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Meat Inspection and Control in the Slaughterhouse

ISBN: 978-1-118-52586-9
728 pages
August 2014, Wiley-Blackwell
Meat Inspection and Control in the Slaughterhouse (1118525868) cover image

Description

Meat inspection, meat hygiene and official control tasks in the slaughterhouse have always been of major importance in the meat industry, and are intimately related with animal diseases and animal welfare.  The history of meat inspection has largely been a success story. Huge steps have been taken over more than a century to prevent the transmission of pathogenic organisms and contagious diseases from animals to humans. Various factors influence the quality and safety of meat including public health hazards (zoonotic pathogens, chemical substances and veterinary drugs), animal health and welfare issues during transport and slaughter.

Meat inspection is one of the most important programs in improving food safety, and its scope has enlarged considerably over the last decades. Globalization has affected the complexity of the modern meat chain and has provided possibilities for food fraud and unfair competition. During the last two decades many food fraud cases have been reported, which have caused concern among consumers and the industry. Subsequently meat inspection is faced with new challenges.

Meat Inspection and Control in the Slaughterhouse is an up-to-date reference book that responds to these changes and reflects the continued importance of meat inspection for the food industry. The contributors to this book are all international experts in the areas of meat inspection and the official controls limited to slaughterhouses, providing a rare insight into the international meat trade. This book will be of importance to students, professionals and members of the research community worldwide who aim to improve standards of meat inspection procedures and food safety.

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Table of Contents

Contributors xix

1 Introduction 1
Hannu Korkeala

2 From Farm to Slaughterhouse 5
Sirje Jalakas, Terje Elias and Mati Roasto

2.1 Scope 5

2.2 Animal health and welfare 5

2.3 Transport 9

2.4 Lairage 14

2.5 Food chain information 14

Summary 16

3 Ante-Mortem Inspection 19
Päivi Lahti and Jani Soini

3.1 Scope 19

3.2 Introduction 19

3.3 Identification of animals 21

3.4 Abnormalities 22

3.5 Cleanliness of animals 25

3.6 Animal welfare 26

4 The Slaughter Process 29
Eero Puolanne and Per Ertbjerg

4.1 Scope 29

4.2 General 29

4.3 Pigs 31

4.4 Cattle, sheep and goats 36

4.5 Poultry 41

4.6 Treatment of slaughter by-products 43

5 Animal Welfare – Stunning and Bleeding 47
Michael Bucher and Peter Scheibl

5.1 Scope 47

5.2 Introduction 47

5.3 Pig 49

5.4 Cattle, sheep and goats 61

5.5 Poultry 67

5.6 Conclusions 70

6 Post-Mortem Inspection and Related Anatomy 73
Paolo Berardinelli, Rosanna Ianniciello, Valentina Russo and Thimjos Ninios

6.1 Scope 73

6.2 Introduction 73

6.3 Anatomy of the head 74

6.4 Anatomy of viscera 84

6.5 Anatomy of carcass 122

6.6 Anatomy of poultry 145

6.7 Post-mortem inspection 153

7 Risk-Based Meat Inspection 157
Maria Fredriksson-Ahomaa

7.1 Scope 157

7.2 Introduction 157

7.3 Risk-based meat inspection 158

7.4 Visual-only post-mortem meat inspection 159

7.5 Food chain information (FCI) 160

7.6 Monitoring of diseases by serology in the slaughterhouse 160

7.7 Conclusions 160

8 Meat Inspection Lesions 163
Jere Lindén, Leena Pohjola, Laila Rossow and Daniele Tognetti

8.1 Scope 163

8.2 Introduction 163

8.3 Bovines 164

8.4 Domestic swine 173

8.5 Small ruminants 184

8.6 Poultry 188

9 Sampling and Laboratory Tests 199
Riikka Laukkanen-Ninios

9.1 Scope 199

9.2 Introduction 199

9.3 Collecting and packaging samples 200

9.4 Boiling test 201

9.5 Measurement of pH 202

9.6 Bacteriological examination of carcasses 203

9.7 Zoonotic agents 204

9.8 Animal diseases 214

9.9 Chemical residues 214

9.10 Process and slaughterhouse environment controls 216

10 Judgment of Meat 219
Thimjos Ninios

10.1 Scope 219

10.2 Meat inspection 219

10.3 Evaluation of the meat 221

10.4 Record keeping in meat inspection 223

11 Classification of Carcasses 225
Rosanna Ianniciello, Paolo Berardinelli, Monica Gramenzi and Alessandra Martelli

11.1 Scope 225

11.2 Classification of beef carcasses 225

11.3 Classification of pig carcasses 234

11.4 Classification of sheep carcasses 239

11.5 Classification of poultry carcasses 245

12 Control, Monitoring and Surveillance of Animal Health and Animal Infectious Diseases at the Slaughterhouse 249
Ivar Vågsholm

