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Introduction to Health Promotion

ISBN: 978-1-118-45530-2
400 pages
August 2014, Jossey-Bass
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Description

Understand the foundations and applications of health promotion

Introduction to Health Promotion gives students a working knowledge of health promotion concepts and methods and their application to health and health behaviors, with a special emphasis on the philosophical and theoretical foundations of health promotion. The textbook also identifies and discusses the innovative health campaigns, strategies, and policies being implemented and enacted to improve health behaviors and practices that ultimately improve quality of life. Written by a professor with more than two decades of experience teaching and researching health promotion, this comprehensive resource goes beyond the basics, delving into issues such as the application of behavior change theories, planning models, and current wellness topics like nutrition, physical activity, and emotional well-being, among others.

  • Provides a clear introduction to the most essential topics in health promotion and education
  • Explains behavior change theories and program planning models
  • Explores health promotion's role tackling issues of stress, tobacco use, eating behaviors, and physical activity
  • Includes chapters dedicated to professions, settings, and credentials available in the health promotion field
  • Looks at future trends of health promotion

Ideal for students in health promotion, health education, and public health fields, Introduction to Health Promotion prepares students with a comprehensive overview of the foundations, history, and current perspectives of health promotion, as well as its key methods and applications.

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Table of Contents

Tables and Figures xv

Foreword xix

Preface xxi

The Editor xxvii

The Contributors xxix

Part One: The Foundation of Health Promotion 1

Chapter 1 Health Promotion 3
Anastasia Snelling

Brief Overview of Health in the Twentieth Century 3

1900–1950s 4

1960s–2000s 6

Health Promotion: An Emerging Field 9

Health Education 10

Public Health 10

Determinants of Health 12

Important Health Promotion Concepts 14

Risk Factors, Chronic Diseases, and Empowerment 15

Prevention Activities: Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary 16

Health Promotion Meets the Health Care System 17

Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act 18

Discussion 19

Positions in the Health Promotion Field 19

Summary 20

Key Terms 21

Review Questions 22

Student Activities 22

References 23

Chapter 2 Health Behavior Change Theories and Models 25
Maura Stevenson

Health Behavior Theories 26

Social Cognitive Theory 27

Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change 31

Health Belief Model 36

Theory of Planned Behavior 39

Historical Perspective 43

Summary 44

Key Terms 46

Review Questions 47

Student Activities 47

References 48

Chapter 3 Program Planning Models 51
Anastasia Snelling

Effective Health Promotion Planning 52

Social Ecological Model 52

PRECEDE-PROCEED Model 53

Multilevel Approach to Community Health (MATCH) 57

Consumer-Based Planning Models for Health Communication 57

CDCynergy 61

Making Health Communication Programs Work 63

Health Promotion Planning Model for Community-Level Mobilizing for Action through Planning and Partnerships (MAPP) 65

