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Skeletal Variation and Adaptation in Europeans: Upper Paleolithic to the Twentieth Century

ISBN: 978-1-118-62796-9
528 pages
March 2018, Wiley-Blackwell
Skeletal Variation and Adaptation in Europeans: Upper Paleolithic to the Twentieth Century (1118627962) cover image

Description

A comprehensive analysis of changes in body form and skeletal robusticity from the Terminal Pleistocene through the Holocene, leading to the modern European human phenotype.

Skeletal Variation and Adaptation in Europeans: Upper Paleolithic to the Twentieth Century brings together for the first time the results of an unprecedented large-scale investigation of European skeletal remains. The study was conducted over ten years by an international research team, and includes more than 2,000 skeletons spanning most of the European continent over the past 30,000 years, from the Early Upper Paleolithic to the 20th century. This time span includes environmental transitions from foraging to food production, small-scale to large-scale urban settlements, increasing social stratification and mechanization of labor, and climatic changes.  Alterations in body form and behavior in response to these transitions are reconstructed through osteometric and biomechanical analyses.

Divided into four sections, the book includes an introduction to the project and comprehensive descriptions of the methods used; general continent-wide syntheses of major trends in body size, shape, and skeletal robusticity; detailed regional analyses; and a summary of results. It also offers a full data set on an external website.

  • Brings together data from an unprecedented large-scale study of human skeletal and anatomical variations
  • Includes appendix of specific information from each research site
  • Synthesizes data from spatial, temporal, regional, and geographical perspectives

Skeletal Variation and Adaptation in Europeans will be a valuable resource for bioarchaeologists, palaeoanthropologists, forensic anthropologists, medical historians, and archaeologists at both the graduate and post-graduate level.

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Table of Contents

List of Contributors xiii

Preface xv

1 Introduction 1
Christopher B. Ruff

1.1 Study Sample 3

1.2 Osteological Measurements 5

1.3 Other Variables 8

1.4 Organization of the Book 9

References 10

2 Body Size and Shape Reconstruction 15
Markku Niskanen and Christopher B. Ruff

2.1 Introduction 15

2.2 Body Size and Shape Estimation 15

2.3 Materials and Methods 17

2.3.1 Estimation of Missing Elements 17

2.3.2 Statistical Procedures 19

2.4 Estimating Body Size and Shape from Skeletal Dimensions 20

2.4.1 Stature 20

2.4.2 Sitting Height and Total Lower Limb Length 22

2.4.3 Limb Segment Lengths 23

2.4.4 Body Breadths 24

2.4.5 Body Mass 25

2.5 Evaluation of Errors in Estimating Body Size and Shape from Skeletal Dimensions 26

2.5.1 Stature Estimation 26

2.5.2 Sitting Height, Lower Limb Subischial Length, and Lower Leg Length 28

2.5.3 Trunk Breadths 30

2.5.4 Body Mass Estimation 30

2.5.5 Sex and Age Effects 32

2.6 Discussion and Conclusions 33

Acknowledgments 34

References 34

3 Quantifying Skeletal Robusticity 39
Christopher B. Ruff

3.1 Cross ]Sectional Properties 39

3.2 Cross ]Section Reconstruction 40

3.3 Section Moduli 42

3.4 Standardizing for Body Size 44

References 45

4 Temporal and Geographic Variation in Body Size and Shape of Europeans from the Late Pleistocene to Recent Times 49
Markku Niskanen, Christopher B. Ruff, Brigitte Holt, Vladimir Sladek, and Margit Berner

4.1 Environmental Adaptation 49

4.2 European Population History 52

4.3 Materials and Methods 54

4.3.1 Skeletal Samples and Variables 54

4.3.2 Estimating Body Size and Shape from Skeletal Dimensions 55

4.3.3 Anthropometric Samples and Variables 56

4.3.4 Statistical and Graphical Analyses 57

4.4 Results 58

4.4.1 General Temporal Trends in Body Size and Body Proportions 58

4.4.2 Body Size and Shape of Foragers Before and After the Last Glacial Maximum 66

4.4.3 Changes Across the Mesolithic–Neolithic Transition and During the Neolithic 67

4.4.4 The Little Ice Age, the Industrial Revolution, and Very Recent Changes 67

4.4.5 Geographic Differences in Body Size and Proportions 68

4.5 Discussion 76

4.6 Conclusions 81

References 82

5 Temporal and Geographic Variation in Robusticity 91
Brigitte Holt, Erin Whittey, Markku Niskanen, Vladimir Sladek, Margit Berner, and Christopher B. Ruff