12.1 Scope 249

12.2 Background 249

12.3 Evolution of meat inspection 251

12.4 Additional purposes of meat inspection 254

12.5 Some useful concepts 255

12.6 Quantifying the MOSS of meat inspection 262

12.7 Purposes of MOSS at meat inspection 266

12.8 EFSA reviews of meat inspection 271

12.9 Summary and conclusions 275

13 Public Health Hazards 277

A. Biological Hazards 277
Maria Fredriksson-Ahomaa

13.1 Scope 277

13.2 Bacteria 277

13.3 Viruses 306

13.4 Parasites 314

13.5 Prions 323

13.6 Antimicrobial resistance in meat-borne bacteria 329

B. Control of Biological Meat-Borne Hazards 334
Sava Buncic

13.7 Scope 334

13.8 Introduction 334

13.9 Hazard identification 335

13.10 Prioritization (ranking) of meat-borne hazards 337

13.11 Carcass meat safety assurance framework 340

C. Chemical Hazards and their Control 354
Marcello Trevisani, Giuseppe Diegoli and Giorgio Fedrizzi

13.12 Scope 354

13.13 Introduction 354

13.14 Residues of veterinary medicine products 357

13.15 Substances having anabolic effects and unauthorized substances 364

13.16 Residues of feed additives 371

13.17 Environmental pollutants 372

13.18 Analytical chemical methods and their validation 382

14 Meat By-Products 385
Miguel Prieto and María Luisa García-López

14.1 Scope 385

14.2 Introduction 385

14.3 Advantages of adequate ABP management 387

14.4 Separation of animal by-products, storage and recommendations on best practices and hygiene requirements 388

14.5 Identification, transport and marking 390

14.6 Processing of by-products and methods of treatment and disposing of ABPs 391

14.7 Materials obtained from animal by-products at the slaughterhouse 395

14.8 Conclusions 398

15 The Conversion of Muscle to Meat 399
Frans J.M. Smulders, Peter Hofbauer and Geert H. Geesink

15.1 Scope 399

15.2 Introduction 399

15.3 Muscle structure, composition and function 400

15.4 Post-mortem muscle physiology; rigor mortis and the conversion of muscle to meat 403

15.5 Major sensory characteristics of meat 408

15.6 Concluding remarks 419

Acknowledgements 420

16 Microbial Contamination During Slaughter 423
Claudio Zweifel and Roger Stephan

16.1 Scope 423

16.2 Introduction 423

16.3 Contamination of carcasses 425

16.4 Microbial contamination during slaughter – pig slaughtering as an example 426

16.5 Microbial examinations of red meat carcasses at the end of slaughter 430

16.6 Conclusions 437

17 Decontamination of Carcasses 439
Claudio Zweifel and Roger Stephan

17.1 Scope 439

17.2 Introduction 439

17.3 Antibacterial decontamination treatments for carcasses 440

17.4 Antibacterial activity of decontamination treatments for carcasses 444

17.5 Conclusions 451

18 Cleaning and Disinfection 453
Gun Wirtanen and Satu Salo

18.1 Scope 453

18.2 Background to cleaning and disinfection 453

18.3 Cleaning in general 454

18.4 Disinfection in general 454

18.5 Main soil types and their removal 455

18.6 Cleaning procedure 456

18.7 Improved cleaning possibilities through hygienic design 469

18.8 Concluding remarks 470

19 Pest Control 473
Mirko Rossi and Francesco Andreucci

19.1 Scope 473

19.2 Introduction 473

19.3 Control plan 473

19.4 Identification of the pest and inspection 474

19.5 Control techniques 475

19.6 Monitoring programme 478

20 Working Hygiene 485
Marjatta Rahkio

20.1 Scope 485

20.2 Introduction 485

20.3 Hygienic slaughtering 486

20.4 Motivation of workers 487

20.5 Hygiene practice at the slaughter line 489

20.6 Conclusions 493

21 Occupational Hazards 495
Karsten Fehlhaber

21.1 Scope 495

21.2 Introduction 495

21.3 Infections 497

21.4 Prevention from infections 507

21.5 Non-infectious occupational hazards and their prevention 508

21.6 Control of occupational hazards 509

22 Traceability 511
Kyösti Siponen

22.1 Scope 511

22.2 Traceability of food in the from-field-to-fork chain 511

22.3 Responsibility for safety of foods rests with food business operators 513

22.4 Health and identification mark 516

22.5 Unauthorized foods and foods posing a risk to food safety 516

22.6 Summary 518

23 Own-Check System 521

A. Structure and Implementation of the Own-Check System 521
Andreas Stolle

23.1 Scope 521

23.2 Development of OCS 522

23.3 Implementation of OCS procedures 524

23.4 Verification of the OCS 532

B. Example of an Own-Check System 534
Thimjos Ninios and Joni Haapanen

23.5 Introduction 534

23.6 Own-check plan 534

23.7 Own-check implementation 537

23.8 Own-check documentation 537

23.9 Division of own check components in SSOPs and SPSs 537

C. HACCP 540
Robert Savage

23.10 History 540

23.11 The HACCP principles 542

23.12 HACCP at the slaughterhouse 547

24 Official Control 553

A. Introduction 553
Janne Lundén

