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HSPA+ Evolution to Release 12: Performance and Optimization

Harri Holma (Editor), Antti Toskala (Editor), Pablo Tapia (Editor)
ISBN: 978-1-118-50321-8
462 pages
September 2014
HSPA+ Evolution to Release 12: Performance and Optimization (111850321X) cover image

Description

A comprehensive reference book codifying the various standards releases for High Speed Packet Access (HSPA) wireless technology

HSPA evolution has maintained its prominence through Releases 7-11 but the evolution is coming to an end with Release 12, with the focus moving to LTE. However, HSPA network and terminal sales will continue for many years: HSPA is expected to remain as the number one radio access technology from the sales point of view far beyond 2015. This timely book examines the complete HSPA evolution, and will be the ultimate long term reference for HSPA evolution.

Headed by the successful editing team of Holma, Toskala and Tapia, industry experts look at HSPA evolution including complete Release 11 and the main additions in Release 12. They describe 3GPP definitions, field measurement, expected performance, practical optimization guidelines and the implications to the devices and to the networks. The book also covers MIMO antenna solutions and multicarrier evolution to provide higher data rates. Dedicated chapters include Continuous Packet Connectivity and High Speed Common Channels which provide major improvement to the smartphone capacity, end user performance and power consumption. The book assumes basic understanding of mobile communications yet the material is presented in an understandable way which can be enjoyed without any pre-information about MIMO or other technology solutions.

  • A comprehensive reference book codifying the various standards releases for High Speed Packet Access (HSPA) wireless technology
  • Leading editor and contributor team focusing their expertise on 3GPP features and performance, including Self Organizing Networks, LTE Interworking, Smartphone Optimization and Voice Evolution
  • Dedicated chapter covering VoIP over HSPA, recognizing that telephony will continue to bring most of the revenues to mobile operators in the near future
  • Includes tables, figures and plots illustrating the concepts or simulation results, to aid readers’ understanding of the topic

An essential resource for R&D engineers by network, terminal and chip set vendors, network engineers with operators, application developers, regulators.

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Table of Contents

Foreword xv

Preface xvii

Abbreviations xix

1 Introduction 1
Harri Holma

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 HSPA Global Deployments 1

1.3 Mobile Devices 3

1.4 Traffic Growth 3

1.5 HSPA Technology Evolution 5

1.6 HSPA Optimization Areas 7

1.7 Summary 7

2 HSDPA and HSUPA in Release 5 and 6 9
Antti Toskala

2.1 Introduction 9

2.2 3GPP Standardization of HSDPA and HSUPA 9

2.3 HSDPA Technology Key Characteristics 10

2.4 HSDPA Mobility 16

2.5 HSDPA UE Capability 17

2.6 HSUPA Technology Key Characteristics 17

2.7 HSUPA Mobility 22

2.8 HSUPA UE Capability 23

2.9 HSPA Architecture Evolution 23

2.10 Conclusions 24

References 24

3 Multicarrier and Multiantenna MIMO 27
Antti Toskala, Jeroen Wigard, Matthias Hesse, Ryszard Dokuczal, and Maciej Januszewski

