systems. He also holds an adjunct faculty position at North Carolina State University and has served as an advisor to a number of government, industrial, and academic institutions. Victor Zhirnov has authored and co-authored over 100 technical papers and contributions to books. 

George Bourianoff is a Senior Principle Engineer in the Components Research group at Intel. He is responsible for developing and managing research programs in emerging research technologies and architectures.  He also serves on the scientific advisory boards of the Nanoelectronic Research Initiative (NRI) and the Semiconductor Technology Advanced Research Network. (STARnet).  Prior to joining Intel in 1994 Dr Bourianoff was a group leader in the Superconducting Supercollidier Project in Texas responsible for accelerator simulation.  Prior to that, he was a Senior Scientist with SAIC responsible for Magneto Hydrodynamic code development.

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