B. Organization of Official Control 556
Aivars Berzin. š, Janne Lundén and Hannu Korkeala

24.1 Scope 556

24.2 Structure of official organization 556

24.3 Requirements of the official control organization 557

C. On-Site Risk-Based Control 562
Eeva-Riitta Wirta

24.4 Scope 562

24.5 Introduction 562

24.6 On-site risk-based control and own-check system 563

24.7 Verification of the own-check system 563

24.8 Systematic verification in practice 564

24.9 Practical views to on-site risk-based control in slaughterhouses 565

D. Control Plan 568
Tiina Läikkö-Roto

24.10 Scope 568

24.11 Why planning of official food control is important? 568

24.12 Planning food control in a slaughterhouse 568

24.13 Adjusting the control plan when needed 574

E. Approval of Establishments 575
Risto Ruuska

24.14 Scope 575

24.15 Why approve slaughterhouses beforehand? 575

24.16 Approval process 576

24.17 Granting approval 578

24.18 Health mark and identification mark 578

24.19 Listing of establishments 579

24.20 Withdrawal of approval 579

F. Inspection and Sampling 581
Mari Nevas and Janne Lundén

24.21 Scope 581

24.22 Inspection procedures 581

24.23 Challenging task of an inspector 583

24.24 When, what and how to inspect? 584

24.25 Preparing for inspection 584

24.26 Initiating the inspection and interviewing the personnel 585

24.27 Observing the premises and the facilities 586

24.28 Evaluating the surfaces 587

24.29 Observing the hygienic working practices of personnel 588

24.30 Evaluating the adequacy of the sanitation procedures 588

24.31 Inspecting the own-check system 589

24.32 Official veterinarian’s exemplary behaviour 590

24.33 Giving feedback on the inspection 590

24.34 Documentation of official control 590

24.35 How to ensure the efficacy of inspections? 592

G. Enforcement 593
Outi Lepistö, Janne Lundén and Karoliina Kettunen

24.36 Scope 593

24.37 Good governance of enforcement measures 593

24.38 Forms and application of enforcement measures in slaughterhouses 598

24.39 To advise or to use enforcement measures? 603

H. Auditing Official Controls 605
Juha Junttila

24.40 Scope 605

24.41 Background 605

24.42 Different types of audits 607

24.43 Why audit official controls? (What is the added value?) 608

24.44 Auditing processes and systems 610

24.45 Key principles 611

24.46 Auditor qualifications 613

24.47 The audit process 614

24.48 Concluding remarks 619

I. Transparency in Official Controls 621
Juha Junttila

24.49 Scope 621

24.50 What is transparency? 621

24.51 Good governance 622

24.52 Objectives of transparency 623

24.53 Who needs transparency? 623

24.54 Benefits of being transparent 623

24.55 Degrees of transparency 624

24.56 Obstacles to transparency 625

24.57 What does this mean for meat inspection? 626

24.58 Concluding remarks 626

J. Food Frauds 628
Niels S.T. Obbink, J.M. Frissen and S.B. Post

24.59 Scope 628

24.60 Definition 628

24.61 Slaughter chain and food fraud 629

24.62 Criminal acts and behaviour 630

24.63 Organization in the Netherlands to combat food crime 635

24.64 Conclusion 637

K. Flexibility and Uniformity of Official Control 639
Veli-Mikko Niemi and Janne Lundén

24.65 Scope 639

24.66 Introduction 639

24.67 Achieving flexibility by legislation 640

25 International Trade 643
Hentriikka Kontio

25.1 Scope 643

25.2 International trade 643

25.3 European Union trade 644

25.4 Exporting procedures 648

26 Scientific Risk Assessment – Basis for Food Legislation 651
Riitta Maijala

26.1 Scope 651

26.2 Introduction 651

26.3 Risk analysis standards are set by international organizations 653

26.4 Risk analysis is a decision making process 654

26.5 Risk assessment estimates the level of risk 655

26.6 Other parts of risk analysis: risk management and risk communication 661

26.7 Risk assessments of EFSA impact on EU food safety legislation 662

26.8 Concluding remarks 665

27 Use of Meat Inspection Data 667
Hannu Korkeala and Janne Lundén

27.1 Scope 667

27.2 Use of meat inspection data 667

27.3 Requirements of collection and recording of meat inspection data 671

Index 675

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Author Information

Thimjos Ninios is a Senior Officer, Head of Section in the Import, Export and Organic Control Unit of the Finnish Food Safety Authority, Evira.

Janne Lundén is a Senior Lecturer and Docent in Food Hygiene at the University of Helsinki.

Hannu Korkeala is Professor of Food Hygiene and Head of the Department of Food Hygiene and Environmental Health at the University of Helsinki.

Maria Fredriksson-Ahomaa is Professor of Foodborne Bacterial Zoonoses at the University of Helsinki.

 

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