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Scale-Sensitive Governance of the Environment

Frans Padt (Editor), Paul Opdam (Editor), Nico Polman (Editor), Catrien Termeer (Editor)
ISBN: 978-1-118-56715-9
344 pages
May 2014, Wiley-Blackwell
Scale-Sensitive Governance of the Environment (1118567153) cover image


Sensitivity to scales is one of the key challenges in environmental governance. Climate change, food production, energy supply, and natural resource management are examples of environmental challenges that stretch across scales and require action at multiple levels. Governance systems are typically ill-equipped for this task due to organisational and jurisdictional specialisation and short-term planning horizons. Further to this, scientific knowledge is fragmented along disciplinary lines and research traditions in academia and research institutions. State-of-the-art, Scale-Sensitive Governance of the Environment addresses these challenges by establishing the foundation for a new, trans-disciplinary research field. It brings together and reframes a variety of disciplinary approaches, using the idea of scales to create a conceptual and methodological basis for scale-sensitive governance of the environment from both a natural and social science perspective. This volume presents new visions, methods and innovative applications of thinking and decision making across scales in space and time to develop a holistic view on the subject. It is unique in providing: F analysis on how spatial, temporal, and governance scales are constructed, politically and scientifically defined, institutionalized in governance practices, and strategically used in policy discourses F details on how current environmental governance practices can be enriched by the use of theory on scale, with specific research themes to show the benefits of recognizing scales in empirical research F insightful case studies drawn from countries in the Americas, Eastern and Southern Africa, Europe, and South and Southeastern Asia, covering a wide range of environmental topics including biodiversity, climate change, commodities (tea and palm oil), cultural landscapes, energy, forestry, natural resource management, pesticides, urban development, and water management. With its comprehensive coverage of scale and scaling issues and convergence of widely different scientific approaches, this book is essential for environmental scientists, policy makers and planners, also conservation biologists and ecologists who are involved in modeling climate change impacts and sustainability. This reference will also benefit students of environmental studies, and all those who seek a response to the urgent environmental governance challenges for the decades ahead.
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Table of Contents

List of Contributors x

Foreword xiii

Preface xv

List of Abbreviations xx

1 Concepts of scale 1
Frans Padt and Bas Arts

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Definitions of scale 2

1.3 Scale-sensitive governance of . . . what? 4

1.4 Scale as a reality . . . or not? 8

1.5 The politics of scale 11

1.6 Acknowledgements 13

2 Incorporating multiple ecological scales into the governance of landscape services 17
Paul Opdam

2.1 Introduction 17

2.2 The social-ecological system at the local scale 19

2.3 Ecological scales and local social-ecological systems 22

2.4 Incorporating the ecological scale hierarchy into social-ecological system decision-making 25

2.5 Discussion and conclusions 30

2.6 Acknowledgements 33

3 Scale-sensitivity as a governance capability: Observing, acting and enabling 38
Catrien Termeer and Art Dewulf

3.1 Introduction 38

3.2 Scales in monocentric governance 39

3.3 Scales in multilevel governance 42

3.4 Scales in adaptive governance 44

3.5 The contours of scale-sensitivity as a governance capability 47

3.6 Conclusion 51

4 Knowledge of competing claims on natural resources: Toward institutional design and integrative negotiations 56
Nico Polman, Arianne de Blaeij and Maja Slingerland

4.1 Introduction 56

4.2 Competing claims approach on natural resources 57

4.3 Types of knowledge in competing claims approaches 61

4.4 Distributive approaches toward competing claims negotiations 65

4.5 Integrative approaches to negotiations on competing claims 66

4.6 Conclusions 69

4.7 Acknowledgements 70

5 The relevance of scale to water governance: An example from Loweswater, UK 73
Lisa Norton, Stephen Maberly, Claire Waterton, Nigel Watson and Judith Tsouvalis

5.1 Introduction 73

5.2 Loweswater 74

5.3 The Loweswater Care Project (LCP) 79

5.4 The importance of scale at Loweswater 82

5.5 Conclusions 85

6 Multiple-level governance is needed in the social-ecological system of alpine cultural landscapes 90
Rocco Scolozzi, Ian D Soane and Alessandro Gretter

6.1 Introduction 90

6.2 The concepts of SES, resilience and panarchy in the context of a cultural landscape 92

6.3 A mixed method approach 93

6.4 The cultural landscape of the Ledro Valley: Internal dynamics leading to unplanned futures 94

6.5 Discussion and conclusion 101

6.6 Acknowledgements 103

7 Beyond localism: The spatial scale and scaling in energy transitions 106
Philipp Spath and Harald Rohracher

7.1 Introduction 106

7.2 Creating space for the spatial scale and scaling in conceptualizations of sustainability transitions 107

7.3 The governance of sustainability transitions and its spatial dimensions: Two case studies reconsidered 110

7.4 Learning from the cases: Can place-bound particularities and scaling influence sustainability transitions? 115

7.5 Conclusions and outlook 118

7.6 Acknowledgements 119

8 Tracing drivers of global environmental change along the governance scale: Methodological challenges and possibilities 122
Sylvia I Karlsson-Vinkhuyzen

8.1 What makes environmental issues global? 122

8.2 Methodological challenges in a multilevel analysis 124

8.3 Multilevel analysis of drivers for pesticide problems 127

8.4 Multilevel drivers for the pesticide problem 131

8.5 Multilevel drivers for multiple problems 134

8.6 Concluding reflections on the multilevel analysis of drivers 135

9 'Glocal' politics of scale on environmental issues: Climate change, water and forests 140
Joyeeta Gupta