MAP-IT 66

Connecting Health Behavior Theories to Program Planning Models 67

Summary 67

Key Terms 68

Review Questions 69

Student Activities 69

References 69

Part Two: Health Behaviors 71

Chapter 4 Tobacco Use 75
Laurie DiRosa

Tobacco Use 76

Tobacco Use Statistics 76

Cancer 80

Cardiovascular Disease 81

Pulmonary Disease 82

Reproductive and Developmental Effects 84

Smokeless Tobacco and Chronic Disease 84

Harm Reduction 85

Cancer 86

Cardiovascular Disease 86

Pregnancy 87

Oral Complications 87

Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Chronic Disease 88

Political and Cultural History of Tobacco Use 89

Warning Labels 90

Purchasing Restrictions 91

Taxation 91

1998 Master Settlement Agreement 91

Recent Efforts to Reduce Tobacco Use 93

National Policy 93

State Policy 96

Local Policy 97

Effective Programs That Discourage Tobacco Use 98

Healthy People 2020 98

Population-Based Strategies 100

Effective Examples of Population-Based Strategies 100

Practical Examples of Work Site Initiatives 102

School Initiatives 104

Practical Examples of School Initiatives 105

Challenges to Reducing Smoking 107

Access to Treatment 107

Addictive Property of Nicotine 108

Tobacco Industry Practices 109

Summary 109

Key Terms 110

Review Questions 111

Student Activities 112

References 112

Chapter 5 Eating Behaviors 117
Maya Maroto

Eating Behaviors 117

Taste 118

Emotions 118

Price 119

Convenience 119

Health and Nutrition 120

Culture and Familiarity 121

Environment 121

Marketing 121

Nutrition, Eating Habits, and Health 122

Heart Disease 123

Cancer 123

Stroke 124

Type 2 Diabetes 125

Obesity 125

Benefits of Healthy Eating Habits 126

Recommended Nutrition and Dietary Intake 127

History of Nutrition and Dietary Patterns 128

Pattern 1: Paleolithic and Hunter-Gatherers 129

Pattern 2: Advent of Agriculture 130

Pattern 3: Industrialization and Receding Famine 130

Pattern 4: Noncommunicable Disease 131

Pattern 5: Desired Societal and Behavior Change 131

Changes to the American Food Environment 131

Food Supply and Consumption 131

Where Americans Eat 135

The Food Industry: Friend, Foe, or Both? 136

Farm Subsidies: The Culprit? 137

Portion Sizes: Bigger but Not Better 138

Recent Efforts to Promote Healthy Eating 139

National Policy Actions 139

State Policy Actions 140

Local Policy Actions 140

Community Nutrition Efforts 141

Work Site Wellness 142

School Food Environments 142

Programs for the Individual 143

Summary 143

Key Terms 144

Review Questions 145

Student Activities 146

References 147

Chapter 6 Physical Activity Behaviors 153
Jennifer Childress

Physical Activity 154

Recommended Physical Activity Levels 154

Benefits of Physical Activity 156

Sedentary Behavior 156

Physical Activity Patterns 158

Historical Patterns 158

1990s to Present 159

Physical Activity Behaviors and Barriers 159

Individual 161

Built Environment 162

Social Environment 163

Efforts and Initiatives to Increase Physical Activity 164

Technology 164

Tracking Activity 164

Education Programs in Work Sites, Schools, and Communities 165

Policies That Promote Increasing Physical Activity 169

National Policy 169

State Policy 170

Local Policy 173

Community Policy 175

Community Partner Initiatives and Multisectorial Strategies 175

Summary 179

Key Terms 180

Review Questions 181

Student Activities 181

References 182

Chapter 7 Stress, Emotional Well-Being, and Mental Health 187
Marty Loy

The Origins of the Term Stress 188

The Fight-or-Flight Response 188

Stress Physiology 191

Eustress and Distress 192

Life Stress and Illness 194

Coping: Stress Management Techniques 194

Four Coping Opportunities 196

Stress at Work 200

Demand and Control 200

Work Site Stress Management 202

Mental Health in Communities 204

Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) 205

Meeting Community Mental Health Needs 205

Mental Health Disparities 207

Stress Management with Children 208

Effects of Stress on Children 209

Stress Types among Children 210

Summary 211

Key Terms 211

Review Questions 212

Student Activities 213

References 213

Chapter 8 Clinical Preventive Services 217
Casey Korba

Benefits of Evidence-Based Clinical Preventive Services 218

Recommended Levels of Preventive Services 219

Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act 219

History of Preventive Services 220

The US Preventive Services Task Force 221

Primary and Secondary Preventive Services 222

Member Composition 223

Identifying Evidence-Based Preventive Services 223

Benefits and Harms 224

The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices 225

Vaccines: Myths and Misinformation 225

Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) 227

Promoting the Use of Preventive Services 227

Health Care Coverage of Evidence-Based Preventive Services 227

Other Preventive Services Provisions 228

Prevention and Public Health Fund 230

Million Hearts Initiative 230

Technology and the Media 231

Nontraditional Sites of Care 232

Genetic Testing 232

Advances in Behavioral Science 233

Challenges to Increasing the Use of Evidence-Based Preventive Services 233

Educating the Public about Preventive Services 233

Research Limitations 234

Health Care Services Barriers 236

Summary 236

Key Terms 237

Review Questions 238

Student Activities 238

References 238

Part Three: Health Promotion in Action 241

Chapter 9 National and State Initiatives to Promote Health and Well-Being 243
Jennifer Childress and Jill Dombrowski

