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Practical Food Safety: Contemporary Issues and Future Directions

ISBN: 978-1-118-47460-0
632 pages
June 2014, Wiley-Blackwell
Practical Food Safety: Contemporary Issues and Future Directions (1118474600) cover image

The past few years have witnessed an upsurge in incidences relating to food safety issues, which are all attributed to different factors. Today, with the increase in knowledge and available databases on food safety issues, the world is witnessing tremendous efforts towards the development of new, economical and environmentally-friendly techniques for maintaining the quality of perishable foods and agro-based commodities. The intensification of food safety concerns reflects a major global awareness of foods in world trade. Several recommendations have been put forward by various world governing bodies and committees to solve food safety issues, which are all mainly targeted at benefiting consumers. In addition, economic losses and instability to a particular nation or region caused by food safety issues can be huge. Various ‘non-dependent’ risk factors can be involved with regard to food safety in a wide range of food commodities such as fresh fruits, vegetables, seafood, poultry, meat and meat products. Additionally, food safety issues involves a wide array of issues including processed foods, packaging, post-harvest preservation, microbial growth and spoilage, food poisoning, handling at the manufacturing units, food additives, presence of banned chemicals and drugs, and more. Rapid change in climatic conditions is also playing a pivotal role with regard to food safety issues, and increasing the anxiety about our ability to feed the world safely.

Practical Food Safety: Contemporary Issues and Future Directions takes a multi-faceted approach to the subject of food safety, covering various aspects ranging from microbiological to chemical issues, and from basic knowledge to future perspectives. This is a book exclusively designed to simultaneously encourage consideration of the present knowledge and future possibilities of food safety. This book also covers the classic topics required for all books on food safety, and encompasses the most recent updates in the field. Leading researchers have addressed new issues and have put forth novel research findings that will affect the world in the future, and suggesting how these should be faced.

This book will be useful for researchers engaged in the field of food science and food safety, food industry personnel engaged in safety aspects, and governmental and non-governmental agencies involved in establishing guidelines towards establishing safety measures for food and agricultural commodities.

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List of Contributors xv

Foreword xix

Preface xxi

1 Food Safety: A Global Perspective 1
Karl R. Matthews

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 National and global food safety events 2

