Wiley.com
Print this page Share

Heating, Cooling, Lighting: Sustainable Design Methods for Architects, 4th Edition

ISBN: 978-1-118-58242-8
912 pages
October 2014
Heating, Cooling, Lighting: Sustainable Design Methods for Architects, 4th Edition (111858242X) cover image

Description

Sustainable environmental control through building design

Heating, Cooling, and Lighting is the industry standard text on environmental control systems with the emphasis on sustainable design. By detailing the many factors that contribute to the comfort in a building, this book helps architects minimize mechanical systems and energy usage over the life of the building by siting, building design, and landscaping to maximize natural heating, cooling, and lighting. This new fourth edition includes new information on integrated design strategies and designing for the Tropics. Resources include helpful case studies, checklists, diagrams, and a companion website featuring additional cases, an image bank, and instructor materials.

Designing buildings that require less energy to heat, cool, and light means allowing the natural energy of the sun and wind to reduce the burden on the mechanical and electrical systems. Basic design decisions regarding size, orientation, and form have a great impact on the sustainability, cost, and comfort of a building. Heating, Cooling, and Lighting provides detailed guidance for each phase of a design project. Readers will:

  • Understand the concept of sustainability as applied to energy sources
  • Review the basic principles of thermal comfort, and the critical role of climate
  • Learn the fundamentals of solar responsive design, including active and passive solar systems as well as photovoltaics
  • Discover how siting, architectural design, and landscaping can reduce the requirements for mechanical and electrical systems

In sustainable design, mechanical, and electrical systems should be used to only accomplish what the architect could not by the design of the building itself. With this in mind, designers require a comprehensive understanding of both the properties of energy and the human factors involved in thermal comfort. Heating, Cooling, and Lighting is the complete, industry-leading resource for designers interested in sustainable environmental control.

