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Computer Science and Ambient Intelligence

ISBN: 978-1-118-57815-5
352 pages
January 2013, Wiley-ISTE
Computer Science and Ambient Intelligence (1118578155) cover image

Description

This book focuses on ambient intelligence and addresses various issues related to data management, networking and HCI in this context. Taking a holistic view, it covers various levels of abstraction, ranging from fundamental to advanced concepts and brings together the contributions of various specialists in the field.
Moreover, the book covers the key areas of computer science concerned with the emergence of ambient intelligence (e.g. interaction, middleware, networks, information systems, etc.). It even goes slightly beyond the borders of computer science with contributions related to smart materials and ethics. The authors cover a broad spectrum, with some chapters dedicated to the presentation of basic concepts and others focusing on emerging applications in various fields such as health, transport and tourism.

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Table of Contents

Preface xiii

Chapter 1. Ambient Intelligence: Science or Fad? 1
Joëlle COUTAZ and James L. CROWLEY

1.1. Ambient intelligence: still young at 20 years 1

1.2. A step forward in the evolution of informatics 3

1.2.1. Fifty years ago: the computer as an isolated critical resource 3

1.2.2. Thirty years ago: the user at the center of design 5

1.2.3. The past decade: combining physical, social, and digital worlds 7

1.3. Extreme challenges 10

1.3.1. Multi-scale 10

1.3.2. Heterogeneity 10

1.3.3. Dynamic adaptation 11

1.4. Conclusion 11

1.5. Bibliography 12

Chapter 2. Thinking about Ethics 15
Anne-Marie BENOIT

2.1. Ethics and fundamental rights 16

2.2. Ethics and values 18

2.3. Ethics and future perspectives 20

2.4. Bibliography 20

Chapter 3. Sensor Networks 21
Jean CARLE, Michaël HAUSPIE, Nathalie MITTON, Tahiry RAZAFINDRALAMBO and David SIMPLOT-RYL

3.1. MAC layers for wireless sensor networks 21

3.1.1. Challenges atMAClevel 21

3.1.2. Energy consumption 22

3.1.3. Parameters for evaluating a MAClayer 23

3.1.4. MAC Protocols 23

3.2. Topology control 24

3.2.1. Range adjustment 25

3.2.2. Spanning 27

3.3. Routing 33

3.3.1. Broadcast 33

3.3.2. Classic routing 36

3.3.3. Geographic routing 40

3.4. Deployment of sensor networks 42

3.4.1. Knowing the hardware 43

3.4.2. Development process 45

3.4.3. Ensuring stability 45

3.4.4. Preparing for deployment 46

3.5. Bibliography 47

Chapter 4. Smart Systems, Ambient Intelligence and Energy Sources: Current Developments and Future Applications 55
Georges AKHRAS and Florence SÈDES

4.1. Introduction 55

4.2. Did you say “smart systems”? 56

4.2.1. Smart materials 58

4.2.2. Sensors and actuators 59

4.2.3. Command and control unit 59

4.2.4. Managing data and security 59

4.3. Energy harvesting 60

4.3.1. Initial applications 60

4.3.2. Second generation 62

4.3.3. Managing systems, processes and energy 62

4.4. Wearable computers and smart fibers 63

4.5. Other applications 64

4.6. Conclusion 66

4.7. Bibliography 68

Chapter 5. Middleware in Ubiquitous Computing 71
Vincent HOURDIN, Nicolas FERRY, Jean-Yves TIGLI, Stéphane LAVIROTTE and Gaëtan REY

5.1. Middleware 71

5.2. Development of middleware with new computer environments 71

5.2.1. Distribution 72

5.2.2. Mobility 73

5.2.3. Context awareness and adaptation 74

5.2.4. Ubiquitous computing 74

5.3. Main properties of middleware in ubiquitous computing 75

5.3.1. Heterogeneity and interoperability 76

5.3.2. Scalability 77

5.3.3. Mobility 77

5.3.4. Variability, unpredictability, extensibility and spontaneous interactions 78

5.3.5. Dynamic adaptation 80

5.3.6. Context awareness 81

5.3.7. Security 82

5.3.8. Adapted and controlled response times 83

5.4. Bibliography 84

Chapter 6. WComp, Middleware for Ubiquitous Computing and System Focused Adaptation  89
Nicolas FERRY, Vincent HOURDIN, Stéphane LAVIROTTE, Gaëtan REY and Jean-Yves TIGLI

