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Novel Plant Bioresources: Applications in Food, Medicine and Cosmetics

ISBN: 978-1-118-46061-0
552 pages
June 2014, Wiley-Blackwell
Novel Plant Bioresources: Applications in Food, Medicine and Cosmetics (1118460618) cover image

Novel Plant Bioresources: Applications in Food, Medicine and Cosmetics serves as the definitive source of information on under-utilized plant species, and fills a key niche in our understanding of the relationship of human beings with under-utilized plants. By covering applications in food, medicine and cosmetics, the book has a broad appeal. 

In a climate of growing awareness about the perils of biodiversity loss, the world is witnessing an unprecedented interest in novel plants, which are increasingly prized for their potential use in aromas, dyes, foods, medicines and cosmetics. This book highlights these plants and their uses. After an introductory section which sets the scene with an overview of the historical and legislative importance of under-utilized plants, the main four parts of the book are dedicated to the diverse potential application of novel plant bioresources in Food, Medicine, Ethnoveterinary Medicine and Cosmetics.

Examples and contributors are drawn from Africa, Europe, the USA and Asia. The economic, social, and cultural aspects of under-utilized plant species are addressed, and the book provides a much needed boost to the on-going effort to focus attention on under-utilized plant species and conservation initiatives. By focusing on novel plants and the agenda for sustainable utilization, Novel Plant Bioresources highlights key issues relevant to under-utilized plant genetic resources, and brings together international scholars on this important topic. 

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List of contributors xiii

Foreword xvii

PART ONE NOVEL PLANT BIORESOURCES: APPLICATIONS IN MEDICINE, COSMETICS, ETC. 1

1 Plant Diversity in Addressing Food, Nutrition and Medicinal Needs 3
M.E. Dulloo, D. Hunter and D. Leaman

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 Plant genetic resources for food and agriculture 7

1.3 Plant genetic diversity for nutrition 10

1.4 Plant diversity for medicines 14

2 World Health Organization Perspective for Traditional Medicine 23
Ossy M. J. Kasilo and Jean-Baptiste Nikiema

2.1 Introduction 23

2.2 Policies on traditional medicine 24

2.3 Tools and guidelines 24

2.4 Implementation of the regional strategy on traditional medicine 35

2.5 The way forward 40

2.6 Conclusion 41

3 Cultivation of Novel Medicinal Plant Products and Associated Challenges 43
Ulrich Feiter

3.1 Introduction 43

3.2 Basic principles of novel crop cultivation 43

3.3 Case study 1: Pelargonium sidoides 51

3.4 Case study 2: Sutherlandia frutescens 52

3.5 Case study 3: Euphorbia resinifera 54

3.6 Conclusion 55

4 Enabling Technologies to Facilitate Natural Product-Based Drug Discovery from African Biodiversity 57
Nyaradzo, T., L. Chigorimbo-Murefu, Grace Mugumbate and Kelly Chibale

4.1 Introduction 57

4.2 Enabling-technology platforms 59

4.3 Natural product diversification and drug metabolite generation platform 65

4.4 Conclusion 65

5 Assessing Biodiversity: A Molecular Approach Using DNA Sequencing 69
Yasmina Jaufeerally-Fakim

5.1 Introduction 69

5.2 Taxonomy and evolution 69

5.3 Assessing diversity 70

5.4 DNA sequencing and barcoding 73

5.5 Plant genomics 75

5.6 Analysis of marker data 79

6 Conservation of Endangered Wild Harvested Medicinal Plants: Use of DNA Barcoding 81
Sarina Veldman, Joseph Otieno, Barbara Gravendeel, Tinde van Andel and Hugo de Boer

6.1 Wild harvested medicinal plants: background and challenges 81

6.2 DNA barcoding general 82

6.3 DNA barcoding and species delimitation 82

6.4 DNA barcodes for plants 83

6.5 Examples of DNA barcoding of cryptic and prepared plant material 83

6.6 Plant DNA authentication, verification and certification 85

6.7 Future opportunities and challenges 85

7 Market Entry, Standards and Certification 89
Susan A. Wren

7.1 Sustainable utilization of indigenous plant products 89

7.2 Market entry 90

7.3 Certification 93

7.4 Developing indigenous plant-based enterprises as viable businesses with developing country communities 102

8 European Union Market Access Categories and Regulatory Requirements for Novel Natural Products 107
Thomas Brendler and L. Denzil Philipps

