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Introduction to Maintenance Engineering: Modelling, Optimization and Management

ISBN: 978-1-118-48719-8
684 pages
April 2016, ©2015
Introduction to Maintenance Engineering: Modelling, Optimization and Management (1118487192) cover image

Description

This introductory textbook links theory with practice using real illustrative cases involving products, plants and infrastructures and exposes the student to the evolutionary trends in maintenance.

  • Provides an interdisciplinary approach which links, engineering, science, technology, mathematical modelling, data collection and analysis, economics and management
  • Blends theory with practice illustrated through examples relating to products, plants and infrastructures
  • Focuses on concepts, tools and techniques
  • Identifies the special management requirements of various engineered objects (products, plants, and infrastructures)
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Table of Contents

Preface xxxi

Acknowledgments xxxv

Abbreviations xxxvii

1 An Overview 1

1.1 Introduction 2

1.2 Classification of Engineered Objects 4

1.3 Performance of Engineered Objects 10

1.4 Maintenance 12

1.5 Evolution of Maintenance 15

1.6 Focus of the Book 17

1.7 Structure and Outline of the Book 18

Review Questions 20

Exercises 21

References 22

Part a Maintenance Engineering and Technology 23

2 Basics of Reliability Theory 25

2.1 Introduction 26

2.2 Decomposition of an Engineered Object 26

2.3 Functions, Failures, and Faults 27

2.4 Characterization of Degradation 31

2.5 Reliability Concept and Characterization 33

2.6 Linking System and Component Failures 36

2.7 Reliability Theory 45

2.8 Summary 45

Review Questions 46

Exercises 47

References 50

3 System Degradation and Failure 51

3.1 Introduction 52

3.2 Failure Mechanisms 52

3.3 Classification of Failure Mechanisms 54

3.4 Dynamic Nature of Stress and Strength 61

3.5 Degradation of Products and Plants 62

3.6 Degradation of Infrastructures 64

Review Questions 69

Exercises 69

References 71

4 Maintenance – Basic Concepts 73

4.1 Introduction 74

4.2 Types of Maintenance Actions 74

4.3 Preventive Maintenance Actions 77

4.4 Corrective Maintenance Actions 83

4.5 Design Out Maintenance 85

4.6 Uptime and Downtime 86

4.7 Warranty and Maintenance 88

4.8 Maintenance of Products 90

4.9 Maintenance of Plants and Facilities 95

4.10 Maintenance of Infrastructures 100

4.11 Effective Maintenance 102

4.12 Summary 103

Review Questions 104

Exercises 104

References 105

5 Life Cycle of Engineered Objects 107

5.1 Introduction 108

5.2 Life Cycle Concept and Classification 108

5.3 Standard Objects 109

5.4 Custom -Built Objects 113

5.5 Reliability: Product Life Cycle Perspective 115

5.6 Life Cycle Cost 118

5.7 Summary 120

Review Questions 120

Exercises 121

References 122

6 Technologies for Maintenance 123

6.1 Introduction 124

6.2 Technology – An Overview 124

6.3 Assessing the State (Condition) of an Item 125

6.4 Sensors 129

6.5 Testing Technologies 137

6.6 Data -Related Technologies 142

6.7 Technologies for Maintenance of Products 144

6.8 Technologies for Maintenance of Plants 144

6.9 Technologies for Maintenance of Infrastructures 148

6.10 Summary 151

Review Questions 152

Exercises 153

References 154

7 Maintainability and Availability 155

7.1 Introduction 156

7.2 Maintainability – An Overview 156

7.3 Elements of Maintainability 158

7.4 Availability 161

7.5 Maintainability Process 163

7.6 Maintainability Standards 165

7.7 Relationship with Other Disciplines 166

7.8 Summary 167

Review Questions 168

Exercises 168

References 169

Part b Reliability and Maintenance Modeling 171

8 Models and the Modeling Process 173

8.1 Introduction 174

8.2 Models 174

8.3 Mathematical Modeling 178

8.4 Approaches to Modeling 182

8.5 Mathematical Modeling Process 185

8.6 Statistics versus Probability Perspectives 189

8.7 Modeling of Maintenance Decision Problems 190

8.8 Summary 191

Review Questions 191

Exercises 192

Reference 193

9 Collection and Analysis of Maintenance Data 195

9.1 Introduction 196

9.2 Data, Information, and Knowledge 196

9.3 Maintenance Data 199

9.4 Data Analysis 201

9.5 Descriptive Statistics 202

9.6 Inferential Statistics 212

9.7 Collection of Maintenance Data for Products 213

9.8 Collection of Maintenance Data for Plants 215

9.9 Collection of Maintenance Data for Infrastructures 218

9.10 Summary 220

Review Questions 221

Exercises 222

References 223

10 Modeling First Failure 225

10.1 Introduction 226