6.1. Service infrastructure in devices 89

6.1.1. Interoperability 92

6.1.2. Event communication 93

6.1.3. Appearance and disappearance 94

6.1.4. Decentralized dynamic discovery 95

6.1.5. WSOAD 96

6.2. Dynamic service composition 97

6.2.1. Composition of services for devices: LCA 98

6.2.2. Distributed composition: SLCA 100

6.3. Dynamic adaptation of applications to variations in their infrastructure 104

6.3.1. The principles of AOPs 105

6.3.2. Transverse adaptation 107

6.3.3. Summary 117

6.4. Bibliography 117

Chapter 7. Data Access and Ambient Computing 121
Thierry DELOT and Marie THILLIEZ

7.1. Introduction 121

7.2. General context 122

7.2.1. Devices 123

7.2.2. Communication 123

7.2.3. Mobility 123

7.3. Types of queries 125

7.3.1. Location queries 125

7.3.2. Continuous queries 125

7.4. Data access models 126

7.4.1. The Pull model  126

7.4.2. The Push model 127

7.5. Query optimization  128

7.6. Sensitivity to context 130

7.7. Conclusion 131

7.8. Bibliography 132

Chapter 8. Security and Ambient Systems: A Study on the Evolution of Access Management in Pervasive Information Systems 135
Dana AL KUKHUN and Florence SÈDES

8.1. Introduction 135

8.2. Managing access in pervasive information systems 137

8.2.1. Basic access control models 137

8.2.2. Managing service-oriented access: the XACML standard 140

8.3. The evolution of context-aware RBAC models 141

8.3.1. Examples of context-aware models 141

8.3.2. Summary 142

8.4. Conclusion 143

8.5. Bibliography 143

Chapter 9. Interactive Systems and User-Centered Adaptation: The Plasticity of User Interfaces  147
Joëlle COUTAZ, Gaëlle CALVARY, Alexandre DEMEURE and Lionel BALME

9.1. Introduction 147

9.2. The problem space of UI plasticity 149

9.2.1. Plasticity and elasticity 150

9.2.2. Adaptation capacity and its problem space 150

9.2.3. Context of use 159

9.2.4. Meta-UI and user control 163

9.2.5. Utility, usability and value 168

9.2.6. Summary 169

9.3. The CAMELEON reference framework for rational development of plastic UI 170

9.3.1. Relationships between models 173

9.3.2. Development process 175

9.4. The CAMELEON-RT run time infrastructure 176

9.4.1. Functional decomposition of CAMELEON-RT 177

9.4.2. Situation identifier 178

9.4.3. Evolution engine 179

9.4.4. Component manager 179

9.4.5. Adaptation producer 180

9.5. Our principles for implementing plasticity 181

9.6. Conclusion: lessons learned and open challenges 182

9.7. Appendices 185

9.7.1. There is plasticity and there is plasticity! 185
9.7.2. Implementation tools 186

9.8. Bibliography 193

Chapter 10. Composition of User Interfaces 203
Gaëlle CALVARY, Anne-Marie DERY-PINNA, Audrey OCCELLO, Philippe RENEVIER and Yoann GABILLON

10.1. Problem 203

10.2. Case study 205

10.2.1. Description of the available services 205

10.2.2. Examples of services built by composition 207

10.3. Issues 208

10.4. State of the art in UI composition 210

10.4.1. Composition: a shared concern 211

10.4.2. UIs composition 211

10.4.3. The development process of UIs 212

10.4.4. Generation of UIs 213

10.4.5. Plasticity of UIs 213

10.4.6. Summary of the state of the art in UI composition 214

10.5. Two examples of approaches 215

10.5.1. Composition driven by the UI and the context of use: Compose 215

10.5.2. A resolution driven by the functional core: Alias 218

10.6. Key statements and propositions 220

10.7. Bibliography 222

Chapter 11. Smart Homes for People Suffering from Cognitive Disorders 225
Sylvain GIROUX and Hélène PIGOT

