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Environmental Geomechanics

Bernard Schrefler (Editor), Pierre Delage (Editor)
ISBN: 978-1-118-61977-3
544 pages
March 2013, Wiley-ISTE
Environmental Geomechanics (1118619773) cover image

Description

This book covers a range of topics that are of increasing importance in engineering practice: natural hazards, pollution, and environmental protection through good practice.

The first half of the book deals with natural risk factors, of both natural and human origin, that should be considered: subsidence, accidental infiltration, soil instability, rockslides and mudslides, debris flow, and degradation of buildings and monuments due to pollution and climactic effects, for example. These problems are highlighted and it is shown that a combination of sophisticated numerical techniques and extensive experimental investigations are necessary in order to effectively tackle these problems.

The second half of the book is devoted to the use of polluted sites and associated problems, a topic of growing significance given the increasing reclamation of land from abandoned industrial sites for urban development over the last 20 years. Different types of oil pollution and decontamination methods are described, followed by a discussion of waste management and detailed coverage of confinement liners used in surface waste disposal.

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Table of Contents

Introduction xiii

Chapter 1. Debris Flows 1
Christophe ANCEY

1.1. Introduction 1

1.2. Typology of torrential flows 2

1.3. Initiation, motion and effects of debris flows 6

1.4. Modeling debris flows 12

1.5. Bibliography 30

Chapter 2. Snow Avalanches 39
Christophe ANCEY

2.1. Introduction 39

2.2. Modeling avalanches 45

2.3. Bibliography 65

Chapter 3. Instability of Soil Masses 73
Laurent VULLIET

3.1. Introduction 73

3.2. Slowly moving slopes 75

3.3. Limit state analysis 78

3.4. Case of non-saturated masses 84

3.5. Conclusion and prospects 90

3.6. Bibliography 91

Chapter 4. Instability of Rock Masses 93
François DESCOEUDRES

4.1. Introduction 93

4.2. Cliff stability and toppling 94

4.3. Contact-impact 99

4.4. Flight trajectory 101

4.5. Sliding and rolling 103

4.6. Impact on an embankment (safety embankment) 107

4.7. Capacity of the protective structures 111

4.8. Conclusion 114

4.9. Bibliography 114

Chapter 5. Subsidence Phenomena 117
Bernhard SCHREFLER and Luciano SIMONI

5.1. Subsidence caused by water withdrawal 117

5.2. Artificially-induced land uplift 141

5.3. Conclusions 146

5.4. Bibliography 147

Chapter 6. Soil Collapse due to Water Infiltration 149
Yu-Jun CUI and Pierre DELAGE

6.1. Introduction 149

6.2. The loess in Northern France 151

6.3. Conclusion 165

6.4. Bibliography 167

Chapter 7. Subsidence Induced by Fossil Fuel Extraction 171
Christian SCHROEDER, Yu-Jun CUI and Bernhard SCHREFLER

7.1. Introduction 171

7.2. Subsidence due to coal extraction 172

7.3. Recap of the basic Barcelona mode1 176

7.4. Subsidence due to oil exploitation 179

7.5. Subsidence due to the exploitation of gas reservoirs 185

7.6. Acknowledgements 197

7.7. Bibliography 197

Chapter 8. Deterioration of Stone in Monuments 201
Véronique VERGÈS-BELMIN

8.1. Introduction 201

8.2. Intrinsic degradation factors 202

8.3. Extrinsic degradation factors 214

8.4. Acknowledgements 240

8.5. Bibliography 240

Chapter 9. The Physics of Water Transfer in Stone 247
Jean-Paul LAURENT

9.1. General concepts and terminology 247

9.2. Water in stones: capillarity 250

9.3. Modeling water transfer in stone 263

9.4. Bibliography 271

Chapter 10. Experimental Techniques for Characterizing Alterations 275
Claude BRUNJAIL, Guy BASTIAN, Grégoire CHÉNÉ and Véronique VERGÈS-BELMIN. Updated by Philippe BROMBLET

10.1. Laboratory and in situ testing 275

10.2. Hydric and thermal transfers: specific techniques 296

10.3. Bibliography 303

Chapter 11. Case Studies 313
Jean GODIN, Claude BRUNJAIL, Véronique VERGÈS-BELMIN and Ann BOURGÈS

11.1. Notre-Dame-la-Grande Church in Poitiers, in situ study 313

11.2. Research on earthen plaster stabilized with bitumen and polychrome decoration: Navrongo
cathedral, North Ghana 321

11.3. Bibliography 330

Chapter 12. The Nature and Survey of Soil Pollution 333
Abdelmalek BOUAZZA, Pierre DELAGE and Michel WOJNAROWICZ

12.1. Introduction 333

12.2. The nature of soil pollution 334

12.3. The survey of contaminated sites 339

12.4. Conclusions 356

12.5. Bibliography 357

Chapter 13. Retention and Transfer of Soluble Chemical Pollutants: Mechanisms and Numerical
Modeling 361
Robert CHARLIER and Jean-Pol RADU

13.1. Introduction 361

13.2. Ideal pollutant transport in an ideal continuous medium 362

13.3. Pollutant retention phenomena 366

13.4. Balance equations 369

13.5. Numerical modeling of transport by advection 371

13.6. Finite elements modeling of the problem with advection and diffusion 372

13.7. Examples and applications 380

13.8. Conclusions 388

13.9. Acknowledgments 388

13.10. Bibliography 389

13.11. Notations table 390

Chapter 14. Retention and Transfer of Pollution by Hydrocarbons: Mechanisms and Numerical Modeling 393
Bernhard SCHREFLER and Pierre DELAGE

14.1. Introduction 393

14.2. Mechanisms 393

14.3. Numerical modeling 398

14.4. Conclusion 415

14.5. Bibliography 416

Chapter 15. Methods of Soil Environmental Remediation 419
Abdelmalek BOUAZZA, Michel WOJNAROWICZ and Mario MANASSERO

15.1. Introduction 419

15.2. Pollution control techniques 420

15.3. Active containment in situ 423

15.4. Passive treatment in situ 425

15.5. Active treatment in situ 429

15.6. Conclusions 453

15.7. Bibliography 454

Chapter 16. Liners for Waste Containment Facilities 459
Abdelmalek BOUAZZA, Michel WOJNAROWICZ and Mario MANASSERO

16.1. Introduction 459

16.2. Types of lining systems and definition of basic components 462

16.3. Mass balance of the contaminants 464

16.4. Functions, performance and modeling 465

16.5. Environmental impact evaluation (risk analysis) 466

16.6. Bottom barriers 469

16.7. Equivalence of liner systems 481

16.8. Composite liners 491

16.9. Conclusions 501

16.10. Bibliography 502

List of Authors 509

Index 513

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Reviews

"This book covers a range of topics that are of increasing importance in engineering practice: natural hazards, pollution, and environmental protection through good practice." (Quote.com, 10 February 2011)
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