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Terrestrial Radiation Effects in ULSI Devices and Electronic Systems

ISBN: 978-1-118-47932-2
296 pages
November 2014, Wiley-IEEE Press
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Description

This book provides the reader with knowledge on a wide variety of radiation fields and their effects on the electronic devices and systems. The author covers faults and failures in ULSI devices induced by a wide variety of radiation fields, including electrons, alpha-rays, muons, gamma rays, neutrons and heavy ions. Readers will learn how to make numerical models from physical insights, to determine the kind of mathematical approaches that should be implemented to analyze radiation effects. A wide variety of prediction, detection, characterization and mitigation techniques against soft-errors are reviewed and discussed. The author shows how to model sophisticated radiation effects in condensed matter in order to quantify and control them, and explains how electronic systems including servers and routers are shut down due to environmental radiation. 

  • Provides an understanding of how electronic systems are shut down due to environmental radiation by constructing physical models and numerical algorithms
  • Covers both terrestrial and avionic-level conditions
  • Logically presented with each chapter explaining the background physics to the topic followed by various modelling techniques, and chapter summary
  • Written by a widely-recognized authority in soft-errors in electronic devices
  • Code samples available for download from the Companion Website

This book is targeted at researchers and graduate students in nuclear and space radiation, semiconductor physics and electron devices, as well as other areas of applied physics modelling. Researchers and students interested in how a variety of physical phenomena can be modelled and numerically treated will also find this book to present helpful methods.

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Table of Contents

About the Author xiii

Preface xv

Acknowledgements xvii

Acronyms xix

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Basic Knowledge on Terrestrial Secondary Particles 1

