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Self-Healing Composites: Shape Memory Polymer Based Structures

ISBN: 978-1-118-45245-5
392 pages
September 2014
Self-Healing Composites: Shape Memory Polymer Based Structures (1118452453) cover image

Description

In this book, the self-healing of composite structures with shape memory polymer as either matrix or embedded suture is systematically discussed. Self-healing has been well known in biological systems for many years: a typical example is the self-healing of human skin. Whilst a minor wound can be self-closed by blood clotting, a deep and wide cut needs external help by suturing. Inspired by this observation, this book proposes a two-step close-then-heal (CTH) scheme for healing wide-opened cracks in composite structures–by constrained shape recovery first, followed by molecular healing. It is demonstrated that the CTH scheme can heal wide-opened structural cracks repeatedly, efficiently, timely, and molecularly. It is believed that self-healing represents the next-generation technology and will become an engineering reality in the near future.  

The book consists of both fundamental background and practical skills for implementing the CTH scheme, with additional focus on understanding strain memory versus stress memory and healing efficiency evaluation under various fracture modes. Potential applications to civil engineering structures, including sealant for bridge decks and concrete pavements, and rutting resistant asphalt pavements, are also explored.  This book will help readers to understand this emerging field, and to establish a framework for new innovation in this direction.

Key features:

  • explores potential applications of shape memory polymers in civil engineering structures, which is believed to be unique within the literature
  • balanced testing and mathematical modeling, useful for both academic researchers and practitioners
  • the self-healing scheme is based on physical change of polymers and is written in an easy to understand style for engineering professionals without a strong background in chemistry
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Table of Contents

Preface xiii

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Thermosetting Polymers 1

1.2 Thermosetting Polymer Composites in Structure Applications 3

1.3 Damage in Fiber Reinforced Thermosetting Polymer Composite Structures 3

1.4 Repair of Damage in Thermosetting Polymer Composite Structures 11

1.5 Classification of Self-Healing Schemes 13

1.6 Organization of This Book 14

References 15

2 Self-Healing in Biological Systems 21

2.1 Self-Healing in Plants 21

2.2 Seal-Healing in Animals 21

2.3 Self-Healing in Human Beings 26

2.4 Summary Remarks 29

2.5 Implications from Nature 30

References 30

3 Thermoset Shape Memory Polymer and Its Syntactic Foam 35

3.1 Characterization of Thermosetting SMP and SMP Based Syntactic Foam 38

3.2 Programming of Thermosetting SMPs 48

3.3 Thermomechanical Behavior of Thermosetting SMP and SMP Based Syntactic Foam Programmed Using the Classical Method 54

3.4 Thermomechanical Behavior of Thermosetting SMP and SMP Based Syntactic Foam Programmed by Cold Compression 77

3.5 Behavior of Thermoset Shape Memory Polymer Based Syntactic Foam Trained by Hybrid Two-Stage Programming 86

3.6 Functional Durability of SMP Based Syntactic Foam 102

References 105

4 Constitutive Modeling of Amorphous Thermosetting Shape Memory Polymer and Shape Memory Polymer Based Syntactic Foam 109

4.1 Some Fundamental Relations in the Kinematics of Continuum Mechanics 111

4.2 Stress Definition in Solid Mechanics 119

4.3 Multiplicative Decomposition of Deformation Gradient 121

4.4 Constitutive Modeling of Cold-Compression Programmed Thermosetting SMP 123

4.5 Thermoviscoplastic Modeling of Cold-Compression Programmed Thermosetting Shape Memory Polymer Syntactic Foam 139

References 150

5 Shape Memory Polyurethane Fiber 155

5.1 Strengthening of SMPFs Through Strain Hardening by Cold-Drawing Programming 155

5.2 Characterization of Thermoplastic SMPFs 169

5.3 Constitutive Modeling of Semicrystalline SMPFs 179

5.4 Stress Memory versus Strain Memory 200

References 208

6 Self-Healing with Shape Memory Polymer as Matrix 213

6.1 SMP Matrix Based Biomimetic Self-Healing Scheme 219

6.2 Self-Healing of a Sandwich Structure with PSMP Based Syntactic Foam core 245

6.3 Grid Stiffened PSMP Based Syntactic Foam Cored Sandwich for Mitigating and Healing Impact Damage 260

6.4 Three-Dimensional Woven Fabric Reinforced PSMP Based Syntactic Foam Panel for Impact Tolerance and Damage Healing 270

References 281

7 Self-Healing with Embedded Shape Memory Polymer Fibers 287

7.1 Bio-inspired Self-Healing Scheme Based on SMP Fibers 287

7.2 SMP Fiber versus SMA (Shape Memory Alloy) Fiber 289

7.3 Healing of Thermosetting Polymer by Embedded Unidirectional (1-D) Shape Memory Polyurethane Fiber (SMPF) 293

7.4 Healing of Thermosetting Polymer by Embedded 2-D Shape Memory Polyurethane Fiber (SMPF) 307

7.5 Healing of Thermosetting Polymer by Embedded 3-D Shape Memory Polyurethane Fiber (SMPF) 314

References 325

8 Modeling of Healing Process and Evaluation of Healing Efficiency 329

8.1 Modeling of Healing Process 330

8.2 Evaluation of Healing Efficiency 334

8.1 Modeling of Healing Process 330

8.2 Evaluation of Healing Efficiency 334

References 351

9 Summary and Future Perspective of Biomimetic Self-Healing Composites 355

9.1 Summary of SMP Based Biomimetic Self-Healing 355

9.2 Future Perspective of SMP Based Self-Healing Composites 356

References 364

Index 367

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