3.1 Introduction 27

3.2 Dual-Cell Downlink and Uplink 27

3.2.1 Dual-Cell Downlink 28

3.2.2 Dual-Cell HSUPA 32

3.3 Four-Carrier HSDPA and Beyond 33

3.4 Multiband HSDPA 36

3.5 Downlink MIMO 38

3.5.1 Space Time Transmit Diversity – STTD 39

3.5.2 Closed-Loop Mode 1 Transmit Diversity 39

3.5.3 2 × 2 MIMO and TxAA 40

3.5.4 4-Branch MIMO 42

3.6 Uplink MIMO and Uplink Closed-Loop Transmit Diversity 46

3.6.1 Uplink MIMO Channel Architecture 47

3.6.2 Scheduling and Rank Selection with Uplink MIMO 49

3.6.3 Uplink MIMO Performance Evaluation 50

3.7 Conclusions 52

References 52

4 Continuous Packet Connectivity and High Speed Common Channels 53
Harri Holma and Karri Ranta-aho

4.1 Introduction 53

4.2 Continuous Packet Connectivity (CPC) 54

4.2.1 Uplink DTX 55

4.2.2 Downlink DRX 58

4.2.3 HS-SCCH-Less Transmission 59

4.3 High Speed FACH 61

4.4 High Speed RACH 63

4.5 High Speed FACH and RACH Enhancements 66

4.6 Fast Dormancy 67

4.7 Uplink Interference Reduction 68

4.8 Terminal Power Consumption Minimization 72

4.9 Signaling Reduction 73

4.10 Latency Optimization 74

4.11 Summary 75

References 75

5 HSDPA Multiflow 77
Thomas Höhne, Karri Ranta-aho, Alexander Sayenko, and Antti Toskala

5.1 Introduction 77

5.2 Multiflow Overview 77

5.2.1 Multiflow Principle 78

5.2.2 Multiflow Configurations 78

5.3 Multiflow Protocol Stack 80

5.4 Multiflow Impacts on UE Architecture 80

5.5 Uplink Feedback for Multiflow 81

5.5.1 HS-DPCCH Structure with Multiflow 81

5.5.2 Dynamic Carrier Activation 84

5.5.3 Timing of Uplink Feedback 84

5.5.4 HS-DPCCH Power Levels 86

5.6 RLC Impact 87

5.6.1 RLC Timer_Reordering 87

5.6.2 RLC Reset 88

5.7 Iub/Iur Enhancements 89

5.7.1 Flow Control 89

5.7.2 Multiflow Extensions 90

5.8 Multiflow Combined with Other Features 91

5.8.1 Downlink MIMO 91

5.8.2 Uplink Closed-Loop Transmit Diversity and Uplink MIMO 91

5.8.3 DTX/DRX 92

5.9 Setting Up Multiflow 93

5.10 Robustness 94

5.10.1 Robustness for RRC Signaling 94

5.10.2 Radio Link Failure 94

5.10.3 Robustness for User Plane Data 96

5.11 Multiflow Performance 96

5.11.1 Multiflow Performance in Macro Networks 96

5.11.2 Multiflow Performance with HetNets 96

5.12 Multiflow and Other Multipoint Transmission Techniques 100

5.13 Conclusions 100

References 100

6 Voice Evolution 103
Harri Holma and Karri Ranta-aho

6.1 Introduction 103

6.2 Voice Quality with AMR Wideband 103

6.3 Voice Capacity with Low Rate AMR 106

6.4 VoIP Over HSPA 107

6.5 Circuit-Switched Voice Over HSPA 111

6.6 Voice Over HSPA Mobility 112

6.7 Circuit-Switched Fallback 114

6.8 Single Radio Voice Call Continuity 115

6.9 Summary 116

References 116

7 Heterogeneous Networks 117
Harri Holma and Fernando Sanchez Moya

7.1 Introduction 117

7.2 Small Cell Drivers 117

7.3 Base Station Categories 118

7.4 Small Cell Dominance Areas 119

7.5 HetNet Uplink–Downlink Imbalance 122

7.6 HetNet Capacity and Data Rates 124

7.7 HetNet Field Measurements 128

7.8 Femto Cells 130

7.9 WLAN Interworking 133

7.9.1 Access Network Discovery and Selection Function (ANDSF) 133

7.9.2 Hotspot 2.0 135

7.9.3 Differences between ANDSF and Hotspot 2.0 136

7.10 Summary 136

References 137

8 Advanced UE and BTS Algorithms 139
Antti Toskala and Hisashi Onozawa

8.1 Introduction 139

8.2 Advanced UE Receivers 139

8.3 BTS Scheduling Alternatives 143

8.4 BTS Interference Cancellation 145

8.5 Further Advanced UE and BTS Algorithms 149

8.6 Conclusions 150

References 151

9 IMT-Advanced Performance Evaluation 153
Karri Ranta-aho and Antti Toskala

9.1 Introduction 153

9.2 ITU-R Requirements for IMT-Advanced 153

9.3 3GPP Features to Consider in Meeting the IMT-Advanced Requirements 155

9.4 Performance Evaluation 157

9.4.1 Eight-Carrier HSDPA 157

9.4.2 Four-Antenna MIMO for HSDPA 159

9.4.3 Uplink Beamforming, MIMO and 64QAM 160

9.4.4 HSPA+ Multiflow 162

9.4.5 Performance in Different ITU-R Scenarios 163

9.4.6 Latency and Handover Interruption Analysis 164

9.5 Conclusions 168

References 168

10 HSPA+ Performance 169
Pablo Tapia and Brian Olsen

10.1 Introduction 169

10.2 Test Tools and Methodology 170

10.3 Single-Carrier HSPA+ 173

10.3.1 Test Scenarios 173

10.3.2 Latency Measurements 174

10.3.3 Good Signal Strength Scenario 175

10.3.4 Mid Signal Strength Scenario 177

10.3.5 Poor Signal Strength Scenario 179

10.3.6 Summary of Stationary Tests 182

10.3.7 Drive Test Performance of Single-Carrier HSPA+ 183

10.4 Dual-Cell HSPA+ 188