10.2 One -Dimensional Formulations 227

10.3 Two -Dimensional Formulations 230

10.4 Properties of Distribution Functions 232

10.5 Preliminary Data Analysis and Plots 236

10.6 Selection of a Mathematical Formulation 241

10.7 Parameter Estimation 242

10.8 Model Validation 246

10.9 Examples 247

10.10 Summary 253

Review Questions 254

Exercises 254

References 255

11 Modeling CM and PM Actions 257

11.1 Introduction 258

11.2 Modeling CM Actions 258

11.3 Modeling PM Actions 262

11.4 Repair Times and Downtimes 266

11.5 Maintenance Costs 269

11.6 Repair–Replace Decisions 272

11.7 Modeling Fleet and Infrastructure Maintenance 273

11.8 Summary 273

Review Questions 274

Exercises 275

References 276

12 Modeling Subsequent Failures 277

12.1 Introduction 278

12.2 System Characterization for Modeling 278

12.3 Mathematical Formulations for Modeling 280

12.4 Subsequent Failures with Only CM Actions 283

12.5 Subsequent Failures with Both CM and PM Actions 285

12.6 Data -Based Modeling 287

12.7 Summary 295

Review Questions 296

Exercises 296

References 298

Part c Maintenance Decision Models and Optimization 299

13 Optimal Maintenance 301

13.1 Introduction 302

13.2 Framework for Optimal Maintenance Decisions 302

13.3 Maintenance Policy 303

13.4 Decision Parameters 304

13.5 Objective Function 305

13.6 Optimization Model 306

13.7 Information 306

13.8 Optimization 307

13.9 Summary 308

Review Questions 308

Exercises 308

Reference 309

14 Maintenance Optimization for Non -Repairable Items 311

14.1 Introduction 312

14.2 Preliminaries 312

14.3 Infinite Time Horizon 314

14.4 Group Replacement 322

14.5 Finite Time Horizon 323

14.6 Inspection Policies 325

14.7 Summary 327

Review Questions 327

Exercises 328

Reference 329

15 Maintenance Optimization for Repairable Items 331

15.1 Introduction 332

15.2 Preliminaries 332

15.3 Group I Scenarios 334

15.4 Group II Scenarios 338

15.5 Group III Scenarios 344

15.6 Multi-Item Policies 350

15.7 Summary 351

Review Questions 352

Exercises 352

References 354

16 Condition -Based Maintenance 355

16.1 Introduction 356

16.2 Characterization of Degradation 357

16.3 Approach to CBM 359

16.4 Diagnostics, Prognostics, and CBM 364

16.5 Summary 382

Review Questions 384

Exercises 384

References 386

Part d Maintenance Management 389

17 Maintenance Management 391

17.1 Introduction 392

17.2 Management 393

17.3 Maintenance Management 401

17.4 Maintenance Organization 403

17.5 Approaches to Maintenance 407

17.6 Risk and Maintenance 410

17.7 Maintenance Management System 415

17.8 Summary 417

Review Questions 418

Exercises 418

References 419

18 Maintenance Outsourcing and Leasing 421

18.1 Introduction 422

18.2 Outsourcing 422

18.3 Maintenance Outsourcing 424

18.4 Framework for Maintenance Outsourcing Decision Making 426

18.5 Optimal Decisions 429

18.6 Leasing 436

18.7 MSCs for Products and Plants 438

18.8 Infrastructures 444

18.9 Summary 447

Review Questions 448

Exercises 449

References 450

19 Maintenance Planning, Scheduling, and Control 451

19.1 Introduction 452

19.2 Maintenance Planning 452

19.3 Tactical -Level Maintenance Planning 454

19.4 Operational -Level Maintenance Planning 458

19.5 Maintenance Control 462

19.6 Maintenance Control System 464

19.7 Maintenance of Products 465

19.8 Maintenance of Plants 468

19.9 Maintenance of Infrastructures 470

19.10 Summary 471

Review Questions 472

Exercises 472

Reference 473

20 Maintenance Logistics 475

20.1 Introduction 476

20.2 Logistics 476

20.3 Key Elements of Maintenance Logistics 478

20.4 Service Facilities 479

20.5 Human Resources 480

20.6 Inventories 480

20.7 New Item Inventory Management 484

20.8 Repairable Items Inventory Management 487

20.9 Maintenance Logistics for Products 488

20.10 Maintenance Logistics for Plants 491

20.11 Maintenance Logistics for Infrastructures 492

20.12 Summary 493

Review Questions 494

Exercises 494

References 495

21 Maintenance Economics 497

21.1 Introduction 498

21.2 Basic Concepts and Terms 498

21.3 Capital Investment 502

21.4 Cost Elements of Capital Investment 505

21.5 Life Cycle Cost 506

21.6 Capital Equipment Replacement 509

21.7 Buy versus Lease Decisions 515

21.8 LCCA for Products and Plants 519

21.9 LCCA for Infrastructures 520

21.10 Summary 522

Review Questions 523

Exercises 523

References 525

22 Computerized Maintenance Management Systems and e -Maintenance 527

22.1 Introduction 528

22.2 Role of Technology in Maintenance Management 528

22.3 Computerized Maintenance Management Systems (CMMSs) 530

22.4 e -Maintenance 534