5.1 Introduction 91

5.2 Background 91

5.2.1 Limb Bone Robusticity and Subsistence Changes 91

5.2.2 Cultural and Economic Factors 92

5.2.3 Terrain 96

5.3 Materials 96

5.4 Methods 97

5.4.1 Aging and Sexing 97

5.4.2 Reconstruction of Cross ]Sectional Dimensions 97

5.4.3 Robusticity Variables 97

5.4.4 Standardizing Cross ]Sectional Dimension for Differences in Body Size 98

5.4.5 Quantification of Terrain 98

5.4.6 Categorization of Urbanization 98

5.4.7 Analysis of Robusticity 98

5.5 Results 99

5.5.1 Temporal Trends 99

5.5.1.1 Upper Limb 99

5.5.1.2 Lower Limb 107

5.5.2 Urbanization 116

5.5.4 Terrain 117

5.6 Discussion 118

5.7 Conclusions 126

Acknowledgments 127

References 127

6 Sexual Dimorphism 133
Margit Berner, Vladimir Sladek , Brigitte Holt, Markku Niskanen, and Christopher B. Ruff

6.1 Introduction 133

6.2 Materials and Methods 136

6.3 Results 137

6.3.1 Overall Variation in SD 137

6.3.2 Temporal Trends in Sexual Dimorphism 143

6.3.3 Body Size and Body Proportions 143

6.3.4 Average Strength 144

6.3.5 Cross ]Sectional Shape 145

6.3.6 Cross ]Sectional Area 146

6.3.7 Comparison of Neolithic Subsistence Groups 146

6.3.8 Urban Versus Rural 148

6.3.9 Femoro ]Humeral Strength Ratio (FZp/HZp) 148

6.4 Discussion 149

6.4.1 Body Size and Shape 153

6.4.2 Lower Limb Strength 154

6.4.3 Humerus 155

6.5 Conclusions 157

Acknowledgments 157

References 158

7 Past Human Manipulative Behavior in the European Holocene as Assessed Through Upper Limb Asymmetry 163
Vladimir Sladek, Margit Berner, Brigitte Holt, Markku Niskanen, and Christopher B. Ruff

7.1 Introduction 163

7.2 Materials and Methods 167

7.2.1 Samples 167

7.2.2 Linear Measurements and CSG Parameters 169

7.2.3 Computation of Asymmetry and Sexual Dimorphism 169

7.2.4 Statistical Techniques 171

7.3 Results 171

7.3.1 Asymmetry Variation 171

7.3.1.1 General Differences Between Structural Properties 171

7.3.1.2 Temporal Trends in Asymmetry 173

7.3.1.3 Regional Differences in Asymmetry 190

7.3.2 Right Versus Left Dominance 194

7.3.3 Variation in Right and Left Humeral CSG 196

7.4 Discussion 201

7.5 Summary and Conclusions 203

Acknowledgments 204

References 204

8 Britain 209
Christopher B. Ruff, Evan Garofalo, and Sirpa Niinimaki

8.1 Introduction 209

8.2 Body Size and Shape 213

8.2.1 Body Size 213

8.2.2 Body Shape 218

8.2.3 Comparisons to other Europeans 220

8.3 Cross ]Sectional Properties 221

8.3.1 Bone Strength 221

8.3.2 Percentage Cortical Area 225

8.3.3 Comparisons to other Europeans 228

8.3.4 The ‘Amesbury Archer’ 229

8.4 Discussion 233

8.4.1 Body Size and Shape 233

8.4.2 Bone Structure 235

8.5 Conclusions 237

Acknowledgments 237

References 237

9 France and Italy 241
Brigitte Holt, Erin Whittey, and Dannielle Tompkins

9.1 Introduction 241

9.2 Samples 241

9.3 Methods 244

9.3.1 Body Shape 244

9.3.2 Robusticity 244

9.3.3 Statistical Analysis 244

9.4 Results 244

9.4.1 Body Size and Shape 244

9.4.1.1 Temporal Changes Within the FI Group 244

9.4.1.2 Body Size and Shape Sexual Dimorphism 248

9.4.1.3 Impact of urbanization 249

9.4.1.4 Comparisons with Europe 251

9.5 Long Bone Robusticity 252

9.5.1 Temporal Trends 252

9.5.1.1 Upper Limb 252

9.5.1.2 Lower Limb 255

9.5.2 Sexual Dimorphism 260

9.5.3 Bilateral Asymmetry 261

9.5.4 Rural/Urban Status 263

9.5.5 Terrain 263

9.5.6 Comparisons with Europe 263

9.5.6.1 Upper Limb 263

9.5.6.2 Lower Limb 265

9.6 Discussion 270

9.7 Conclusions 276

Acknowledgments 276

References 277

10 Iberia 281
Christopher B. Ruff and Heather Garvin

10.1 Introduction 281

10.2 Body Size and Shape 286

10.2.1 Body Size 286

10.2.2 Body Shape 290

10.2.3 Comparisons to Other Europeans 293

10.3 Cross ]Sectional Properties 294

10.3.1 Bone Strength 294

10.3.2 Percentage Cortical Area 300

10.3.3 Comparisons to Other Europeans 304

10.4 Discussion 305

10.4.1 Body Size and Shape 305

10.4.2 Bone Structure 307

10.5 Conclusions 310

Acknowledgments 311

References 311

11 Central European Human Postcranial Variation 315
Vladimir Sladek, Margit Berner, Eliška Makajevova, Petr Veleminsky, Martin Hora, and Christopher B. Ruff

