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Animal Manure Recycling: Treatment and Management

ISBN: 978-1-118-48853-9
382 pages
October 2013
Animal Manure Recycling: Treatment and Management (1118488539) cover image

A rapidly changing and expanding livestock and poultry production sector is causing a range of environmental problems on local, regional and global scales.

Animal Manure Recycling: Treatment and Management presents an accessible overview of environmentally friendly technologies for managing animal manure more efficiently and in a sustainable manner. The book describes the physical and chemical characteristics of animal manure and microbial processes, featuring detailed examples and case studies showing how this knowledge can be used in practice. Readers are introduced to the sustainable use of animal manure for crop fertilisation and soil amelioration. Environmentally friendly technologies for reducing emissions of ammonia, odour and the greenhouse gases nitrous oxide and methane are presented, and reduction of plant nutrient losses using separation technologies is introduced. Finally and most importantly, the book describes methods to commercialise and transfer knowledge about innovations to end-users.

Topics covered include:

  • Regulation of animal manure management
  • Manure organic matter: characteristics and microbial transformations
  • Greenhouse gas emissions from animal manures and technologies for their reduction
  • Technologies and logistics for handling, transport and distribution of animal manures
  • Bioenergy production
  • Animal manure residue upgrading and nutrient recovery in bio-fertilisers
  • Life cycle assessment of manure management systems
  • Innovation in animal manure management and recycling
Animal Manure Recycling: Treatment and Management presents state-of-the-art coverage of the entire animal manure chain, providing practical information for engineers, environmental consultants, academics and advanced students involved in scientific, technical and regulatory issues related to animal manure management.
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List of Contributors xiii

Preface xv

Acknowledgements xvii

1 Animal Manure – From Waste to Raw Materials and Goods 1
Sven Gjedde Sommer

References 4

2 Animal Production and Animal Manure Management 5
Sven Gjedde Sommer and Morten Lykkegaard Christensen

2.1 Introduction 5

2.2 Housing, Feedlots and Exercise Areas 7

2.3 Management of Manure 15

2.4 Systems Analysis Method for Assessing Mass Flows 18

2.5 Summary 23

References 23

3 Regulations on Animal Manure Management 25
Sven Gjedde Sommer, Oene Oenema, Teruo Matsunaka and Lars Stoumann Jensen

3.1 Introduction 25

3.2 Environmental Issues 26

3.3 Need for Government Regulations 29

3.4 Global Regulation – Multilateral Environmental Agreements 30

3.5 Regional Regulations – Exemplified with EU Directives and Regulations 31

3.6 National Regulations on Agricultural Pollution 34

3.7 Summary 38

References 39

4 Manure Characterisation and Inorganic Chemistry 41
Morten Lykkegaard Christensen and Sven Gjedde Sommer

4.1 Introduction 41

4.2 Livestock Manure Categories 42

4.3 Physical Characterisation of Manure 45

4.3.1 Particle Size 45

4.4 Manure Inorganic Chemistry 49

4.5 Summary 63

References 63

5 Manure Organic Matter – Characteristics and Microbial Transformations 67
Lars Stoumann Jensen and Sven Gjedde Sommer

5.1 Introduction 67

5.2 Manure Organic Matter Composition 68

5.3 Manure Microbiology 73

5.4 Microbial and Biochemical Transformations in Manure 75

5.5 Transformations of Nitrogen 82

5.6 Summary 87

References 87

6 Sanitation and Hygiene in Manure Management 91
Bj¨orn Vinner°as

6.1 Hygiene Risks Associated with Manure Management 91

6.2 Why Must the Pathogens in Manure be Managed? 92

6.3 Manure Treatment Alternatives 95

6.4 Chemical Treatment 99

6.5 Summary 102

References 103

7 Solid–Liquid Separation of Animal Slurry 105
Morten Lykkegaard Christensen, Knud Villy Christensen and Sven Gjedde Sommer