1.3 Foodborne illness outbreaks: imports and exports 3

1.4 Regulations impacting food safety 4

1.5 China’s food safety growing pains 6

1.6 Food safety and product testing 7

1.7 Fresh fruits and vegetables safety 7

1.8 Conclusions and future outlook 8

References 8

2 Food Safety: Consumer Perceptions and Practices 11
Anne Wilcock and Brita Ball

2.1 Introduction 11

2.2 Novel technologies and issues 13

2.2.1 Irradiation 14

2.2.2 Genetic modification 15

2.2.3 Nanotechnology 16

2.2.4 Hormone use in food animals 17

2.2.5 Organic foods 19

2.2.6 Deliberate and accidental contamination 19

2.3 Consumer attitudes, knowledge and behavior 21

2.3.1 Types of food safety issues 21

2.3.2 Knowledge versus behavior 22

2.3.3 Influence of consumer demographics 23

2.3.4 Knowledge and behavior 23

2.4 Conclusion and outlook 24

References 25

3 Educating for Food Safety 31
Angela M. Fraser and Cortney Miller

3.1 Introduction 31

3.2 Food safety education targeting food handlers 33

3.3 Effective food safety education interventions 38

3.3.1 Intervention design 38

3.3.2 Instructional strategies 41

3.3.3 Learner assessment 43

3.3.4 Training in languages other than English 44

3.4 Future outlook 45

Acknowledgements 45

References 46

4 Food Safety Training in Food Services 49
Caroline Opolski Medeiros, Suzi Barletto Cavalli, and Elisabete Salay

4.1 Introduction 49

4.2 Legislation about training 50

4.2.1 European Union 50

4.2.2 United States 50

4.2.3 Mercosur 51

4.2.4 Brazil 51

4.3 Evaluation of the programs 51

4.4 Planning the training programs 52

4.4.1 Knowing the target public 52

4.4.2 Training themes 52

4.4.3 Training methods 53

4.4.4 Duration of training programs 58

4.4.5 Language used in training 58

4.5 Conclusions and future outlook 58

References 59

5 Product Tracing Systems 63
Jennifer McEntire and Tejas Bhatt

5.1 Introduction 63

5.2 Traceability: meaning and context 64

5.2.1 Tracebacks, traceforwards, and recalls 64

5.2.2 Traceability system attributes 65

5.3 International traceability regulations 65

5.3.1 Codex 66

5.4 Private global traceability standards 67

5.4.1 International Standards Organization (ISO) 67

5.4.2 Global Food Safety Initiative (GFSI) 67

5.4.3 GS1 68

5.5 Country-specific traceability requirements 68

5.5.1 Traceability in developed economies 69

5.5.2 Traceability through regulatory consolidation 72

5.5.3 Traceability through transformative events 72

5.5.4 Traceability in developing countries 73

5.6 Costs and benefits to traceability 75

5.6.1 Societal benefits 75

5.6.2 Government benefits 75

5.6.3 Industry costs and benefits 75

5.7 Challenges 76

5.7.1 Education 76

5.7.2 Technology 76

5.7.3 Commingling: a challenge to traceability 77

5.8 The role of technology in traceability 77

5.9 Steps to achieve a global, traceable supply chain 78

5.10 Summary and outlook 79

Acknowledgements 79

References 79

6 Linking Local Suppliers to Global Food Markets: A Critical Analysis of Food Safety Issues in Developing Countries 83
Sapna A. Narula and Neeraj Dangi

6.1 Introduction 84

6.2 The rise of global supply chains 85

6.3 Global trade opportunities for developing countries 85

6.4 Food safety issues: traceability, certification, labelling and phytosanitary 86

6.4.1 Traceability and certification 86

6.4.2 Labelling 87

6.4.3 Phytosanitary issues 88

6.5 Role of public standards 88

6.5.1 Codex Alimentarius 89

6.5.2 Global Food Safety Initiative (GFSI) 89

6.5.3 Food safety initiatives: Philippines 89

6.5.4 Strengthening food safety initiatives: India 90

6.6 Role of private standards in food supply chains 90

6.7 Challenges faced by developing countries in food safety implementation 92

6.7.1 Development of cold chains in India 92

6.8 Conclusions and future outlook 93

References 96

7 Achieving Quality Chemical Measurements in Foods 99
Yiu-chung Wong and Michael Walker

7.1 Introduction 100

7.2 Quality assurance in food analysis 101

7.2.1 Method validation 101

7.2.2 Control chart 107

7.2.3 Traceability 108

7.2.4 Measurement uncertainty 110

7.2.5 Laboratory accreditation 111

7.3 Metrology in chemistry 111

7.3.1 Assigned values in PT programmes 114

7.3.2 PT on melamine in milk 115

7.3.3 PT on cypermethrin in green tea 117

7.3.4 Insights from the two described PT 120

7.4 Conclusions and future outlook 120

Acknowledgements 120

References 121

8 Protection of the Agri-Food Chain by Chemical Analysis: The European Context 125
Michael Walker and Yiu-chung Wong

8.1 Introduction 125

8.2 European food and feed law 127

8.3 Chemical contaminants 128

8.3.1 Mycotoxins 129

8.3.2 Aluminium in noodles 135

8.3.3 Veterinary residues: Nitrofurans 137

8.3.4 Non-regulated contaminants 138

8.4 Resolution of disputed chemical results 139

8.5 Conclusions and future outlook 140

Acknowledgements 140

References 140

9 Pesticide Residues in Food: Health Implications for Children and Women 145
Muhammad Atif Randhawa, Salim-ur-Rehman, Faqir Muhammad Anjum and Javaid Aziz Awan