8.1 Introduction 107

8.2 Raw materials 107

8.3 Finished products 111

8.4 Summary 122

9 Nutrition, Health and Food Security: Evidence and Priority Actions 125
L. J. Ferrao and T. H. Fernandes

9.1 Introduction 125

9.2 Well-being and nutrition 125

9.3 Traditional food cultures 126

9.4 Nutrition in pregnancy and infancy 126

9.5 Health and nutrition education is central for development 127

9.6 Research and development 128

9.7 Role of agricultural growth on reducing poverty, hunger and malnutrition 128

9.8 Concluding remarks 129

PART TWO MEDICINE (PLANTS AS MEDICINE: HUMANS AND ANIMAL HEALTH) 131

10 Anticancer Potential of African Plants: The Experience of the United States National Cancer Institute and National Institutes of Health 133
John A. Beutler, Gordon M. Cragg, Maurice Iwu, David J. Newman and Christopher Okunji

10.1 Introduction 133

10.2 The United States National Cancer Institute programme 133

10.3 The International Cooperative Biodiversity Groups programme 139

10.4 Conclusions 145

11 Biodiversity as a Source of Potent and Selective Inhibitors of Chikungunya Virus Replication 151
Pieter Leyssen, Jacqueline Smadja, Philippe Rasoanaivo, Ameenah Gurib-Fakim, Mohamad Fawzi Mahomoodally, Bruno Canard, Jean-Claude Guillemot, Marc Litaudon and Francoise Gueritte

11.1 The epidemiology of chikungunya virus 151

11.2 The PHYTOCHIK programme for the discovery of natural compounds active against chikungunya virus 154

11.3 Euphorbiaceae, abundant source of anti-chikungunya virus compounds 157

11.4 Conclusion 159

12 Using African Plant Biodiversity to Combat Microbial Infections 163
J. N. Eloff and L. J. McGaw

12.1 Introduction and problem statement 163

12.2 Commercial use of African medicinal plants in the herbal medicine industry 164

12.3 Why is there such a difference in product development for antimicrobials versus other medicinal applications? 164

12.4 Methods used in developing useful products 164

12.5 Results of random screening of large number of species 167

12.6 Our approach to random screening 168

12.7 Activity of compounds isolated against Staphylococcus aureus 169

12.8 Discovering antifungal compounds from natural products 169

12.9 Review papers focusing on antimicrobial activity of plants from Africa 169

12.10 Promising new approaches 170

12.11 The potential of using African medicinal plants as extracts 170

12.12 Conclusions 171

13 Plant Medicines Used in the Treatment of Malaria 175
John R.S. Tabuti, Antonia Nyamukuru and Mohammed Lamorde

13.1 Introduction 175

13.2 Approach used in the review 175

13.3 Plant species commonly used to treat malaria in Uganda 176

13.4 Conclusions and recommendations 177

14 Multiple Anti-Infective Properties of Selected Plant Species from Zimbabwe 179
Rumbidzai Mangoyi, Tariro Chitemerere, Theresa Chimponda, Elaine Chirisa and Stanley Mukanganyama

14.1 Introduction 179

14.2 Preparation of plant extracts 181

14.3 Conclusions 188

15 Development of Phytodrugs from Indigenous Plants: The Mali Experience 191
Rokia Sanogo

15.1 Introduction 191

15.2 Development of new phytodrugs 198

15.3 Discussion 199

15.4 Conclusion 200

16 Healing Aloes from the Mascarenes Islands 205
Joyce Govinden-Soulange

16.1 Introduction 205

16.2 The Asphodelaceae 205

16.3 Prospects and research avenues 211

17 Pharmacological Activities of Some of the Neglected and Underutilized Tropical Plants in Malaysia 215
Z.A. Zakaria, F. Yahya, T. Balan, S.S. Mamat, R. Rodzi, F.H. Kamisan, C.A. Fatimah and A.L. Ibrahim

17.1 Introduction 215

17.2 Muntingia calabura 215

17.3 Dicranopteris linearis 218

17.4 Bauhinia purpurea 219

17.5 Melastoma malabathricum 222

17.6 Conclusion 224

18 Multiple Applications of Endophytic Colletotrichum Species Occurring in Medicinal Plants 227
Mahendra Rai, Gauravi Agarkar and Dnyaneshwar Rathod

18.1 Introduction 227

18.2 Diversity of endophytic Colletotrichum sp. in medicinal plants 228

18.3 Biomedical applications 228

18.4 Agriculture applications 231

18.5 Industrial applications 233

18.6 Perspectives 234

18.7 Conclusion 234

19 African Plants with Potential for Development into Ethnoveterinary Products 237
L.J. McGaw and J.N. Eloff

19.1 Introduction 237

19.2 What is ethnoveterinary medicine? 237

19.3 Ethnoveterinary medicine in Africa 238

19.4 African plants as sources of commercial remedies 255

19.5 Examples of African medicinal plants used for ethnoveterinary purposes with scope for commercialization 256

19.6 Toxicity 258

19.7 Conclusions 258

20 African Plant Biodiversity in Pest Management 263
S. N'Danikou, D.A. Tchokponhoue, C.A. Houdegbe and E.G. Achigan-Dako