1.2 CMOS Semiconductor Devices and Systems 4

1.3 Two Major Fault Modes: Charge Collection and Bipolar Action 7

1.4 Four Hierarchies in Faulty Conditions in Electronic Systems: Fault – Error – Hazard – Failure 12

1.5 Historical Background of Soft-Error Research 14

1.6 General Scope of This Book 18

References 18

2 Terrestrial Radiation Fields 23

2.1 General Sources of Radiation 23

2.2 Backgrounds for Selection of Terrestrial High-Energy Particles 23

2.3 Spectra at the Avionics Altitude 25

2.4 Radioisotopes in the Field 28

2.5 Summary of Chapter 2 31

References 31

3 Fundamentals of Radiation Effects 33

3.1 General Description of Radiation Effects 33

3.2 Definition of Cross Section 35

3.3 Radiation Effects by Photons (Gamma-ray and X-ray) 36

3.4 Radiation Effects by Electrons (Beta-ray) 37

3.5 Radiation Effects by Muons 39

3.6 Radiation Effects by Protons 40

3.7 Radiation Effects by Alpha-Particles 43

3.8 Radiation Effects by Low-Energy Neutrons 43

3.9 Radiation Effects by High-Energy Neutrons 45

3.10 Radiation Effects by Heavy Ions 45

3.11 Summary of Chapter 3 46

References 46

4 Fundamentals of Electronic Devices and Systems 49

4.1 Fundamentals of Electronic Components 49

4.1.1 DRAM (Dynamic Random Access Memory) 49

4.1.2 CMOS Inverter 49

4.1.3 SRAM (Static Random Access Memory) 51

4.1.4 Floating Gate Memory (Flash Memory) 51

4.1.5 Sequential Logic Devices 53

4.1.6 Combinational Logic Devices 54

4.2 Fundamentals of Electronic Systems 55

4.2.1 FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) 55

4.2.2 Processor 56

4.3 Summary of Chapter 4 58

References 58

5 Irradiation Test Methods for Single Event Effects 61

5.1 Field Test 61

5.2 Alpha Ray SEE Test 64

5.3 Heavy Ion Particle Irradiation Test 66

5.4 Proton Beam Test 71

5.5 Muon Test Method 75

5.6 Thermal/Cold Neutron Test Methods 78

5.7 High-Energy Neutron Test 80

5.7.1 Medium-Energy Neutron Source by Using Radioisotopes 80

5.7.2 Monoenergetic Neutron Test 80

5.7.3 Quasi-Monoenergetic Neutron Test 84

5.7.4 Spallation Neutron Test 90

5.7.5 Attenuation of Neutron Flux and Energy 92

5.8 Testing Conditions and Matters That Require Attention 94

5.8.1 Memories 94

5.8.2 Circuits 94

5.9 Summary of Chapter 5 96

References 96

6 Integrated Device Level Simulation Techniques 107

6.1 Overall Multi-scale and Multi-physics Soft-Error Analysis System 107

6.2 Relativistic Binary Collision and Nuclear Reaction Models 112

6.2.1 Energy Bin Setting for a Particle Energy Spectrum 112

6.2.2 Relativistic Binary Collision Model 113

6.2.3 ALS (Absolute Laboratory System) and ALLS (Aligned Laboratory System) 115

6.3 Intra-nuclear Cascade (INC) Model for High-Energy Neutrons and Protons 119

6.3.1 Penetration of a Nucleon into a Target Nucleus 119

6.3.2 Calculation of Probability of Binary Collision between Two

Nucleons in the Target Nucleus 121

6.3.3 Determination of Condition in Nucleon-Nucleon Collision 121

6.4 Evaporation Model for High-Energy Neutrons and Protons 122

6.5 Generalised Evaporation Model (GEM) for Inverse Reaction Cross Sections 125

6.6 Neutron Capture Reaction Model 128

6.7 Automated Device Modelling 129

6.8 Setting of Random Position of Spallation Reaction Point in a Component 131

6.9 Algorithms for Ion Tracking 133

6.10 Fault Mode Models 135

6.11 Calculation of Cross Section 141

6.12 Prediction for Scaling Effects of Soft Error Down to 22 nm Design Rule in SRAMs 142

6.13 Evaluation of Effects of Heavy Elements in Semiconductor Devices by Nuclear Spallation Reaction 144

6.14 Upper Bound Fault Simulation Model 146

6.15 Upper Bound Fault Simulation Results 147

6.15.1 Electrons 147

6.15.2 Muons 148

6.15.3 Direct Ionisation by Proton 149

6.15.4 Proton Spallation 149

6.15.5 Low-Energy Neutron 151

6.15.6 High-Energy Neutron Spallation 151

6.15.7 Comparison of Secondary Cosmic Rays 151

6.16 Upper Bound Simulation Method for SOC (System On Chip) 151

6.17 Summary of Chapter 6 154

References 154

7 Prediction, Detection and Classification Techniques of Faults, Errors and Failures 157

7.1 Overview of Failures in the Field 157

7.2 Prediction and Estimation of Faulty Conditions due to SEE 159

7.2.1 Substrate/Well/Device Level 159

7.2.2 Circuit Level 162

7.2.3 Chip/Processor Level 164

7.2.4 Board Level 166

7.2.5 Operating System Level 167

7.2.6 Application Level 167

7.3 In-situ Detection of Faulty Conditions due to SEE 168

7.3.1 Substrate/Well Level 168

7.3.2 Device Level 170

7.3.3 Circuit Level 170

7.3.4 Chip/Processor Level 171

7.3.5 Board/OS/Application Level 174

7.4 Classification of Faulty Conditions 175

7.4.1 Classification of Faults 175

7.4.2 Classification of Errors in Time Domain 175

7.4.3 MCU Classification Techniques of Memories in Topological Space Domain 177

7.4.4 Classification of Errors in Sequential Logic Devices 183

7.4.5 Classification of Failures: Chip/Board Level Partial/Full Irradiation Test 183

7.5 Faulty Modes in Each Hierarchy 183

7.5.1 Fault Modes 183

7.5.2 Error Modes 186

7.5.3 Failure Modes 189

7.6 Summary of Chapter 7 193

References 195

8 Mitigation Techniques of Failures in Electronic Components and Systems 207

8.1 Conventional Stack-layer Based Mitigation Techniques, Their Limitations and Improvements 207

8.1.1 Substrate/Device Level 207

8.1.2 Circuit/Chip/Processor Layer 211

8.1.3 Multi-core Processor 225

8.1.4 Board/OS/Application Level 227

8.1.5 Real-Time Systems: Automotives and Avionics 229

8.1.6 Limitations and Improvements 230

8.2 Challenges for Hyper Mitigation Techniques 232

8.2.1 Co-operation of Hardware and Software 232

8.2.2 Mitigation of Failures under Variations in SEE Responses 232

8.2.3 Cross-Layer Reliability (CLR) /Inter-Layer Built-In Reliability (LABIR) 235

8.2.4 Symptom-Driven System Resilient Techniques 236

8.2.5 Comparison of Mitigation Strategies for System Failure 238

8.2.6 Challenges in the Near Future 238

8.3 Summary of Chapter 8 240

References 240

9 Summary 249

9.1 Summary of Terrestrial Radiation Effects on ULSI Devices and Electronic Systems 249

9.2 Directions and Challenges in the Future 250

Appendices 251

A.1 Hamming Code 251

A.2 Marching Algorithms 252

A.3 Why VB Is Used For Simulation? 253

A.4 Basic Knowledge of Visual Basic 253

A.5 Database Handling by Visual Basic and SQL 253

A.6 Algorithms in Text Handling and Sample Codes 254

A.7 How to Make a Self-Consistent Calculation 255

A.8 Sample Code for Random Selection of Hit Points in a Triangle 256

Index 259

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Author Information

Eishi, H. Ibe, Chief Researcher, Yokohama Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd.

Dr.Eishi Hidefumi IBE received his Ph.D degree in Nuclear Engineering from Osaka University, Japan in 1985.  His expertise covers a wide area of science, such as elementary particle/cosmic ray physics, nuclear /neutron physics, semiconductor physics, mathematics and computing technologies, ion-implantation/mixing and accelerator technologies, electro-chemistry, data-base handling, and BS/Auger/SEM/

Laser-beam micro analysis.  He has authored more than 90 international technical papers and presentations including 22 invited contributions in the field of radiation effects. 

Dr.Ibe was elevated to IEEE Fellow for contributions to analysis of soft-errors in memory devices in 2008.

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