10.4.1 Stationary Performance 189

10.4.2 Dual-Carrier Drive Performance 192

10.4.3 Impact of Vendor Implementation 196

10.5 Analysis of Other HSPA Features 198

10.5.1 64 QAM Gains 198

10.5.2 UE Advanced Receiver Field Results 200

10.5.3 2 × 2 MIMO 203

10.5.4 Quality of Service (QoS) 206

10.6 Comparison of HSPA+ with LTE 209

10.7 Summary 211

References 212

11 Network Planning 213
Brian Olsen, Pablo Tapia, Jussi Reunanen, and Harri Holma

11.1 Introduction 213

11.2 Radio Frequency Planning 213

11.2.1 Link Budget 215

11.2.2 Antenna and Power Planning 219

11.2.3 Automatic Cell Planning (ACP) Tools 222

11.2.4 Neighbor Planning 223

11.3 Multilayer Management in HSPA 224

11.3.1 Layering Strategy within Single Band 225

11.3.2 Layering Strategy with Multiple UMTS Bands 230

11.3.3 Summary 233

11.4 RAN Capacity Planning 233

11.4.1 Discussion on Capacity Triggers 234

11.4.2 Effect of Voice/Data Load 237

11.4.3 Uplink Noise Discussion 238

11.4.4 Sector Dimensioning 240

11.4.5 RNC Dimensioning 242

11.5 Packet Core and Transport Planning 243

11.5.1 Backhaul Dimensioning 244

11.6 Spectrum Refarming 246

11.6.1 Introduction 246

11.6.2 UMTS Spectrum Requirements 247

11.6.3 GSM Features for Refarming 249

11.6.4 Antenna Sharing Solutions 249

11.7 Summary 250

References 251

12 Radio Network Optimization 253
Pablo Tapia and Carl Williams

12.1 Introduction 253

12.2 Optimization of the Radio Access Network Parameters 254

12.2.1 Optimization of Antenna Parameters 255

12.2.2 Optimization of Power Parameters 257

12.2.3 Neighbor List Optimization 262

12.2.4 HS Cell Change Optimization 265

12.2.5 IRAT Handover Optimization 268

12.2.6 Optimization of Radio State Transitions 271

12.2.7 Uplink Noise Optimization 275

12.3 Optimization Tools 281

12.3.1 Geolocation 284

12.3.2 User Tracing (Minimization of Drive Tests) 285

12.3.3 Self Organizing Network (SON) Tools 286

12.4 Summary 292

Reference 292

13 Smartphone Performance 293
Pablo Tapia, Michael Thelander, Timo Halonen, Jeff Smith, and Mika Aalto

13.1 Introduction 293

13.2 Smartphone Traffic Analysis 294

13.3 Smartphone Data Consumption 297

13.4 Smartphone Signaling Analysis 299

13.4.1 Smartphone Profiling 301

13.4.2 Ranking Based on Key Performance Indicators 302

13.4.3 Test Methodology 303

13.4.4 KPIs Analyzed during Profiling 304

13.4.5 Use Case Example: Analysis of Signaling by Various Mobile OSs 306

13.5 Smartphone Performance 308

13.5.1 User Experience KPIs 310

13.5.2 Battery Performance 311

13.5.3 Coverage Limits for Different Services 313

13.5.4 Effect of TCP Performance 315

13.5.5 Web Browsing Performance 318

13.5.6 Video Streaming 321

13.6 Use Case Study: Analysis of Smartphone User Experience in the US 330

13.7 Summary 334

References 335

14 Multimode Multiband Terminal Design Challenges 337
Jean-Marc Lemenager, Luigi Di Capua, Victor Wilkerson, Mikaël Guenais, Thierry Meslet, and Laurent Noël

14.1 Cost Reduction in Multimode Multiband Terminals 340

14.1.1 Evolution of Silicon Area and Component Count 340

14.1.2 Transceiver Architecture Evolutions 342

14.1.3 RF Front End 350

14.2 Power Consumption Reduction in Terminals 369

14.2.1 Smartphone Power Consumption 369

14.2.2 Application Engines 371

14.2.3 Power Amplifiers 378

14.2.4 Continuous Packet Connectivity 382

14.3 Conclusion 387

References 389

15 LTE Interworking 393
Harri Holma and Hannu Raassina

15.1 Introduction 393

15.2 Packet Data Interworking 394

15.2.1 Example Trace of 3G to LTE Cell Reselection 398

15.2.2 Example Trace of LTE to 3G Redirection 400

15.3 Circuit-Switched Fallback 406

15.3.1 Example Circuit-Switched Fallback with Location Area Update 410

15.3.2 Example Circuit-Switched Fallback without Location Area Update 413

15.4 Matching of LTE and 3G Coverage Areas 415

15.5 Single Radio Voice Call Continuity (SRVCC) 417

15.6 Summary 419

References 419

16 HSPA Evolution Outlook 421
Antti Toskala and Karri Ranta-aho

16.1 Introduction 421

16.2 HSPA-LTE and WLAN Interworking 421

16.3 Scalable Bandwidth UMTS 423

16.4 DCH Enhancements 425

16.5 HSUPA Enhancements 427

16.6 Heterogenous Networks 428

16.7 Other Areas of Improvement for Release 12 and Beyond 430

16.8 Conclusions 430

References 431

Index 433

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Author Information

Editors:
Harri Holma, Antti Toskala, Nokia Siemens Networks, Finland and Pablo Tapia, T-Mobile, USA
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