See More

Table of Contents

FOREWORD TO THE FOURTH EDITION xi
Edward Mazria

FOREWORD TO THE FIRST EDITION xiii
James Marston Fitch

PREFACE xv

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS xvii

1 HEATING, COOLING, AND LIGHTING AS FORM-GIVERS IN ARCHITECTURE 1

1.1 Introduction 2

1.2 Indigenous and Vernacular Architecture 3

1.3 Formal Architecture 5

1.4 The Architectural Approach to Sustainable Design 8

1.5 Dynamic versus Static Buildings 11

1.6 Resilient Design 12

1.7 Biophilic Design 12

1.8 Color and Ornamentation 12

1.9 Energy and Architecture 13

1.10 Climate and Architecture 14

1.11 Sustainability Codes and Voluntary Programs 16

1.12 Integrated Design 17

1.13 Decision Making 18

1.14 Conclusion 19

Key Ideas of Chapter 1 19

2 SUSTAINABLE DESIGN AND ENERGY SOURCES 21

2.1 Easter Island: Learning from the Past 22

2.2 Sustainable Design 22

2.3 Reuse, Recycle, and Regenerate by Design 24

2.4 The Sustainability Movement 26

2.5 Population and Affl uence 26

2.6 Growth 27

2.7 Exponential Growth 27

2.8 The Amoeba Analogy 28

2.9 Supply versus Efficiency 29

2.10 Sustainable-Design Issues 30

2.11 Climate Change 30

2.12 The Global Greenhouse 33

2.13 The Ozone Hole 33

2.14 Effi ciency versus Renewable Energy 34

2.15 Energy Sources 34

2.16 Energy Use in Ancient Greece 34

2.17 Nonrenewable Energy Sources 35

2.18 Renewable Energy Sources 38

2.19 Hydrogen 44

2.20 Conclusion 45

Key Ideas of Chapter 2 46

3 BASIC PRINCIPLES 49

3.1 Introduction 50

3.2 Heat 50

3.3 Sensible Heat 50

3.4 Latent Heat 51

3.5 Evaporative Cooling 51

3.6 Convection 52

3.7 Transport 52

3.8 Energy-Transfer Mediums 53

3.9 Radiation 53

3.10 Greenhouse Effect 54

3.11 Equilibrium Temperature of a Surface 55

3.12 Mean Radiant Temperature 56

3.13 Heat Flow 56

3.14 Heat Sink 57

3.15 Heat Capacity 57

3.16 Thermal Resistance 58

3.17 Heat-Flow Coeffi cient 58

3.18 Time Lag 58

3.19 Insulating Effect of Mass 59

3.20 Energy Conversion 59

3.21 Combined Heat and Power 60

3.22 Fuel Cells 60

3.23 Embodied Energy 61

3.24 Conclusion 61

Key Ideas of Chapter 3 62

4 THERMAL COMFORT 63

4.1 Biological Machine 64

4.2 Thermal Barriers 65

4.3 Metabolic Rate 67

4.4 Thermal Conditions of the Environment 67

4.5 The Psychrometric Chart 68

4.6 Dew Point and Wet-Bulb Temperatures 69

4.7 Heat Content of Air 70

4.8 Thermal Comfort 72

4.9 Shifting of the Comfort Zone 73

4.10 Adaptive Comfort 74

4.11 Clothing and Comfort 75

4.12 Strategies 75

4.13 Conclusion 76

Key Ideas of Chapter 4 76

5 CLIMATE 79

5.1 Introduction 80

5.2 Climate 80

5.3 Microclimate 83

5.4 Climatic Anomalies 85

5.5 Climate Regions of the United States and Canada 86

5.6 Explanations of the Climatic Data Tables 87

5.7 Relative Heating and Cooling Loads 93

5.8 Additional Climate Information 94

5.9 Climate Information for Other Countries 95

Data Tables for Climate Regions, United States 96

5.10 Design Strategies 130

Key Ideas of Chapter 5 137

6 SOLAR GEOMETRY 139

6.1 Introduction 140

6.2 The Sun 140

6.3 Elliptical Orbit 140

6.4 Tilt of the Earth’s Axis 141

6.5 Consequences of the Altitude Angle 142

6.6 Winter 144

6.7 The Sun Revolves Around the Earth! 144

6.8 The Sky Dome 144

6.9 Determining Altitude and Azimuth Angles 145

6.10 Solar Time 146

6.11 Horizontal Sun-Path Diagrams 146

6.12 Vertical Sun-Path Diagrams 148

6.13 Drawing Sunbeams 150

6.14 Sun-Path Models 153

6.15 Solar Heat Gain 154

6.16 Solar Site-Evaluation Tools 158

6.17 Heliodons 159

6.18 Sundials for Model Testing 160