9.1 Introduction 140

9.2 A theoretical framework 141

9.3 Case studies 142

9.4 Comparative analysis 148

9.5 Conclusions 152

9.6 Acknowledgements 153

10 The politics of cross-level interactions in the jurisdictional scale: The case of natural resource management in the South 157
Daniel Compagnon

10.1 Introduction 157

10.2 Scaling up and scaling down: Some clarifications 158

10.3 Re-assessing the state in the South 160

10.4 The state and the rescaling processes 161

10.5 Conclusion 166

11 Rescaling environmental governance: The case of watersheds as scale-sensitive governance? 172
Alice Cohen

11.1 Introduction 172

11.2 Watersheds as rescaling 173

11.3 Understanding the implications of rescaling 177

11.4 Conclusions: Watersheds as everything to everyone? 181

11.5 Acknowledgements 183

12 Urban sustainability pilot projects: Fit or misfit between challenge and solution? 188
Sofie Bouteligier

12.1 Introduction 188

12.2 Scaling urban environmental governance 190

12.3 How pilot projects inspire sustainability transitions 191

12.4 Urban pilot projects: The way forward? 196

12.5 Conclusion 197

13 Tensions between global-scale and national-scale governance: The strategic use of scale frames to promote sustainable palm oil production in Indonesia 203
Otto Hospes and Annemoon Kentin

13.1 Introduction 203

13.2 Scale and scale frames 204

13.3 Do national principles for sustainable palm oil specify or challenge global principles? 207

13.4 The interactive development and strategic use of scale frames 209

13.5 Conclusions 214

13.6 Acknowledgements 217

14 Rethinking governance of complex commodity systems: Evidence from the Nepali tea value chain 220
Sarah Mohan

14.1 Introduction 220

14.2 Conceptualizing scale in commodity systems 221

14.3 Case study: Mismatches in the Nepali tea heterarchy 226

14.4 Insights into scale in private economic governance 234

14.5 Conclusions 238

14.6 Acknowledgements 238

15 An approach to analysing scale-sensitivity and scale-effectiveness of governance in biodiversity conservation 241
Eeva Primmer, Riikka Paloniemi, Raphael Mathevet, Evangelia Apostolopoulou, Joseph Tzanopoulos, Irene Ring, Marianne Kettunen, Jukka Simila, Joanna Cent, Magorzata Grodzinska-Jurczak, Thomas Koellner, Paula Antunes, John D Pantis, Simon G Potts and Rui Santos

15.1 Introduction 241

15.2 Scales and biodiversity conservation 243

15.3 Governance mechanisms 244

15.4 Scales and real-world biodiversity governance in Europe 247

15.5 Discussion: Governance mechanisms generating scale-sensitivity and scale-effectiveness 252

15.6 Conclusions 256

15.7 Acknowledgements 257

16 Scale-sensitive evaluation: The contribution of the EU Rural Development Programme to European water quality ambitions 263
Stijn Reinhard, Vincent Linderhof and Nico Polman

16.1 Introduction 263

16.2 Changing governance in rural development programmes 265

16.3 Evaluation of the Rural Development Programme 267

16.4 Case study at the member state level 273

16.5 Conclusions and challenges 278

16.6 Acknowledgements 279

17 Green infrastructure planning at multiple levels of scale: Experiences from the Autonomous Region of Valencia, Spain 283
Arancha Munoz-Criado and Vicente Domenech

17.1 Introduction 283

17.2 The former planning model: Lack of coordination between levels of government in the Region of Valencia 284

17.3 A new framework for integrating urban planning, strategic environmental assessment and landscape planning, based on a multilevel Green Infrastructure 286

17.4 Developing Green Infrastructure at different scales: Examples of plans and projects 294

17.5 Conclusion: Benefits of Green Infrastructure as the structuring element for planning at all scales 299

18 Synthesis and perspectives for a new research field 302
Frans Padt, Paul Opdam, Nico Polman and Catrien Termeer

18.1 Introduction 302

18.2 A brief summary of the main insights 302

18.3 Conceptual model 306

18.4 Scale-sensitive governance in practice 307

18.5 Perspectives for a new research field 315

References 316

Index 318

Color plates between pages 170 and 171

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Author Information

Frans Padt is Senior Lecturer of Agricultural Economics, Sociology, and Education and Landscape Architecture at the Pennsylvania State University. He holds a Ph.D. in Political Sciences of the Environment from Radboud University Nijmegen.

Paul Opdam is Professor at Wageningen University and Alterra Research Institute in Wageningen. He has a background in landscape ecology and specializes in collaborative landscape planning with ecosystem services in social-ecological networks.

Nico Polman is Senior Researcher at the Agricultural Economics Research Institute (LEI Wageningen UR) in The Hague. He obtained his Ph.D. degree on the thesis titled Institutional Economics Analysis of Contractual Arrangements Addressing Wildlife and Landscape Management on Dutch Farms in 2002.

Catrien Termeer is Professor of Public Administration and Policy at Wageningen University. She holds a Ph.D. in Public Administration from Erasmus University Rotterdam.

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“Overall, I think that this book makes a genuinely useful contribution to the fields of scaling and governance and would highly recommend it as reading for those who are grappling with similar issues.”  (Restoration Ecology, 1 March 2015)


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