9.1 Introduction 145

9.2 Pesticides 146

9.2.1 Definition of pesticide 146

9.2.2 History of pesticide production and application 146

9.2.3 Worldwide production and consumption of pesticides 146

9.2.4 Benefits and risks of pesticide application 147

9.3 Pathway of pesticide residues in the food chain 147

9.3.1 Pesticide residues in soil and groundwater 147

9.3.2 Plant uptake of pesticide residues 149

9.3.3 Pesticide residues in feed and food 149

9.3.4 Pesticide residues in livestock/animal tissues 149

9.4 Pesticide residue dissipation during processing 150

9.4.1 Dissipation of pesticide residues by washing with water 150

9.4.2 Dissipation of pesticide residues by dipping in chemical solutions 150

9.4.3 Dissipation of pesticide residues by heat treatment 150

9.4.4 Dissipation of pesticide residues by low-temperature storage 153

9.5 Pesticide residues in food and food products 153

9.5.1 Pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables 153

9.5.2 Pesticide residues in milk 155

9.5.3 Pesticide residues in organic foods 155

9.6 Pesticide residues in humans 155

9.6.1 Pathways of pesticide residues in women 156

9.6.2 Pathways of pesticide residues in children 157

9.7 Health repercussions 157

9.8 Measures to combat pesticide exposure 159

References 160

10 The Need for a Closer Look at Pesticide Toxicity during GMO Assessment 167
Robin Mesnage and Gilles-Éric Séralini

10.1 Purpose, aim and scope 168

10.2 A silent pandemic 168

10.2.1 First observations on animal and human reproduction 168

10.2.2 Endocrine and nervous disruptions due to the aromatic structure of pesticides 169

10.3 Link between pesticides and agricultural GMOs 171

10.4 Focus on Roundup toxicity in GMOs 172

10.4.1 Adjuvants: glyphosate is not the major toxicant in Roundup 172

10.4.2 Glyphosate action in non-target species 173

10.4.3 Long-term effects of Roundup or its residues in GMOs 174

10.5 Agricultural GMOs producing Bt are new insecticidal plants 176

10.6 Side-effects of the genetic modification itself 177

10.6.1 Specific side effects of the transgene expression 177

10.6.2 Insertional mutagenesis or new unexpected/unexplainable metabolism 178

10.7 Limits and difficulties of interpretations in toxicity tests 178

10.8 The relevance of in vivo findings and length of the nutritional tests 180

10.8.1 Insufficiencies of in vitro tests 180

10.8.2 Limitations of 90-day-long tests 181

10.8.3 The need for additional tests including long-term tests 181

10.8.4 Unraveling the effects of mixtures 182

10.9 Conclusions and future outlook 183

References 183

11 What Have We Learnt from the Melamine-tainted Milk Incidents in China? 191
Miao Hong, Cui Xia, Zhu Pan, and Wu Yongning