20.1 Introduction 263

20.2 History of humans’ use of plant biodiversity in pest management 264

20.3 Methods and approaches in pest management 264

20.4 Research on plant use in pest management 266

20.5 Biodiversity of African plants used in pest management 267

20.6 Benefits of the use of plants in crop pest management 270

20.7 Limits of the study 270

20.8 Conclusion 270

21 Commercialization of Ethnoveterinary Botanical Products 285
David R. Katerere

21.1 Introduction 285

21.2 Therapeutic areas for ethnoveterinary applications 287

21.3 Conclusion 290

22 Plants Used for Pest Management in Malawi 295
Cecilia Maliwichi-Nyirenda, Lucy Lynn Maliwichi and John F. Kamanula

22.1 Introduction 295

22.2 Merits and demerits of pest management systems in Malawi 296

22.3 Plant species used in pest management 297

PART THREE FOOD (SPICES, FRUIT AND VEGETABLES, ETC.) 303

23 Aromatic Plants: Use and Nutraceutical Properties 305
Lucia Guidi and Marco Landi

23.1 Introduction 305

23.2 Mediterranean aromatic plants 307

23.3 Concluding remarks 325

24 'Let Your Food Be Your Medicine': Exotic Fruits and Vegetables as Therapeutic Components for Obesity and Other Metabolic Syndromes 347
Mohamad Fawzi Mahomoodally

24.1 Introduction 347

24.2 Obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndromes 347

24.3 Medicinal food plants against metabolic diseases 348

24.4 Conclusion 355

25 Strategic Repositioning African Indigenous Vegetables and Fruits with Nutrition, Economic and Climate Change Resilience Potential 361
M.O. Abukutsa-Onyango

25.1 Introduction 361

25.2 African indigenous vegetables and fruits 362

25.3 Strategic repositioning of indigenous vegetables and fruits in the horticulture 364

25.4 Concluding remarks 367

26 Hepatoprotective, Antiulcerogenic, Cytotoxic and Antioxidant Activities of Musa acuminata Peel and Pulp 371
Fatimah Corazon Abdullah, Lida Rahimi, Zainul Amiruddin Zakaria and Abdul Latif Ibrahim

26.1 Introduction 371

26.2 Hepatoprotective activity 373

26.3 Antiulcerogenic activity 377

26.4 Cytotoxic activity 379

26.5 Antioxidant activity 380

26.6 Conclusion 381

27 Plant Bioresources and their Nutrigenomic Implications on Health 383
Maznah Ismail and Mustapha Umar Imam

27.1 Introduction 383

27.2 Plant bioresources for health uses: beyond traditional uses 384

27.3 Bioactivity of plant bioresources: nutrigenomic implications 384

27.4 Potential implications of the rising trend in the use of plant bioresources for remedies 390

27.5 Conclusions 390

28 Safety of Botanical Ingredients in Personal Healthcare: Focus on Africa 395
R. Vihotogbe, C.N.A. Sossa-Vihotogbé and G.E. Achigan-Dako

28.1 Introduction 395

28.2 Safety in healthcare via food consumption 395

28.3 Medicinal plants in healthcare 396

PART FOUR COSMETICS (INCLUDING DYES, AROMAS) 409

29 Aromatic and Medicinal Plants in North Africa: Opportunities, Constraints and Prospects 411
Mohamed Ghanmi, Abderrahman Aafi, Badr Satrani, Mohamed Aberchane, Abderrahim Khia and Salah Eddine Bakkali Yakhlef

29.1 Introduction 411

29.2 Aromatic and medicinal plants in North Africa: a snapshot on the countries of the Maghreb (Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia) 411

29.3 Aromatic and medicinal plants in North Africa: overview and prospects 413

29.4 Aromatic and medicinal plants in Morocco: opportunities, constraints and prospects 413

29.5 Development of the aromatic and medicinal plants sector in Morocco: the strategy adopted 415

29.6 Research conducted in the field of aromatic and medicinal plants: achievements and prospects 415

29.7 Medicinal and aromatic plants in Algeria 417

29.8 Medicinal and aromatic plants in Tunisia 418

29.9 Molecular techniques as tools for conservation and valorization of aromatic and medicinal plants 418

29.10 Sector of aromatic and medicinal plants in North Africa: prospects 421

30 Development of Natural Cosmeceuticals: Harnessing Asia's Biodiversity 425
Azila Abdul-Aziz, Mariani Abdul Hamid, Norhayati Mohammad Noor, Harisun Yaakob, Rosnani Hasham and Mohamad Roji Sarmidi