6.19 Conceptually Clear Heliodons 161

6.20 Conclusion 162

Key Ideas of Chapter 6 164

7 PASSIVE SOLAR 165

7.1 History 166

7.2 Solar in America 166

7.3 Solar Hemicycle 167

7.4 Latest Rediscovery of Passive Solar 169

7.5 Passive Solar 169

7.6 Direct-Gain Systems 171

7.7 Design Guidelines for Direct-Gain Systems 173

7.8 Example 175

7.9 Trombe Wall Systems 175

7.10 Design Guidelines for Trombe Wall Systems 179

7.11 Example 179

7.12 Sunspaces 180

7.13 Balcomb House 182

7.14 Sunspace Design Guidelines 183

7.15 Comparison of the Three Main Passive Heating Systems 184

7.16 General Considerations For Passive Solar Systems 184

7.17 Heat-Storage Materials 189

7.18 Other Passive Heating Systems 191

7.19 Maximizing Passive Solar 194

7.20 Conclusion 194

Key Ideas of Chapter 7 195

8 PHOTOVOLTAICS AND ACTIVE SOLAR 197

8.1 Introduction 198

8.2 The Almost Ideal Energy Source 198

8.3 History of PV 199

8.4 The PV Cell 201

8.5 Types of PV Systems 202

8.6 Balance of System Equipment 203

8.7 Building-Integrated Photovoltaics 203

8.8 Orientation and Tilt 205

8.9 Roofs Clad with PV 206

8.10 Facades Clad with PV 207

8.11 Glazing and PV 209

8.12 PV Shading Devices 210

8.13 PV: Part of the Second Tier 210

8.14 Sizing a PV System 210

8.15 Finding the PV Array Size for a Stand-Alone Building by the Short Calculation Method 211

8.16 Design Guidelines 213

8.17 The Promise of PV 213

8.18 The Cost-Effectiveness of PV and Active Solar Applications 214

8.19 Active Solar Swimming-Pool Heating 216

8.20 Solar Hot-Water Systems 217

8.21 Solar Hot-Air Collectors 219

8.22 Designing an Active Solar System 221

8.23 Active/Passive Solar Systems 223

8.24 Preheating of Ventilation Air 224

8.25 The Future of Active Solar 226

8.26 Conclusion 226

Key Ideas of Chapter 8 228

9 SHADING AND LIGHT COLORS 229

9.1 History of Shading 230

9.2 Shading 234

9.3 Fixed Exterior Shading Devices 236

9.4 Movable Shading Devices 239

9.5 Shading Periods of the Year 246

9.6 Overhangs 249

9.7 Design of Horizontal Overhangs—Basic Method 250

9.8 Shading Design for South Windows 251

9.9 Design Guidelines for Fixed South Overhangs 251

9.10 Design Guidelines for Movable South Overhangs 253

9.11 Shading for East and West Windows 254

9.12 Design of East and West Horizontal Overhangs 258

9.13 Design of Fins on North Windows 259

9.14 Design Guidelines for Eggcrate Shading Devices 259

9.15 Special Shading Strategies 261

9.16 Shading Outdoor Spaces 263

9.17 Using Physical Models for Shading Design 267

9.18 Glazing as the Shading Element 270

9.19 Interior Shading Devices 276

9.20 Solar Heat Gain Coeffi cient 277

9.21 Roof and Wall Reflectivity 278

9.22 Conclusion 281

Key Ideas of Chapter 9 283

10 PASSIVE COOLING 285

10.1 Introduction to Cooling 286

10.2 Historical and Indigenous Use of Passive Cooling 286

10.3 Passive Cooling Systems 292

10.4 Comfort Ventilation versus Night-Flush Cooling 293

10.5 Basic Principles of Airflow 293

10.6 Airfl ow through Buildings 297

10.7 Example of Ventilation Design 306

10.8 Comfort Ventilation 307

10.9 Night-Flush Cooling 309

10.10 Double-Skin Facades and Operable Roofs 312

10.11 Radiant Cooling 313

10.12 Evaporative Cooling 316

10.13 Cool Towers 319

10.14 Earth Cooling 320

10.15 Dehumidification with a Desiccant 322

10.16 Solar Chimney 323

10.17 Conclusion 324

Key Ideas of Chapter 10 324

11 SITE DESIGN, COMMUNITY PLANNING, AND LANDSCAPING 325

11.1 Introduction 326

11.2 Site Selection 328

11.3 Solar Access 329

11.4 Shadow Patterns 330

11.5 Site Planning 334