11.1 Introduction 191

11.2 Melamine and its analogs 192

11.3 Melamine incidents 193

11.3.1 Melamine-contaminated pet food 193

11.3.2 Infant formula 193

11.4 Epidemiological studies 193

11.4.1 Emergency exposure assessment in China and WHO 194

11.4.2 Initial and later risk management responses of Chinese government 195

11.4.3 Development of detection of melamine and its analogs in food 196

11.5 Screening methods 196

11.5.1 Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay 196

11.5.2 High-performance liquid chromatography 197

11.5.3 Capillary electrophoresis 197

11.6 Confirmatory methods 198

11.6.1 Gas chromatography mass spectrometry 198

11.6.2 Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry 198

11.6.3 Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry 199

11.6.4 Application of new technologies 199

11.7 Health effects and toxicology of melamine and its analogs 199

11.7.1 Health effects 199

11.7.2 Toxicology 200

11.7.3 Toxicity of melamine 200

11.7.4 Toxicity of cyanuric acid 201

11.7.5 Combined toxicity 201

11.8 Diet exposure assessment from China Total Diet Study 202

11.9 Who should be responsible for food safety in China? 203

11.9.1 Food safety is the responsibility of the food producer 203

11.9.2 Comprehensive and found legislation and regulation system 204

11.9.3 Effective supervision and risk management 205

11.9.4 Food safety is the responsibility of the consumer 206

11.10 Conclusions and future perspectives 206

References 206

12 Heavy Metals of Special Concern to Human Health and Environment 213
Sameeh A. Mansour

12.1 Introduction 213

12.2 Mercury 214

12.2.1 Occurrence, use and exposure 214

12.2.2 Health effects 215

12.2.3 Toxicology of mercury 216

12.3 Cadmium 216

12.3.1 Occurrence, use and exposure 216

12.3.2 Health effects 217

12.3.3 Cadmium toxicolgy 218

12.4 Lead 220

12.4.1 Occurrence, use and exposure 220

12.4.2 Health effects 220

12.4.3 Lead toxicology 221

12.5 Chromium 223

12.5.1 Occurrence, use and exposure 223

12.5.2 Health effects 223

12.6 Arsenic 223

12.6.1 Occurrence, exposure and dose 223

12.6.2 Health effects 224

12.7 Nickel 225

12.7.1 Occurrence, use and exposure 225

12.7.2 Health effects 225

12.8 Other essential elements 225

12.8.1 Copper 225

12.8.2 Selenium 226

12.8.3 Manganese 226

12.8.4 Molybdenum 226

12.8.5 Zinc 227

12.8.6 Cobalt 227

12.8.7 Iron 227

12.8.8 Magnesium 228

12.9 Conclusions 228

References 229

13 Monitoring and Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metal Contamination in Food 235
Sameeh A. Mansour

13.1 Introduction 235

13.2 Analytical methods 236

13.2.1 Colorimetric methods 236

13.2.2 Instrumental methods 237

13.3 Contamination levels data 237

13.3.1 Vegetables and fruits 237

13.3.2 Medicinal plants and herbs 239

13.3.3 Grains 240

13.3.4 Fish and seafood 241

13.3.5 Miscellaneous 242

13.4 Heavy metals in non-conventionally produced crops 242

13.5 Dietary health risk assessment of heavy metals through consumption of food commodities 246

13.5.1 Risk assessment 247

13.5.2 Daily dietary index 247

13.5.3 Daily intake of metals 247

13.5.4 Health risk index 247

13.6 Conclusions 252

References 253

14 Heavy Metal Contamination as a Global Problem and the Need for Prevention/Reduction Measurements 257
Sameeh A. Mansour

14.1 Introduction 257

14.2 Pathway of heavy metals through the food chain 258

14.2.1 Transfer of heavy metals from soil to vegetables 259

14.2.2 Heavy metal transfer through irrigation water 260

14.2.3 Heavy metals transfer and accumulation in fish 261

14.2.4 Heavy metal deposition from air 263

14.3 Multiple environmental factors affecting accumulation of heavy metals in food and impact on human health 265

14.4 Comparative levels of heavy metals in vegetables and fruits from different countries 268

14.5 Removal of heavy metal contamination 271

14.5.1 Vegetable/fruit decontamination 271

14.5.2 Wastewater treatment 271

14.5.3 Plant- and animal-derived materials 271

14.5.4 Soil remediation 272

14.5.5 Soil bioremediation 273

14.5.6 Soil remediation by metal phytoextraction 273

14.6 Prevention and reduction of metal contamination in food 274

14.7 Recent technologies for removal of heavy metal contaminants 275

14.8 Conclusion 275

References 275

15 Radionuclides in Food: Past, Present and Future 281
Rajeev Bhat and Vicente M. Gómez-López

15.1 Introduction 282

15.2 Radionuclides in nature 282

15.3 Historical background of radioactivity 284

15.3.1 Most recent large-scale radiation release 284

15.4 Radionuclides and the food chain 286

15.5 Measurement of radionuclides in food 289

15.6 210Po and 210Pb (polonium and lead) in food 292

15.7 Uranium, thorium and radium 294

15.8 Other radionuclides in food 297

15.9 Minimizing internal exposure by ingestion after long-scale radiation releases 298

15.10 Conclusions and future outlook 298

References 299

16 Antinutrients and Toxicity in Plant-based Foods: Cereals and Pulses 311
Salim-ur-Rehman, Javaid Aziz Awan, Faqir Muhammad Anjum, and Muhammad Atif Randhawa

16.1 Introduction 312

16.2 Toxicity 313

16.2.1 Accidental toxicity 313

16.2.2 Toxic compounds in legumes and cereal grains 313

16.3 Plant-derived allergens 313

16.3.1 Haemagglutinins, trypsin and protease inhibitors 314

16.3.2 Goitrogens 315

16.3.3 Cyanogens 315

16.3.4 Lathyrogens 316

16.3.5 Lignins and lignans 317

16.3.6 Phytate 318

16.3.7 Amylase inhibitors 318

16.3.8 Plant phenolics 319

16.3.9 Saponins 322

16.3.10 Raffinose 322

16.3.11 Other antinutrients 322

16.4 Mechanisms of antinutritional factors 323

16.5 Prevention and detoxification 324

16.5.1 Soaking in water 325

16.5.2 Boiling/steeping/steaming 325

16.5.3 Germination and malting 326

16.5.4 Fermentation 326

16.6 Health repercussions 326

16.7 Conclusions and future outlook 328

References 330

17 N anotechnology Tools to Achieve Food Safety 341
Jesús Fernando Ayala-Zavala, Gustavo Adolfo González-Aguilar, María Roberta Ansorena, Emilio Alvarez-Párrilla, and Laura de la Rosa

