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AIChE Equipment Testing Procedure - Trayed and Packed Columns: A Guide to Performance Evaluation, 3rd Edition

ISBN: 978-1-118-62771-6
152 pages
January 2014
AIChE Equipment Testing Procedure - Trayed and Packed Columns: A Guide to Performance Evaluation, 3rd Edition (1118627717) cover image

AIChE manual updates and consolidates procedures for testing performance of distillation columns

From classic distillation operations to air stripping to other separations processes, selecting the correct column for appropriate efficient, safe, and environmentally-sound operations can be an important step. The newest updated volume in AIChE’s long-running Equipment Testing Procedures series, Trayed and Packed Columns: A Guide to Performance Evaluation, Third Edition provides chemical engineers, plant managers, and other professionals with helpful advice to assess and measure performance of a variety of distillation columns, including those that utilize bubble cap, sieve, valve trays, or packing material.

The new book combines and updates into one user-friendly volume the best available field knowledge from previous publications on both types of distillation columns. Designed not as a single set of compulsory steps, but as a compilation of techniques, it will allow the user to select the procedure that best applies to its operating parameters. The testing steps presented can be used to assess reliable performance data on mass transfer efficiency, capacity, energy consumption, and pressure drop—information essential to effective troubleshooting of performance problems, identifying capacity bottlenecks, determining operating ranges, and a number of other routine maintenance and optimization processes.

Opening with an extensive definition section, organized by topical area, the book then goes on to address:

  • Selection of instrumentation and identification of elements to be measured
  • Pre-test planning procedures
  • Strategies for data collection and evaluation, including sampling procedures
  • Pre-test, in-test, and post-test considerations (equipment, safety, process, environmental)
  • Computation and interpretation of results, including individual breakdowns for trayed and packed columns in terms of hydraulic and efficiency performance
  • Test troubleshooting analysis in twelve key areas

The book concludes with appendices for relevant symbols and nomenclature, plus sample caculations generated from performance tests.

With its engineer-tested procedures and thorough explanations, Trayed and Packed Columns: A Guide to Performance Evaluation, Third Edition is an essential text for anyone engaged in implementing new technology in equipment design, identifying process problems, and optimizing equipment performance.