11.6 Solar Zoning 338

11.7 Physical Models 340

11.8 Wind and Site Design 341

11.9 Plants and Vegetation 346

11.10 Vegetated Roofs 352

11.11 Lawns 355

11.12 Landscaping 355

11.13 Community Design 360

11.14 Cooling Our Communities 362

11.15 Conclusion 363

Key Ideas of Chapter 11 363

12 LIGHTING 365

12.1 Introduction 366

12.2 Light 367

12.3 Reflectance/Transmittance 370

12.4 Color 371

12.5 Vision 374

12.6 Perception 375

12.7 Performance of a Visual Task 379

12.8 Characteristics of the Visual Task 379

12.9 Illumination Level 381

12.10 Brightness Ratios 382

12.11 Glare 384

12.12 Equivalent Spherical Illumination 387

12.13 Activity Needs 389

12.14 Biological Needs 392

12.15 Light and Health 394

12.16 The Poetry of Light 395

12.17 Rules for Lighting Design 395

12.18 Career Possibilities 396

12.19 Conclusion 397

Key Ideas of Chapter 12 398

13 DAYLIGHTING 399

13.1 History of Daylighting 400

13.2 Why Daylighting? 403

13.3 The Nature of Daylight 405

13.4 Conceptual Model 407

13.5 Illumination and the Daylight Factor 409

13.6 Light without Heat? 410

13.7 Cool Daylight 411

13.8 Goals of Daylighting 412

13.9 Basic Daylighting Strategies 413

13.10 Basic Window Strategies 416

13.11 Advanced Window Strategies 419

13.12 Window Glazing Materials 424

13.13 Top Lighting 427

13.14 Skylight Strategies 427

13.15 Clerestories, Monitors, and Light Scoops 432

13.16 Special Daylighting Techniques 437

13.17 Translucent Walls and Roofs 442

13.18 Electric Lighting as a Supplement to Daylighting 444

13.19 Physical Modeling 445

13.20 Guidelines for Daylighting 449

13.21 Conclusion 450

Key Ideas of Chapter 13 450

14 ELECTRIC LIGHTING 453

14.1 History of Light Sources 454

14.2 Light Sources 455

14.3 Incandescent and Halogen Lamps 457

14.4 Discharge Lamps 459

14.5 Fluorescent Lamps 460

14.6 High Intensity Discharge Lamps (Mercury, Metal Halide, and High Pressure Sodium) 462

14.7 Solid State Lighting 464

14.8 Comparison of the Major Lighting Sources 466

14.9 Luminaires 467

14.10 Lenses, Diffusers, and Baffles 468

14.11 Lighting Systems 470

14.12 Remote-Source Lighting Systems 472

14.13 Visualizing Light Distribution 473

14.14 Architectural Lighting 476

14.15 Outdoor Lighting 478

14.16 Emergency Lighting 479

14.17 Controls 480

14.18 Maintenance 480

14.19 Rules for Energy-Efficient Electric Lighting Design 481

14.20 Laws and Standards 481

14.21 Conclusion 482

Key Ideas of Chapter 14 482

15 THE THERMAL ENVELOPE: KEEPING WARM AND STAYING COOL 483

15.1 Background 484

15.2 Heat Loss 485

15.3 Heat Gain 487

15.4 Solar Reflectivity (Albedo) 489

15.5 Compactness, Exposed Area, and Thermal Planning 490

15.6 Insulation Materials 493

15.7 The Thermal Envelope 498

15.8 Heat Bridges 505

15.9 Windows 508

15.10 Movable Insulation 512

15.11 Insulating Effect From Thermal Mass 513

15.12 Earth Sheltering 515

15.13 Infi ltration and Ventilation 519

15.14 Moisture Control 521

15.15 Radon 524

15.16 Appliances 525

15.17 Conclusion 526

Key Ideas of Chapter 15 526

16 MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT FOR HEATING AND COOLING 529

16.1 Introduction 530

16.2 Heating 530

16.3 Thermal Zones 532

16.4 Heating Systems 532

16.5 Electric Heating 534

16.6 Hot-Water (Hydronic) Heating 535

16.7 Hot-Air Systems 537

16.8 Cooling 540

16.9 Refrigeration Cycles 541

16.10 Heat Pumps 542

16.11 Geo-Exchange 543

16.12 Cooling Systems 545

16.13 Air-Conditioning for Small Buildings 548

16.14 Air-Conditioning for Large Multistory Buildings 552