11.1. Introduction 225

11.2. The impact of cognitive disorders on society 227

11.2.1. Cognitive deficits have high human, social and economic costs 227

11.2.2. Cognitive assistance and remote monitoring: a source of hope  228

11.3. Cognitive disorders, relevant clients and research at DOMUS 228

11.3.1. Manifestations of cognitive difficulties in affected people 228

11.3.2. Fostering autonomy and aging in place 229

11.3.3. Accompanying caregivers  231

11.4. The objectives of the research program conducted at DOMUS 231

11.4.1. Benefits for individuals and society 232

11.4.2. Transforming the habitat of people with cognitive deficits 232

11.4.3. Building bridges between research, practice and users 233

11.5. Pervasive computing and ambient intelligence  233

11.6. An integrated and interdisciplinary approach to research  234

11.6.1. Guidelines and ethical lines that should not be crossed 234

11.6.2. Multidisciplinary solutions 235

11.6.3. Leaving the laboratory to evaluate, validate and transfer solutions 235

11.6.4. A concrete example of the research approach
applied at DOMUS 236

11.7. Transforming a residence into an intelligent habitat 236

11.8. Research activities 238

11.8.1. Cognitive ortheses and remote monitoring 239

11.8.2. Cognitive assistance in the home 239

11.8.3. Cognitive assistance outside the home 240

11.8.4. Remote monitoring and organization of work between caregivers 241

11.8.5. The interactive AMELIS calendar: portal to an intelligent habitat 241

11.8.6. Accompanied social networking 242

11.8.7. Risk detection 242

11.8.8. Ambient intelligence: ubiquity, activity recognition and context awareness  243

11.8.9. Advanced user interfaces  243

11.8.10. Medical monitoring: gathering ecological data and physiological data 244

11.8.11. Cognitive modeling and personalization 245

11.8.12. Heterogeneous networks, distributed systems and use in real life 246

11.8.13. Identification, localization, simulation and artificial intelligence 247

11.8.14. Private life, security, and reliability 248

11.8.15. Design and ergonomics 248

11.8.16. Clinical studies, usability studies 248

11.9. Conclusion 253

11.10. Bibliography 254

Chapter 12. Pervasive Games and Critical Applications 263
Isabelle ASTIC, Coline AUNIS, Jérome DUPIRE, Viviane GAL, Eric GRESSIER-SOUDAN, Christophe PITREY, Matthieu ROY, Françoise SAILHAN, Michel SIMATIC, Alexandre TOPOL
and Emanuel ZAZA

12.1. Introduction 263

12.2. Pervasive games 264

12.2.1. “PSM: the game where you are the network” 266

12.3. Critical ubiquitous applications 275

12.3.1. Distributed black box 275

12.3.2. Safeguarding heritage 278

12.3.3. Summary 280

12.4. Conclusion 281

12.5. Bibliography 282

Chapter 13. Intelligent Transportation Systems 285
Mikael DESERTOT, Sylvain LECOMTE, Christophe GRANSART and Thierry DELOT

13.1. Introduction 285

13.2. Software architecture 286

13.2.1. For what sort of applications? 286

13.2.2. Importance of the context 287

13.2.3. Services provided by the platform 288

13.2.4. Example of a platform 293

13.3. Dedicated transportation services and mode of communication 294

13.3.1. Transportation-oriented services that use an infrastructure 295

13.3.2. Exchange services between vehicles 295

13.4. Public transportation services 301

13.4.1. ICAU 301

13.4.2. Internet access on trains 303

13.5. Conclusion 303

13.6. Bibliography 304

Chapter 14. Sociotechnical Ambient Systems: From Test Scenario to Scientific obstacles 307
Georges DA COSTA, Jean-Pierre GEORGÉ and Marie-Pierre GLEIZES

14.1. Introduction 307

14.2. Definitions and characteristics 308

14.3. Real-life scenario: Ambient Campus 311

14.4. Intuitive architectures 313

14.4.1. The building blocks of the Ambient Campus scenario 314

14.4.2. Limitations of simplistic infrastructures 314

14.4.3. Context and role bubbles 315

14.5. Scientific challenges 316

14.5.1. AmID 318

14.5.2. Network level 319

14.5.3. Middleware level 320

14.5.4. User service level 321

14.6. Conclusion 324

14.7. Acknowledgments 325

14.8. Bibliography 325

List of Authors 329

Index 333

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