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Functional Polymer Coatings: Principles, Methods, and Applications

ISBN: 978-1-118-51070-4
368 pages
June 2015
Functional Polymer Coatings: Principles, Methods, and Applications (1118510704) cover image

Description

Focusing on a variety of coatings, this book provides detailed discussion on preparation, novel techniques, recent developments, and design theories to present the advantages of each function and provide the tools for better product performance and properties.

•    Presents advantages and benefits of properties and applications of the novel  coating types
•    Includes chapters on specific and novel coatings, like nanocomposite, surface wettability tunable, stimuli-responsive, anti-fouling, antibacterial, self-healing, and structural coloring
•    Provides detailed discussion on recent developments in the field as well as current and future perspectives
•    Acts as a guide for polymer and materials researchers in optimizing polymer coating properties and increasing product performance
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Table of Contents

Contributors xi

Preface xiii

1 Transparent Organic–Inorganic Nanocomposite Coatings 1
Shuxue Zhou and Limin Wu

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Fabrication Strategies 2

1.2.1 Blending Method 2

1.2.2 Sol–Gel Process 10

1.2.3 Intercalation Method 11

1.3 Mechanically Enhanced Nanocomposite Clearcoats 13

1.3.1 Solventborne Polyurethane Nanocomposite Coatings 15

1.3.2 Waterborne Nanocomposite Clearcoats 17

1.3.3 UV ]Curable Nanocomposite Coatings 19

1.3.4 Other Mechanically Strong Nanocomposite Coatings 26

1.4 Optical Nanocomposite Coatings 28

1.4.1 Transparent UV ]Shielding Nanocomposite Coatings 28

1.4.2 High Refractive Index Nanocomposite Coatings 34

1.4.3 Transparent NIR ]Shielding Nanocomposite Coatings 41

1.5 Transparent Barrier Nanocomposite Coatings 45

1.6 Transparent Conducting Nanocomposite Coatings 49

1.7 Other Functional Nanocomposite Coatings 54

1.8 Conclusions and Outlook 57

References 58

2 Superhydrophobic and Superoleophobic Polymeric Surfaces 71
Jie Zhao and W. (Marshall) Ming

2.1 Introduction 71

2.2 Surface Wettability 72

2.3 Various Approaches to Obtain Super ]Repellent Surfaces 74

2.3.1 Template ]Replicating Methods 74

2.3.2 Hierarchically Structured Particles 75

2.3.3 LbL Deposition 78

2.3.4 Plasma Treatment 79

2.3.5 Chemical Vapor Deposition 81

2.3.6 Electrospinning 83

2.3.7 Electrochemical Polymerization 85

2.3.8 Other Methods 86

2.4 Applications of Super ]Repellent Polymeric Surfaces 86

2.4.1 Self ]Cleaning 86

2.4.2 Anti ]bioadhesion 87

2.4.3 Anti ]Icing 89

2.4.4 Oil–Water Separation 89

2.5 Summary and Outlook 90

Acknowledgments 90

References 90

3 Superhydrophilic and Superamphiphilic Coatings 96
Sandro Olveira, Ana Stojanovic, and Stefan Seeger

3.1 Introduction 96

3.2 Basic Concepts of Superhydrophilicity 97

3.3 Naturally Occurring Superhydrophilic and Superamphiphilic Surfaces 100

3.4 Artificial Superhydrophilic Coatings 101

3.4.1 TiO2 Coatings 101

3.4.2 SiO2 Coatings 103

3.5 Methods for Fabricating Superhydrophilic and Superamphiphilic Surfaces 104

3.5.1 Sol–Gel Method 104

3.5.2 Layer ]By ]Layer Assembly 105

3.5.3 Electrochemical Methods 106

3.5.4 Electrospinning 106

3.5.5 Etching 107

3.5.6 Plasma Treatment 107

3.5.7 Hydrothermal Method 108

3.5.8 Dip Coating 109

3.5.9 Phase Separation 109

3.5.10 Templating Method 109

3.6 Applications 110

3.6.1 Self ]Cleaning 110

3.6.2 Antifogging and Antireflective Coatings 111

3.6.3 Antifouling Properties 114

3.6.4 Enhanced Boiling Heat Transfer 115

3.6.5 Efficient Water Evaporation 118

3.6.6 Switchable and Patterned Wettability Coatings 118

3.6.7 Other Applications 119

3.7 Commercial Coatings 120

3.8 Conclusions and Outlook 122

References 123

4 Self ]Healing Polymeric Coatings 133
A.C.C. Esteves and S.J. García

4.1 Introduction 133

4.1.1 Self ]Healing Materials 134

4.1.2 Self ]Healing Polymeric Coatings 137

4.2 Self ]Healing Approaches for Functional Polymeric Coatings 138

4.2.1 Intrinsic Healing 138

4.2.2 Extrinsic Healing 147

4.3 Functionalities Recovery and Possible Applications 149

4.3.1 Surface Properties: Wettability and Anti ](bio)adhesion 149

4.3.2 Barrier and Corrosion Protection 151

4.3.3 Interfacial Bonding between Dissimilar Materials 153

4.4 Concluding Remarks and Challenges 154

Acknowledgments 155

References 155

5 Stimuli-Responsive Polymers as Active Layers for Sensors 163
Sergio Granados ]Focil

5.1 Introduction 163

5.2 Stimuli ]Responsive Soft Materials 164

5.2.1 Thermally Responsive Polymers 165

5.2.2 Field ]Responsive Polymers 166

5.2.3 Biologically Responsive Polymer Systems 168

5.2.4 Multistimuli ]Responsive Materials 172

5.2.5 Stimuli ]Responsive Hydrogels 175