11.1 Introduction 315

11.1.1 Central Europe: Geography and Paleoenvironment 315

11.1.2 Central Europe: Archaeological Context 316

11.2 Materials and Methods 319

11.2.1 Sample 319

11.2.2 Measurements and Variables 321

11.2.3 Statistical Techniques 322

11.3 Results 323

11.3.1 Body Size and Shape Variation 323

11.3.1.1 Stature, Body Mass, and Body Mass Index 323

11.3.1.2 Changes in Body Size Between Central European Holocene and Living Humans 323

11.3.1.3 Relative bi ]iliac breadth 326

11.3.1.4 Crural and Brachial Indices 326

11.3.1.5 Sexual Dimorphism in Body Size and Shape 326

11.3.2 Mobility and Sedentism 327

11.3.2.1 Femoral and Tibial Cortical Area and Bending Strength 327

11.3.2.2 Femoral and Tibial Shape Ratio (Zx/Zy) 330

11.3.2.3 Sexual Dimorphism in Lower Limb CSG Properties 330

11.3.3 Manipulative Behavior Changes 330

11.3.3.1 Humeral Cortical Area 330

11.3.3.2 Humeral Bending Strength 331

11.3.3.3 Humeral Directional Asymmetry 332

11.3.3.4 Sexual Dimorphism in Humeral CSG Properties 335

11.3.4 Comparison of Central European Body Size, Shape, and CSG Properties to European Holocene 335

11.4 Discussion 337

11.4.1 Central European UP and Mesolithic 337

11.4.2 Adoption of Agriculture 340

11.4.3 Secondary Products Revolution 341

11.4.4 Origin of Metallurgy 343

11.4.5 The Avars and Nomadic Subsistence in Central Europe 343

11.4.6 The Transition to the Archaic State in the Central Europe 344

11.4.7 Comparison to Living Central Europeans and Impact of Secular Trend 345

11.5 Conclusions 346

Acknowledgments 347

References 347

12 Scandinavia and Finland 355
Markku Niskanen, Heli Maijanen, Juho ]Antti Junno, Sirpa Niinimaki, Anna ]Kaisa Salmi, Rosa Vilkama, Tiina Vare, Kati Salo, Anna Kjellstrom, and Petra Molnar

12.1 Introduction to Region, Samples, and Techniques 355

12.1.1 Region and its Population History 355

12.1.2 Samples 357

12.1.3 Technique Summary 360

12.2 Body Size and Body Shape 361

12.2.1 Temporal Trends 361

12.2.2 Comparison with pan ]European 371

12.2.3 Other Comparisons 374

12.3 Cross ] Sectional Properties 377

12.3.1 Temporal Trends 377

12.3.2 Comparisons with pan ]European 384

12.3.3 Other Comparisons 385

12.4 Discussion 388

12.4.1 Body Size and Body Shape 388

12.4.2 Cross ]Sectional Properties 390

12.5 Conclusions 391

Acknowledgments 391

References 392

13 The Balkans 397
Christopher Ruff and Brigitte Holt

13.1 Introduction 397

13.2 Body Size and Shape 399

13.2.1 Schela Cladovei 399

13.2.2 Mistihalj 402

13.3 Cross ] Sectional Properties 402

13.3.1 Schela Cladovei 402

13.3.2 Mistihalj 407

13.4 Discussion 408

13.4.1 Body Size and Shape 408

13.4.2 Bone Structure 411

13.5 Conclusions 414

Acknowledgments 415

References 415

14 Conclusions 419
Christopher B. Ruff, Brigitte Holt, Markku Niskanen, Vladimir Sladek, and Margit Berner

14.1 Body Size and Shape 419

14.2 Long Bone Strength 421

14.3 Other Bone Structural Observations 423

References 424

Appendix 1: Study Samples 427

References 436

Appendix 2.1 443

Notes and Sources 446

References 447

Appendix 2.2 449

Appendix 3.1 451

References 452

Appendix 3.2 455

References 461

Appendix 4 463

Appendix 5 471

Index

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Author Information

Christopher B. Ruff is Director of the Center for Functional Anatomy and Evolution at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA. Dr. Ruff has published widely in the fields of human osteology, bioarchaeology, and paleontology, and has served as editor of the American Journal of Physical Anthropology and the Yearbook of Physical Anthropology.

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