16.15 Design Guidelines for Mechanical Systems 562

16.16 Air Supply (Ducts and Diffusers) 563

16.17 Ventilation 566

16.18 Energy-Efficient Ventilation Systems 568

16.19 Air Filtration and Odor Removal 570

16.20 Special Systems 570

16.21 Integrated and Exposed Mechanical Equipment 572

16.22 Low Energy Heating and Cooling 573

16.23 Conclusion 573

Key Ideas of Chapter 16 574

17 TROPICAL ARCHITECTURE 577

17.1 Introduction 578

17.2 Traditional Tropical Architecture 578

17.3 The Tropical Climate 583

17.4 The Solar Geometry of the Tropics 583

17.5 Shading in Tropical Climates 587

17.6 Daylighting in the Tropics 589

17.7 Passive Cooling 589

17.8 Air-Conditioned Buildings in the Tropics 590

17.9 Conclusion 593

Key Ideas of Chapter 17 594

18 RECOMMENDED LOW ENERGY CASE STUDIES 595

18.1 Introduction 596

18.2 Case Studies 596

19 CHECKLIST FOR DESIGNING INTEGRATED SUSTAINABLE BUILDINGS 599

19.1 Introduction 600

19.2 Site Selection 600

19.3 Form 600

19.4 Plan 600

19.5 Windows 600

19.6 Daylighting 601

19.7 Shading 601

19.8 Color 601

19.9 Thermal Envelope 602

19.10 Thermal Mass 602

19.11 Glazing 602

19.12 Air Barrier 603

19.13 Passive Systems 603

19.14 Electric Lighting 603

19.15 Mechanical Equipment 603

APPENDIX A HORIZONTAL SUN-PATH DIAGRAMS 605

APPENDIX B VERTICAL SUN-PATH DIAGRAMS 617

APPENDIX C SOLAR ALTITUDE AND AZIMUTH ANGLES 629

APPENDIX D METHODS FOR ESTIMATING THE HEIGHT OF TREES, BUILDINGS, ETC. 635

D.1 Proportional-Shadow Method 635

D.2 Similar-Triangle Method 635

D.3 45° Right-Triangle Method 636

D.4 Trigonometric Method 636

D.5 Tools for Measuring Vertical Angles 636

APPENDIX E SUNDIALS 639

APPENDIX F SUN-PATH MODELS 649

F.1 Introduction 649

F.2 Directions for Constructing a Sun-Path Model 649

APPENDIX G THE WATER TABLE FOR VENTILATION STUDIES 659

G.1 Introduction 659

G.2 Construction of a Water Table 659

APPENDIX H SITE EVALUATION TOOLS 661

H.1 Introduction 661

H.2 The Solar Pathfinder 661

H.3 The SunEye 661

H.4 The Sun Locator 663

H.5 Do-It-Yourself Solar Site Evaluator 663

APPENDIX I HELIODONS 669

I.1 Introduction 669

I.2 The Sun Simulator Heliodon 669

I.3 The Sun Emulator Heliodon 669

I.4 The Tabletop Heliodon 670

I.5 The Bowling Ball Heliodon 673

APPENDIX J TABLES OF R-VALUES 675

APPENDIX K RESOURCES 679

K.1 Books 679

K.2 Journals 679

K.3 Videos 679

K.4 Organizations 680

K.5 Web-Based Resources 681

APPENDIX L CONVERSION FACTORS BETWEEN THE INCH-POUND (I-P) SYSTEM AND THE INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM OF UNITS (SI) 683

BIBLIOGRAPHY 687

INDEX 693

See More

Downloads

Download TitleSizeDownload
Errata in Text
Table 9.9A Correct numbers are reflected in the attachments
666.18 KB Click to Download
Errata in Text
Table 9.9B Correct numbers are reflected in the attachments
663.62 KB Click to Download
See More

Errata

Do you think you've discovered an error in this book? Please check the list of errata below to see if we've already addressed the error. If not, please submit the error via our Errata Form. We will attempt to verify your error; if you're right, we will post a correction below.

ChapterPageDetailsDatePrint Run
9 252 Errata in Text
Table 9.9A need to have numbers adjusted.Correct numbers are reflected in downloads
12-Apr-17
9 253 Errata in Text
Table 9.9B need to have numbers adjusted. Correct numbers are reflected in the downloads
12-Apr-17
See More
Instructors Resources
Wiley Instructor Companion Site
Request a print evaluation copy
Contact us
See More
See Less

Related Titles

Back to Top