30.1 Introduction 425

30.2 Mangosteen: a 'fruity' depigmenting agent 425

30.3 Ficus deltoidea: the ‘golden’ treasure from nature 426

30.4 Labisia pumila: Malaysia’s queen of herbs 427

30.5 Andrographis paniculata: a ‘bitter’ therapy for the skin 428

30.6 Centella asiatica: herbs' jack of all trades 429

30.7 Future trends 429

31 Unique Bioresources from Ethiopia for Food, Medicine and Cosmetics 433
E. Dagne

31.1 Introduction 433

31.2 Boswellia species (Burseraceae), etan (Amharic) 433

31.3 Catha edulis (Celastraceae), khat 433

31.4 Coffea arabica (Rubiaceae), buna (Amharic) 434

31.5 Commiphora myrrha (Burseraceae), kerbe (Amharic) 435

31.6 Croton macrostachyus (Euphorbiaceae), bissana (Amharic) 435

31.7 Echinops kebericho (Asteraceae), kebericho (Amharic) 435

31.8 Ensete ventricosum (Musaceae), enset (Amharic) 436

31.9 Eragrostis tef (Poaceae), tef (Amharic) 436

31.10 Hagenia abyssinica (Rosaceae), koso (Amharic) 438

31.11 Moringa stenopetala (Moringaceae), shiferaw (Amharic) 438

31.12 Nigella sativa (Ranunculaceae), tikur azmud (Amharic) 439

31.13 Phytolacca dodecandra (Phytolaccaceae), endod (Amharic) 439

31.14 Sorghum bicolor (Poaceae), mashla (Amharic) 439

31.15 Taverniera abyssinica (Leguminosae), dingetegna (Amharic) 440

31.16 Civettictis civetta: source of civet zebad (Amharic) 440

31.17 Conclusion 440

32 Aromatic Plants from Reunion Island (France) 443
Anne Bialecki and Jacqueline Smadja

32.1 Introduction 443

32.2 Aromatic plant production: economic data 443

32.3 Extraction techniques used in Reunion Island 444

32.4 Analysis of essential oils and plant headspace in the Chemistry Laboratory of Natural Substances and Food Sciences 445

32.5 Identification of volatile compounds at the Chemistry Laboratory of Natural Substances and Food Sciences 446

32.6 Conclusion 451

33 Anti-Parasitic Activity of Essential Oils and their Active Constituents against Plasmodium, Trypanosoma and Leishmania 455
Joanne Bero, Salomé Kpoviessi and Joëlle Quetin-Leclercq

33.1 Introduction 455

33.2 Essential oils 455

33.3 Compounds isolated from essential oils 460

33.4 Discussion and conclusion 460

34 Metabolomic Analysis of a Commercially Important Aromatic Plant from the Indian Ocean: Vanilla planifolia 471
Tony L. Palama

34.1 Introduction 471

34.2 Vanilla description 471

34.3 Vanilla metabolomics 473

34.4 Other future prospects 475

34.5 Conclusions 476

35 Natural Dyes for Photonics Applications 479
M. Maaza

35.1 Introduction 479

35.2 Nonlinear optical properties of natural dyes: X(3) and optical limiting applications 479

35.3 Linear optical properties of natural dyes: Gratzel dye solar cells 485

35.4 Conclusion 491

36 The Host Innate Immune Response to Propionibacterium acnes and the Potential of Natural Products as Cosmeceutical Agents 495
Marco Nuno de Canha, Smeetha Singh and Namrita Lall

36.1 The skin and its function 495

36.2 The impact of skin disorders with focus on acne 495

36.3 Propionibacterium acnes: is it the culprit? 495

36.4 Acne vulgaris (acne) 496

36.5 The activation of innate and adaptive immune system 497

36.6 The host immune response to infection by Propionibacterium acnes 498

36.7 Conventional treatments available for acne vulgaris 499

36.8 Potential of natural products to treat acne vulgaris 500

36.9 The importance of the emergence of plant life on Earth 501

36.10 A proposed stepwise approach from plant extract to cosmeceutical product 501

37 New Natural Aromatic Products: Search, Evaluation and the Development Issues 507
Murray Hunter

37.1 Introduction 507

37.2 The family of natural aromatic extracts 507

37.3 The search and screening process 508

37.4 Sources of potential plant opportunity identification 509

37.5 The characteristics and classification of natural aromatic materials 510

37.6 Evaluating the characteristic strengths and weaknesses of natural aromatic materials 512

37.7 The development issues 512

37.8 Conclusion 522

Index 525

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Ameenah Gurib-Fakim is Professor and Managing Director at the Centre for Phytotherapy Research (CEPHYR) in Mauritius. She has authored several books on medicinal plants and on the flora of Mauritius and Africa and has received several international prizes. In 2013, she receives the Honorary Doctorate from the Universite Pierre Marie Curie (Sorbonne Universites) and is also Honorary Professor at UNISA, Pretoria, South Africa.

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