5.3 Sensors from Stimuli ]Responsive Hydrogel Layers 176

5.3.1 pH Sensors 178

5.3.2 Metal Ion Sensors 179

5.3.3 Humidity Sensors 180

5.3.4 DNA Sensors 181

5.3.5 Glucose Sensors 181

5.4 Ionophore ]Based Sensors 182

5.4.1 Ion ]Selective Electrodes 182

5.4.2 Chromoionophores 184

5.4.3 Optodes 185

5.4.4 Dynamic Optodes 185

5.5 Challenges and Opportunities 186

References 187

6 Self ]Stratifying Polymers and Coatings 197
Jamil Baghdachi, H. Perez, and Punthip Talapatcharoenkit

6.1 Introduction 197

6.2 Basic Concepts of Self ]Stratification 200

6.2.1 Evaporation Effect 200

6.2.2 The Surface Tension Gradient 201

6.2.3 The Substrate ]Wetting Force 203

6.2.4 Kinetically Controlled Reactions 205

6.3 Conclusions 214

References 215

7 Surface ]Grafted Polymer Coatings: Preparation, Characterization, and Antifouling Behavior 218
Marc A. Rufin and Melissa A. Grunlan

7.1 Introduction 218

7.2 Surface ]Grafting Methods 219

7.2.1 “Grafting ]From” Method 219

7.2.2 “Grafting ]To” Method 220

7.3 Behavior of Surface ]Grafted Polymers 222

7.3.1 Conformation of Grafted Chains 222

7.3.2 Chain Migration 223

7.4 Characterization Techniques 224

7.4.1 Ellipsometry 224

7.4.2 Contact Angle 224

7.4.3 X ]ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy 225

7.4.4 Scanning Probe Microscopies 226

7.5 Antifouling Coatings 227

7.5.1 Surface ]Grafted PEG 228

7.5.2 Surface ]Grafted Zwitterionic Polymers 229

7.6 Summary 230

References 230

8 Partially Fluorinated Coatings by Surface ]Initiated Ring ]Opening Metathesis Polymerization 239
G. Kane Jennings and Carlos A. Escobar

8.1 Basic Concepts 239

8.2 Surface Chemistry 241

8.3 Kinetics of Film Growth 242

8.4 Surface Energy of pnbfn Films 243

8.5 Micromolding Sip 245

8.6 Conclusions and Outlook 247

Acknowledgments 248

References 248

9 Fabrication and Application of Structural Color Coatings 250
Zhehong Shen, Hao Chen, and Limin Wu

9.1 Introduction 250

9.2 General Methods of Colloidal Assembly 252

9.2.1 Flow ]Induced Deposition 252

9.2.2 Field ]Induced Deposition 257

9.3 Colloidal Assembly of Soft Polymer Spheres 260

9.4 Uses of Structural Colors 265

9.4.1 Photonic Paper 265

9.4.2 Coloring and Protection of Substrates 267

9.4.3 Color Responses 268

9.4.4 Structural Color Coatings with Lotus Effects and Superhydrophilicity 272

9.4.5 Structural Color as Effect Pigments 273

9.5 Conclusions and Outlook 274

References 274

10 Antibacterial Polymers and Coatings 280
Jamil Baghdachi and Qinhua Xu

10.1 Introduction 280

10.2 Basic Concepts 281

10.2.1 Coatings that Resist Adhesion 282

10.2.2 Coatings that Release Toxins 282

10.3 Polymers and Antimicrobial Coating Binders 283

10.3.1 Polymeric Coatings with QA Groups 283

10.3.2 Polymers with Quaternary Phosphonium Groups 284

10.3.3 Norfloxacin ]Containing Polymers 286

10.3.4 Polymeric N ]Halamines 288

10.4 Addition of Inorganic Particles 289

10.4.1 Titanium Dioxide 289

10.4.2 Zinc Oxide 290

10.4.3 Silver Compounds 290

10.5 Conclusions and Outlook 292

References 292

11 Novel Marine Antifouling Coatings: Antifouling Principles and Fabrication Methods 296
Yunjiao Gu and Shuxue Zhou

11.1 Introduction 296

11.2 Marine Biofouling 297

11.3 Enzyme ]Based Coatings 300

11.4 Fouling Release Coatings 302

11.4.1 Principles of FR Coatings 302

11.4.2 Hybrid Silicone ]Based FR Coatings 304

11.4.3 Fluoropolymer ]Based FR Coatings 305

11.5 Nonfouling Coatings 305

11.5.1 Principles of NF Coatings 306

11.5.2 PEG ]Based NF Coatings 307

11.5.3 Poly(Zwitterionic) NF Coatings 311

11.5.4 Other Hydrophilic NF Materials 313

11.6 Bioinspired Micro ]Topographical Surfaces 316

11.6.1 AF Principles of Bioinspired Microtopographical Surfaces 316

11.6.2 Approaches to the Production of AF Coatings with Surface Topographies 320

11.7 Amphiphilic Nanostructured Coatings 322

11.7.1 Principles of Amphiphilic Nanostructured Coatings 323

11.7.2 PEG ]Fluoropolymers Amphiphilic Coatings 325

11.7.3 Other Amphiphilic AF Polymers 329

11.7.4 Characterization Techniques 329

11.8 Summary 331

References 333

Index 338

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Author Information

Limin Wu is the director of the Advanced Coatings Research Center of the Ministry of Education of China and a Professor of the Department of Materials Science at Fudan University in Shanghai. He has over 20 years of experience in the areas of  nano/micro hybrid colloidal spheres and functional polymer coatings.

Jamil Baghdachi is the Interim Director of the Coatings Research Institute and a Professor in the Polymers and Coatings department at Eastern Michigan University. He has over 25 years of experience in polymers, coatings, adhesives, paints, and composites and has acted as a consultant for national and international firms.

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