22.5 Applications of e -Maintenance 538

22.6 Summary 543

Review Questions 544

Exercises 545

References 546

Part e Case Studies 547

23 Case Studies 549

23.1 Introduction 549

23.2 Case Study 1 – Hydraulic Pump Maintenance 549

23.3 Case Study 2 – Maintenance of Rail Track 559

Part f Appendices 575

Appendix A: Introduction to Probability Theory 577

A.1 Basics of Probability 577

A.2 Random Variables 578

A.3 Characterization of a Univariate Random Variable 579

A.4 Some Basic Univariate Discrete Distribution Functions 580

A.5 Some Basic Univariate Continuous Distribution Functions 581

A.6 Bivariate Random Variables 587

A.7 Sums of Independent Random Variables 590

Appendix B: Introduction to Stochastic Processes 593

B.1 Basic Concept 593

B.2 Characterization of a Stochastic Process 593

B.3 Classification of Markov Processes 594

B.4 Point Processes 596

B.5 Poisson Processes 597

B.6 Renewal Processes 599

B.7 Marked Point Processes 603

Appendix C: Introduction to the Theory of Statistics 605

C.1 Introduction 605

C.2 Descriptive Statistics 605

C.3 Inferential Statistics 609

References 612

Appendix D: Introduction to Optimization 613

D.1 Introduction 613

D.2 Case A 615

D.3 Case B 617

D.4 Case C 619

D.5 Case D 622

References 623

Appendix E: Data Sets 625

Data Set E.1 Battery (Component of a Bus) 625

Data Set E.2 Automobile (Repair Costs) 625

Data Set E.3 Photocopier 625

Data Set E.4 Throttle Valve (Automobile Component) 628

Data Set E.5 Valve Seat Replacement for Diesel Engines 628

Data Set E.6 Heavy Vehicle 628

Data Set E.7 Buses 628

Data Set E.8 Buses 629

Data Set E.9 Hydraulic Pumps 631

Data Set E.10 Shock Absorber 634

References 634

Index 635

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Author Information

Mohamed Ben-Daya is a Professor in the Department of Systems Engineering at King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. He received his PhD in Operations Research from Georgia Institute of Technology, USA. His research interests are in the areas of production planning and scheduling, maintenance, quality control, supply chain management, and risk management in product development. He teaches course in the areas of facilities planning, Production and inventory control, scheduling, Quality control, Maintenance and reliability engineering and supply chain management. Dr. Ben-Daya is the Associate Editor of the Journal of Quality in Maintenance Engineering and on the Editorial Board of the Journal of Logistics. He has published over eighty papers in refereed journals and conference proceedings and co-edited five books.

Pra Murthy obtained B.E. and M.E. degrees from Jabalpur University and the Indian Institute of Science in India and M.S. and Ph.D. degrees from Harvard University. At The University of Queensland he was responsible for setting up the Technology Management Centre (offering master's program in technology management) and Reliability Engineering and Risk Management Group (offering postgraduate programs in reliability and maintenance). He has held visiting appointments at fifteen universities in the USA, Europe and Asia. His current research interests include various aspects of reliability, maintenance, warranties and service contracts. He has authored or co-authored 20 book chapters, 165 journal papers and 150 conference papers. He is a co-author of 7, and co-editor of 3, books. He has run short courses for industry on various topics in technology management, operations management and post-sale support in Australia, Asia, Europe and the USA.

Uday Kumar obtained his B. Tech from IIT BHU, India and worked 7 years in industry before joining the postgraduate program of Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden to obtain a PhD degree in field of Reliability and Maintenance Engineering during 1990. He worked as a Senior Lecturer and Associate Professor at Luleå University and joined University of Stavanger, Norway as a Professor of Mechanical Engineering (Maintenance) in 1997. In July 2001, he was appointed as a Professor of Operation and Maintenance Engineering at Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden. He has been guest faculty at Helsinki University of Technology, Helsinki, Imperial College London and Stavanger University, University of Tromsö, Norway, University of Cincinnati, USA. His research interests are equipment maintenance, reliability and maintainability analysis, etc. He has published more than 275 papers in International Journals and Conference Proceedings.

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