17.1 Introduction 341

17.2 Types of nanotechnological devices 342

17.2.1 Nanosystems to release antimicrobial compounds 343

17.2.2 Immobilization of antimicrobial compounds using nanocomposite materials 344

17.3 Food safety monitoring systems 345

17.3.1 Microbial growth nanosensors 345

17.3.2 Toxin sensors 348

17.3.3 Food traceability systems 348

17.4 Safety regulations regarding food-applied nanotechnology 349

17.5 Conclusions and outlook 350

References 350

18 Photonic Methods for Pathogen Inactivation 355
Vicente M. Gómez-López and Rajeev Bhat

18.1 Introduction 355

18.1.1 Dosimetry 356

18.2 Comparison of CW UV and PL treatment 356

18.2.1 Advantages and disadvantages of CW UV light 356

18.2.2 Advantages and disadvantages of PL compared to CW UV light 357

18.2.3 Inactivation of microorganisms and viruses in vitro 358

18.3 Microbial inactivation mechanism 358

18.3.1 Continuous UV light 358

18.3.2 Pulsed light 359

18.4 Sublethal injury, acquired resistance and sensitization 360

18.5 Kinetics of microbial inactivation 361

18.6 Application of photonic methods 362

18.6.1 Application to foods of vegetable origin 362

18.6.2 Application to meat products 363

18.6.3 Application to liquids 364

18.6.4 Application to other foods 365

18.6.5 Decomposition of allergens by pulsed light 366

18.6.6 Decomposition of mycotoxins by pulsed light 367

18.6.7 Photosensitization 367

18.7 Concluding remarks and future work 368

Acknowledgement 368

References 368

19 Intelligent Packaging and Food Safety 375
István Siró

19.1 Introduction 375

19.2 Concepts of intelligent packaging 376

19.2.1 Time-temperature indicators 376

19.2.2 Current technologies and applications 377

19.2.3 State-of-the-art developments 378

19.2.4 Possibilities and limitations 379

19.3 Radio frequency identification 379

19.4 Gas indicators and sensors 381

19.4.1 Oxygen indicators 381

19.4.2 Carbon-dioxide indicators 383

19.5 Gas composition sensors 384

19.6 Freshness or spoilage indicators 384

19.7 Biosensors and nanosensors 385

19.7.1 Metallic nanoparticles 386

19.7.2 Quantum dots 387

19.7.3 DNA-based nanosensors 388

19.7.4 Conducting polymers 389

19.8 Conclusion and future outlook 389

References 390

20 Consumer Perception of Safety and Quality of Food Products Maintained under Cold Storage 395
Jasmin Geppert and Rainer Stamminger