Healthy People: 1979–2020 243

Healthy People 2020 244

US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) 248

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 250

National Institutes of Health (NIH) 254

US Department of Agriculture (USDA) 255

Monitoring the Nation’s Health 256

Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) 257

Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) 257

National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 259

State Initiatives 261

Arizona 262

Maine 262

Florida 262

Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO) 263

The National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL)264

Local Programs 265

Summary 266

Key Terms 266

Review Questions 267

Student Activities 268

References 268

Chapter 10 Settings for Health Promotion 271
David Stevenson

The Home 271

Family 272

Physical Space 273

Personal Training 273

Physical Safety 274

Communities 274

Health Fairs 275

Targeted Community Initiatives 275

Farmers’ Markets and Community Gardens 276

Volunteer Opportunities 276

Early Childhood Centers 276

Hygiene and Safety Habits 277

Physical Activity 277

Nutrition and Healthy Eating Habits 277

Health Assessments 278

Schools 278

Academics and Health 279

School Policy Supporting Health 280

Teachers’ Roles 280

Healthy Food Choices 280

School Health Care Services 281

Health Promotion Initiatives 281

School After-Hours 282

Coordinated School Health 282

Professional Opportunities 282

Colleges and Universities 282

Safe and Healthy Environment 283

Coordinated Health Promotion 283

Physical Environment 284

Professional Opportunities 284

The Work Site 284

Leadership 286

Work Site Safety 287

Health Promotion 288

Health Coaches 289

Employee Assistance Programs 289

Technology and Social Media 289

Measuring and Celebrating Success 290

Professional Opportunities 290

Health Care Providers 290

Physicians 291

Other Health Care Providers 291

Faith-Based Centers 292

The Internet 292

Access to Information and Data 293

Tracking Personal Health Data 293

Social Media 294

Summary 294

Key Terms 295

Review Questions 296

Student Activities 296

References 297

Chapter 11 Health Promotion–Related Organizations, Associations, and Certifications 299
Anastasia Snelling and Michelle Kalicki

Nonprofit Health Associations 300

American Heart Association (AHA) 300

Other Nonprofit Health Organizations 301

Professional Health Associations 301

Nutrition 302

Physical Activity 305

Health, Wellness, and Education 307

Scholarly and Professional Health Journals 309

Certifications 311

Health Promotion Certifications 311

Health Education Certifications 312

Fitness-Based Certifications 314

Nutrition Certifications 315

Health Coaching 315

Academic Institute Certifications 316

Summary 317

Key Terms 317

Review Questions 318

Student Activities 318

References 319

Chapter 12 Trends in Health Promotion 321
David Hunnicutt

Trend 1: The Population Will Get Much Older in the Next Three Decades 322

Trend 2: The Health Status of Aging Adults Will Decline Steadily If We Don’t Do Things Differently 323

Trend 3: Adults Won’t Be the Only Ones Who Are Losing Their Health Status 325

Trend 4: Health Care Costs Will Remain an Issue of Significant Concern Far into the Future 326

Trend 5: Prevention Will Become a National Priority 327

Trend 6: Medical Self-Care Will Gain Rapid Popularity 328

Trend 7: Physical Activity Will Become the Most Commonly Prescribed Medicine 329

Trend 8: Financial Incentives and Disincentives Will Go Mainstream 330

Trend 9: Physical Environments Will Be Altered Radically 331

Trend 10: Efforts to Curb Obesity Will Intensify Greatly 332

Trend 11: The Need for Talented Health Promotion Professionals Will Skyrocket 333

Summary 334

Key Terms 334

Review Questions 335

Student Activities 336

References 336

Weblinks 339

Index 347

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Author Information

ANASTASIA SNELLING, PHD, is a professor and associate dean in the School of Education, Teaching, and Health at American University. She has been a member of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics as a registered dietitian for over thirty years and a fellow in the American College of Nutrition.

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