7.1 Introduction 105

7.2 Removal and Separation Efficiency 106

7.3 In-House Separation 107

7.4 Solid–Liquid Separation of Manure Slurry 108

7.5 Pre-Treatment: Chemical Additives 119

7.6 Post-Treatment: Separation Techniques 124

7.7 Summary 129

References 129

8 Gaseous Emissions of Ammonia and Malodorous Gases 131
Sven Gjedde Sommer and Anders Feilberg

8.1 Introduction 131

8.2 Characteristics of Ammonia and Hydrogen Sulfide 132

8.3 Processes Involved in Emission 133

8.4 Two-Layer Transport and Release Model 141

8.5 Assessment of Gas Release and Emission 147

8.6 Summary 150

References 151

9 Ammonia and Malodorous Gases: Sources and Abatement Technologies 153
Anders Feilberg and Sven Gjedde Sommer

9.1 Introduction 153

9.2 Measurement Methods 154

9.3 Ammonia Emissions 157

9.4 Odour Emissions 164

9.5 Technologies and Additives to Reduce NH3 and Odour Emissions 167

9.6 Summary 172

References 173

10 Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Animal Manures and Technologies for their Reduction 177
Sven Gjedde Sommer, Tim J. Clough, David Chadwick and Søren O. Petersen

10.1 Introduction 177

10.2 Processes of Methane and Nitrous Oxide Production 179

10.3 Methane Production from Manure 180

10.4 Nitrous Oxide Production from Manure 183

10.5 Reduction in Greenhouse Gas Emissions 186

10.6 Summary 191

References 192

11 Nutrient Leaching and Runoff from Land Application of Animal Manure and Measures for Reduction 195
Peter Sørensen and Lars Stoumann Jensen

11.1 Introduction 195

11.2 Leaching and Runoff of Manure Nitrogen 199

11.3 Leaching and Runoff of Manure Phosphorus 203

11.4 Leaching and Runoff of Potassium 207

11.5 Summary 208

References 208

12 Technologies and Logistics for Handling, Transport and Distribution of Animal Manures 211
Claus Grøn Sørensen, Sven Gjedde Sommer, Dionysis Bochtis and Alan Rotz

12.1 Introduction 211

12.2 Overview of Manure Systems 213

12.3 Animal Manure Characteristics 213

12.4 Removal from Animal Houses 214

12.5 Manure Storage 217

12.6 Transport of Manure 219

12.7 Application of Manure in the Field 220

12.8 Manure Operations Management 222

12.9 Farm Scenarios 232

12.10 Summary 234

References 234

13 Bioenergy Production 237
Sven Gjedde Sommer, Alastair James Ward and James J. Leahy

13.1 Introduction 237

13.2 Biomass and Energy 240

13.3 Biogas Production 252

13.4 Summary 267

References 267

14 Animal Manure Residue Upgrading and Nutrient Recovery in Biofertilisers 271
Lars Stoumann Jensen

14.1 Introduction 271

14.2 Manure Upgrading Options 272

14.3 Composting of Manures 276

14.4 Drying and Pelletising Solid Manures 283

14.5 Manure Combustion and Gasification Ash 284

14.6 Biochar from Pyrolysis or Carbonisation of Solid Manures 287

14.7 Precipitates and Mineral Concentrates from Liquid Manures 288

14.8 Summary 290

References 291

15 Animal Manure Fertiliser Value, Crop Utilisation and Soil Quality Impacts 295
Lars Stoumann Jensen

15.1 Introduction 295

15.2 Fertilisation and Crop Nutrient Use Efficiency 296

15.3 Use of Animal Manures as Organic Fertilisers 302

15.4 Manure Fertiliser Value as Affected by Application Method, Manure Type and Treatment 308

15.5 Summary 324

References 325

16 Life Cycle Assessment of Manure Management Systems 329
Sander Bruun, Marieke ten Hoeve and Morten Birkved

16.1 Introduction 329

16.2 Introduction of Life Cycle Assessment Methodology 330

16.3 Four Phases of a Life Cycle Assessment 330

16.4 Goal and Scope 330

16.5 Inventory Analysis 334

16.6 Impact Assessment 336

16.7 Interpretation 339

16.8 Summary 339

References 341

17 Innovation in Animal Manure Management and Recycling 343
Thomas Schmidt

17.1 Introduction – Why is Innovation Important? 343

17.2 Innovation Typology 345

17.3 Identifying New Innovations 347

17.4 Assessing the Potential of New Innovations 350

17.5 Commercialisation of New Innovations 352

17.6 Summary 355

References 355

Index

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