20.1 Introduction 395

20.2 The role of refrigeration in food quality and safety 396

20.2.1 Food spoilage processes 396

20.2.2 Microbial spoilage 396

20.2.3 (Bio-) chemical spoilage 397

20.2.4 Physical spoilage 398

20.3 Effects of temperature on food spoilage and quality 398

20.3.1 Temperature dependency of chemical spoilage processes 398

20.3.2 Temperature dependency of enzymatic spoilage processes 398

20.3.3 Temperature dependency of microbial spoilage processes 399

20.4 Quality and safety of frozen foods 400

20.4.1 Freezing process 400

20.4.2 Frozen storage 400

20.5 Cold storage technologies 401

20.5.1 Principles of refrigeration 401

20.5.2 Refrigerator layout and temperature zones 402

20.5.3 Energy label and its influence on cooling performance 403

20.6 Consumers’ handling of chilled food and home practices 404

20.6.1 Factors affecting consumer behaviour in handling chilled foods 405

20.6.2 Food shopping habits 405

20.6.3 Food handling at home 406

20.6.4 Temperatures in domestic refrigeration 407

20.7 Conclusions and future outlook 409

References 410

21 Foodborne Infections and Intoxications Associated with International Travel 415
Martin Alberer and Thomas Löscher

21.1 Introduction 415

21.2 Travelers’ diarrhea 416

21.3 Etiology of foodborne infections 418

21.3.1 Escherichia coli (E. coli) 419

21.3.2 Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) 419

21.3.3 Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) 420

21.3.4 Enterohemorrhagic E. coli 421

21.3.5 Enteropathogenic E. coli 422

21.3.6 Enteroinvasive E. coli 422

21.3.7 Diffusely adherent E. coli 423

21.3.8 Infection by Campylobacter spp. 423

21.3.9 Shigellosis 424

21.3.10 Salmonellosis 424

21.3.11 Infection by Aeromonas spp. 425

21.3.12 Infection by Plesiomonas spp. 425

21.3.13 Infection by Vibrio cholerae and Non-cholera Vibrios 425

21.3.14 Infection by Yersinia enterocolitica 426

21.3.15 Infection by Arcobacter spp. 427

21.3.16 Viruses as causative agents in the development of TD 427

21.3.17 Protozoan organisms as cause of TD 428

21.3.18 Giardiasis 428

21.3.19 Cryptosporidiosis 428

21.3.20 Cyclosporiasis 429

21.3.21 Amebiasis 429

21.3.22 Other intestinal parasites as a cause for foodborne infection 430

21.4 Clinical symptoms/signs and diagnosis of TD 430

21.5 Therapy of TD 431

21.6 Prevention and Prophylaxis of TD 432

21.7 Foodborne intoxications 433

21.7.1 Staphylococcal enterotoxin intoxication 433

21.7.2 Bacillus cereus food intoxication 434

21.7.3 Clostridium perfringens food intoxication 434

21.7.4 Clostridium botulinum intoxication 434

21.7.5 Ciguatera 435

21.7.6 Tetrodotoxin poisoning 435

21.7.7 Paralytic shellfish poisoning 436

21.7.8 Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning 436

21.7.9 Amnesic shellfish poisoning 437

21.7.10 Scombroid 437

21.8 Conclusion 437

References 438

22 Electron Beam Inactivation of Foodborne Pathogens with an Emphasis on Salmonella 451
Reza Tahergorabi, Jacek Jaczynski, and Kristen E. Matak

22.1 Introduction 452

22.2 Food irradiation 453

22.3 Inactivation of Salmonella with e-beam and ionizing radiation 455

22.3.1 Application of electron beam 455

22.3.2 Comparison of e-beam, gamma radiation, and x-ray 456

22.3.3 Mechanism of microbial inactivation 456

22.4 Microbial inactivation kinetics and process calculations 459

22.5 Microbial radio-resistance 460

22.6 Foodborne Salmonella outbreaks and Salmonella reservoirs 460

22.6.1 Examples of e-beam applications to inactivate Salmonella in food 462

22.7 US regulatory status of e-beam 462

22.8 Future direction of Salmonella inactivation using e-beam 464

22.9 Conclusions 465

References 466

23 Inactivation of Foodborne Viruses: Recent Findings Applicable to Food-Processing Technologies 471
Allison Vimont, Ismaïl Fliss, and Julie Jean

23.1 Introduction 472

23.2 Physical treatments 473

23.2.1 Low-temperature-based methods 473

23.2.2 High-temperature-based methods 474

23.2.3 UV light treatments 475

23.2.4 Pulsed light treatments 477

23.2.5 Irradiation treatments 478

23.2.6 High-pressure treatments 479

23.2.7 Other physical treatments 480

23.3 Chemical treatments 481

23.3.1 Washing 481

23.3.2 Hypochlorous acid 481

23.3.3 Chlorine dioxide 483

23.3.4 Ozone 483

23.3.5 Peroxyacids 484

23.3.6 Other chemical agents 485

23.4 Conclusions and future outlook 486

References 486

24 Use of Synbiotics (Probiotics and Prebiotics) to Improve the Safety of Foods 497
Jean Guy LeBlanc, Alejandra de Moreno de LeBlanc, Ricardo Pinheiro de Souza Oliveira, and Svetoslav Dimitrov Todorov

24.1 Introduction 498

24.2 Probiotics 499

24.3 Prebiotics and synbiotics 501

24.4 Production of bacteriocins by probiotic LAB 502

24.4.1 Production of antibacterial substances by LAB 502

24.4.2 Production of bacteriocins by LAB 503

24.4.3 Production of bacteriocins by LAB present in fermented cereals 504

24.4.4 Production of bacteriocins by LAB present in other fermented foods 505

24.4.5 Effect of commercial drugs on bacteriocin production by LAB 506

24.4.6 Antibiotic resistance in bacteriocins producing LAB 507

Acknowledgements 510

References 511

25 Predictive Microbiology: A Valuable Tool in Food Safety and Microbiological Risk Assessments 517
F.N. Arroyo-López, J. Bautista Gallego, A. Valero, R.M. García-Gimeno, and A. Garrido Fernández