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100.0 PURPOSE & SCOPE 1

101.0 Purpose 1

102.0 Scope 1

200.0 DEFINITION AND DESCRIPTION OF TERMS 2

201.0 Flow Quantities 2

202.0 Key Components 3

203.0 Mass Transfer Efficiency 4

203.1 Theoretical Trays or Plates or Stages 4

203.2 Overall Column Efficiency 4

203.3 Apparent Murphree Tray Efficiency 4

203.4 Ideal Murphree Tray Efficiency 4

203.5 Murphree Point Efficiency 4

203.6 HETP 4

203.7 HTU 4

203.8 NTU 4

204.0 Operating Lines 5

205.0 Pinch 5

206.0 Maximum Throughput 5

206.1 Maximum Hydraulic Throughput 5

206.2 Maximum Operational Capacity 5

206.3 Maximum Efficient Capacity 5

207.0 Minimum Operating Rate 5

208.0 Operating Section 5

209.0 Hardware 6

209.1 Components of a Trayed Column 6

209.2 Components of a Packed Column 7

300.0 TEST PLANNING 9

301.0 Preliminary Preparation 9

301.1 Safety 10

301.2 Environmental Considerations 10

301.3 Test Objectives 10

301.4 Organizational Resources 10

301.5 Schedule 10

301.6 Review of Historic Operating Data 10

302.0 Column Control and Instrumentation 11

303.0 Peripheral Equipment 11

304.0 Pre-test Calculations 11

304.1 Process Simulation 11

304.2 Dry Run 11

305.0 Types of Tests 12

305.1 Performance Tests 12

305.2 Acceptance Tests 12

306.0 Specific Areas of Interest 12

306.1 Packing Efficiencies 12

306.2 Tray Efficiencies 12

306.3 Overall Column Efficiency 13

306.4 Capacity Limitations 13

307.0 Energy Consumption 14

308.0 Pressure Drop Restrictions 15

309.0 Data Collection Requirements 15

309.1 Process Operating Data 15

309.2 Gamma Scan Data 15

310.0 Conditions of External Streams 18

310.1 Overall and Component Material Balances 18

310.2 Overall Enthalpy Balances 18

311.0 Internal Temperatures 18

311.1 Heat Balances 18

311.2 Internal Profiles 18

312.0 Internal Samples 20

312.1 Internal Samples for Efficiency Checks 20

312.2 Internal Samples for Overall Performance 20

313.0 Pressure Profiles 20

314.0 Data Requirements-Physical Properties 20

314.1 Test Mixtures 20

314.2 Essential Data 21

315.0 Auxiliary Data 21

316.0 Test Procedure Documentation 21

400.0 METHODS OF MEASUREMENT AND SAMPLING 22

401.0 System Controls and Operating Stability 22

402.0 Measurement of Temperatures 22

402.1 Accuracy 22

402.2 Errors 22

403.0 Measurement of Flow Rates 24

403.1 Orifice Meters 24

403.2 Rotameters 25

403.3 Vortex Flow Meters 25

403.4 Coriolis Flow Meters 25

403.5 Magnetic Flow Meters 25

403.6 Pitot Tube (or Annubar) 25

403.7 Direct Volume or Weight Measurement 26

404.0 Measurement of Column Pressure Drop 26

404.1 Instrument 26

404.2 Pressure Taps 26

404.3 Seal Pots 33

404.4 Leakage Check 33

404.5 Accuracy 33

405.0 Sampling Procedure 34

405.1 General 34

405.2 Selection of Sampling Points 34

405.3 Sample Connections 35

405.4 Containers 35

405.5 Sampling of High Boiling Materials 36

405.6 Sampling of Intermediate Boiling Materials 37

405.7 Sampling of Materials Having Boiling Points Below -50°F (-46°C) 40

405.8 Leakage Check 41

405.9 Labeling and Handling the Samples 41

500.0 TEST PROCEDURE 43

501.0 Preliminary 43

502.0 Test Procedure for Maximum Hydraulic Throughput 43

502.1 Flood Symptoms 44

502.2 Performing Capacity Tests 45

502.3 Optional Test Technique – Gamma Scanning 48

503.0 Considerations Affecting Efficiency Test Procedure 48

503.1 Rigorous Versus Shortcut Efficiency Tests 48

503.2 Strategy of Efficiency Testing 49

503.3 Early Preparation for Efficiency Tests 50

503.4 Last-minute Preparations for Efficiency Tests 53

503.5 Establishment of Steady State Conditions 55

503.6 The Test Day 56

503.7 Concluding Test 56

600.0 COMPUTATION OF RESULTS

601.0 Verification of Test Data and Simulation Models 58

602.0 Material Balance 59

602.1 End Effects 59

603.0 Enthalpy Balance 59

603.1 Overall Balance 59

603.2 Internal Flow Rates 60

604.0 Hydraulic Performance 60

604.1 Trayed Column 60

604.2 Packed Column 61

605.0 Efficiency Performance 61

605.1 Trayed Column 62

605.2 Packed Column 69

700.0 INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS 76

701.0 Sources of Experimental Error 76

701.1 Material and Enthalpy Balances 77

702.0 Effects of Experimental Error 78

703.0 Design versus Performance 78

703.1 Mechanical/Tower Equipment 78

703.2 Process Conditions 78

704.0 Hydraulic Performance 79

704.1 Mechanical/Tower Equipment 79

704.2 Tray 79

704.3 Packing 80

704.4 Process Conditions 80

705.0 Mass Transfer Performance 81

705.1 Mechanical/Tower Equipment 81

705.2 Tray 81

705.3 Packing 82

705.4 Maldistribution 82

705.5 Process 84

706.0 Test Troubleshooting 85

706.1 Analysis Procedure 85

706.2 Sampling 85

706.3 Equilibrium Data 85

706.4 Temperature Measurements 85

706.5 Heat and Material Balances 86

706.6 Fluctuation of Process Conditions 86

706.7 Pressure Drop Measurements 86

706.8 Incorrect Prediction of Pressure Drop 86

706.9 Errors in Assumptions in Modeling Mass Transfer 86

706.10 Multicomponent Systems Deviate from Binary Data 87

706.11 High Purity Separation 87

706.12 Test and Design Conditions 87

800.0 APPENDIX 88

801.0 Notation 88

801.1 Greek Symbols 90

802.0 Sample Calculations 90

802.1 General Analysis of Test Data 90

802.2 Packed Column 91

802.3 Trayed Column 107

803.0 References 126

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THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERS (AIChE) is a distinguished professional association that strives to provide leadership in the advancing chemical engineering profession. The Equipment Testing Procedures Committee is composed of engineers with substantial experience in the design and operation of process plants, as well as in solving problems that can arise with the equipment used in these plants.

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