The American Community College, 6th Edition
September 2013, Jossey-Bass
Praise for the Previous Edition of The American Community College
"Projecting the future for the community colleges of the early twenty-first century involves projecting the future for the nation in general: its demographics, economy, and public attitudes.... At heart is a discourse on how the institutions may adapt historical structures and practices to a changing world, and how those changes may ultimately affect students, the community, and society at large."
from the Conclusion, "Toward the Future"
"Since 1982, The American Community College by Cohen and Brawer has been the authoritative book on community colleges. Anyone who wants to understand these complex and dynamic institutionshow they are evolving, the contributions they make, the challenges they face, the students they serve, and the faculty and leaders who deliver the services and the curriculawill find The American Community College both essential reading and an important reference book."
George R. Boggs, former president and CEO, American Association of Community Colleges
"I have been a community college president for over forty-one years and a graduate professor for three decades. This book has been an inspiration to generations of students, faculty members, and administrators. It has become the classic of the field because it has great 'take-home' value to us all."
Joseph N. Hankin, president, Westchester Community College
"Cohen and Brawer's classic work is the touchstone for a comprehensive overview of the American community college. This is a seminal book for graduate students as well as seasoned professionals for understanding this uniquely American institution."
Charles R. Dassance, former president, Central Florida Community College
The Authors xv
1. Background: Evolving Priorities and Expectations of the Community College 1
2. Students: Diverse Backgrounds and Purposes 45
3. Faculty: Building a Professional Identity 79
4. Organization, Governance, and Administration: Managing the Contemporary College 109
5. Finances: Generating, Sustaining, and Allocating Resources 151
6. Instruction: Methods, Media, and Effects 177
7. Student Services: Supporting Educational Objectives 209
8. Developmental Education: Enhancing Literacy and Basic Skills 235
9. Liberal Arts and Transfer Education: Preparation for the University 265
10. Integrative Education: Modifying General Education 289
11. Occupational Education: Growth and Change in Workforce Preparation 303
12. Community Education: Extending College Services and Training 333
13. Scholarship and Commentary: Perspectives of the Community College 359
14. Student Progress and Outcomes: A New Age of Accountability 391
15. Toward the Future: Trends, Challenges, and Obligations 435
Appendix: For-Profit Institutions 471
Name Index 541
Subject Index 549
Arthur M. Cohen is professor emeritus of higher education atUCLA, editor-in-chief of New Directions for Community Colleges, and the author of numerous books and articles on community colleges.
Florence B. Brawer is former research director of the Center for the Study of Community Colleges and associate editor of New Directions for Community Colleges. Cohen and Brawer together wrote several books on community colleges, including five previous editions of The American Community College.
Carrie B. Kisker is an education research and policy consultant and a director of the Center for the Study of Community Colleges. She is the former managing editor of New Directions for Community Colleges. Cohen and Kisker are the coauthors of The Shaping of American Higher Education, Second Edition.
Community colleges have become a frequent subject of discussion in recent years, both among educators and philanthropists seeking to improve access and success in higher education for all groups, and increasingly among lawmakers and the general public responding to tuition increases at four-year institutions, a high unemployment rate and need for worker retraining, and pressure for all young people to obtain a postsecondary degree or certificate. Much of the buzz has been positive, with community colleges cast as the nexus of national efforts to prepare a highly skilled workforce, as well as the lynchpin in the K-20 education pipeline. Millions of federal and philanthropic dollars have been poured into the community college sector via initiatives such as the Trade Adjustment Assistance Community College and Career Training Grant Program, Achieving the Dream, and Compete to Complete, and community colleges across the nation have responded with efforts to improve job training and workforce development programs, reforms intended to boost student progress and completion rates, and collaborations with K-12 and university personnel to improve articulation and transfer among the sectors.
For thirty years The American Community College has provided up-to-date information and statistics about community colleges and has been widely used both in graduate courses on community colleges, and as reference material by community college scholars and practitioners (many of whom are entering doctoral programs in order to advance in the administrative ranks). The sixth edition includes an entirely new chapter focused on community college outcomes and accountability, as well as new sections dealing with the rise of for-profit colleges; vertical expansion, including dual enrollment and community college baccalaureates; cross-sector collaboration; student characteristics and enrollment patterns; the effects of part-time faculty; leadership and administrative challenges; revenue generation and state allocation patterns, including performance-based funding; distance learning; statewide efforts to improve transfer and articulation; and, finally, a response to contemporary criticisms of the institution.