25.1 Introduction 518

25.2 Predictive microbiology 519

25.2.1 History and definition 519

25.2.2 Steps to follow in the correct implementation of a predictive model 520

25.2.3 Choice of the medium for model development 521

25.2.4 Experimental design 521

25.2.5 Data collection 521

25.2.6 Primary modelling 522

25.2.7 Secondary modelling 522

25.2.8 Square root models 524

25.2.9 Cardinal parameters models 524

25.2.10 Polynomial models 525

25.2.11 Probabilistic models 525

25.2.12 Neural network (NN) models 525

25.2.13 Dose response models 526

25.2.14 Dynamic models 526

25.2.15 Model validation 526

25.3 Microbiological risk assessment 527

25.4 Software packages and web applications 529

25.5 Applications and future implications 530

Acknowledgements 531

References 531

26 Pests in Poultry, Poultry Product-Borne Infection and Future Precautions 535
Hongshun Yang, Shuvra K. Dey, Robert Buchanan, and Debabrata Biswas

26.1 Introduction 536

26.2 The potential risk of contamination in poultry 537

26.2.1 Conventional poultry 537

26.2.2 Pasture poultry 538

26.3 Major sources of pests in poultry 539

26.3.1 Premise pests 540

26.3.2 Ectoparasites 541

26.4 Important poultry-related diseases associated with pests 542

26.4.1 Salmonella and Campylobacter 542

26.4.2 Coccidiosis of poultry associated with pest 544

26.5 Current practices of pest control in poultry 545

26.5.1 Housing type and management 545

26.5.2 Waste management 545

26.5.3 Flock management 545

26.6 Promising pest control strategies 546

26.7 Conclusion and future outlook 547

References 548

27 Safety of Meat and Meat Products in the Twenty-first Century 553
Ian Jenson, Paul Vanderlinde, John Langbridge, and John Sumner

27.1 Introduction 553

27.2 Where did we start? 554

27.3 Associated risk and public health 555

27.4 Meat safety: fresh (chilled and frozen) red meat 556

27.4.1 Hazards associated with fresh meat 557

27.4.2 Hygienic processing of meat 559

27.4.3 Risk assessment 560

27.4.4 Risk management 561

27.4.5 Performance 563

27.5 Meat safety: cooked and ready-to-eat meats 564

27.5.1 Hazards associated with RTE meats 564

27.5.2 Processing of RTE meats 565

27.5.3 Risk assessment 566

27.5.4 Risk management 566

27.6 Meat safety: fermented meats 567

27.6.1 Hazards 568

27.6.2 Processing of fermented meats 569

27.6.3 Risk associated with fermented meats 570

27.6.4 Microbiological criteria 570

27.7 Current status of meat safety and future outlook 570

References 571

28 Application of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point Principles for Ochratoxin-A Prevention in Coffee Production Chain 577
Kulandaivelu Velmourougane, T.N.Gopinandhan, and Rajeev Bhat

28.1 Introduction 578

28.2 Coffee quality and food safety 578

28.3 Mycotoxins 578

28.4 Coffee production and OTA contamination 580

28.4.1 Harvesting 580

28.4.2 Sorting 580

28.4.3 Pulping and fermentation 580

28.4.4 Drying 583

28.4.5 Moisture management 584

28.4.6 On-farm storage 585

28.5 Coffee waste management and OTA contamination 587

28.6 Curing factories as a source of OTA contamination 587

28.6.1 Dust control in curing factories 587

28.6.2 Defective beans and OTA contamination 587

28.6.3 Shipment 588

28.7 Application of GAP/GMP and HACCP principles 588

28.7.1 HACCP, food hygiene and food safety 588

28.7.2 Code of good practices for OTA prevention in coffee production 589

28.8 Conclusions and future outlook 592

Acknowledgements 592

References 592

Index 597

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Dr Rajeev Bhat is Associate Professor in the Department of Food Technology at the School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia.

Dr Vicente M. Gómez-López is a senior researcher in the Department of Food Science and Technology, Centro de Edafología y Biología Aplicada del Segura (CEBAS-CSIC), Espinardo, Spain.

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