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Quinoa: Improvement and Sustainable Production

ISBN: 978-1-118-62851-5
256 pages
June 2015, Wiley-Blackwell
Quinoa: Improvement and Sustainable Production (1118628519) cover image

Description

Quinoa is an ancient grain that has grown in popularity in recent years. It has been known as a good source of both protein and fiber. As the demand for quinoa increases a comprehensive and up-to-date reference on the biology and production of the crop is essential. Quinoa: Improvement and Sustainable Production brings together authors from around the world to provide a complete assessment of the current state of global quinoa research and production.  Topics covered include quinoa history and culture, genomics and breeding, agronomy, nutrition, marketing, and end-uses.  The book focuses in particular on the emerging role of quinoa in providing increased food security to smallholder farmers and communities throughout the world.

Quinoa will interest quinoa researchers, producers, crop scientists, agronomists, and plant geneticists, as well as advanced students working with this important grain.
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Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Quinoa: an Incan Crop to Face Global Changes in Agriculture
Juan Antonio González,Sayed Eisa, Sayed Hussin, and Fernando E. Prado

Introduction

A Brief History of Quinoa Cultivation

Nutritional Value of Quinoa Seed

Botanical and Genetic Characteristics of the Quinoa Plant

Quiona and Environmental Stresses: Drought and Salinity

Conclusion

References

Chapter 2 History of Quinoa: Its Origin, Domestication, Diversification and Cultivation with Particular Reference to the Chilean Context
Enrique A. Martínez, Francisco F. Fuentes, Didier Bazile

Abstract

Quinoa Origins in the Central Andes

Ancient Expansion to Southern Latitudes in Chile

Re-introduction of Quinoa in Arid Chile after Local Extinction

Final remarks

References

Chapter 3 Agroecological and Agronomic Cultural Practices of Quinoa in South America
Magali Garcia, Bruno Condori, and Carmen Del Castillo

Introduction

Andean Domestication

Botanical and Taxonomical Description

Genetic Background and Research on Quinoa Genetics

Ecology and Phytogeography

Quinoa Production

Climate

Drought Resistance

Temperature and Photoperiod

Hail

Cultivation

Sowing

Fertilization of Quinoa

Cultural Practices

Crop Water Requirements and Irrigation

Biotic Threats: Pests and Diseases

Seed Harvest and Post-harvest Technology

References

Chapter 4 Trends in Quinoa Yield Over the Southern Bolivian Altiplano: Lessons from Climate and Land-Use Projections
Serge Rambal, Jean-Pierre Ratte, Florent Mouillot, and Thierry Winkel

Summary

Introduction

Material and Methods

The Study Area

Recent Past and Present Climate

Source of Climate Scenarios

Simulating the Yield Index at Local or Plot Scale

The Soil Water Balance Model

Scenarios of Land Use / Land Cover Changes

Scaling Local Yield Index up to the Region

Results

Drought History Over the Area

Climate Projections and Soil Drought Limitation

Time Variation of Yield at Local or Plot Scale

Model Results at Landscape Level

Discussion

Acknowledgements

References

Chapter 5 The Potential of Using Natural Enemies and Chemical Compounds in Quinoa for Biological Control of Insect Pests
Mariana Valoy, Carmen Reguilón, and Griselda Podazza

Introduction

Insects in Quinoa

Insect Pests of Quinoa

Beneficial Insects in Quinoa

Parasitoids

Predators

Entomophatogens

Chemical Responses of Quinoa to Insect Herbivory

Quinoa Secondary Metabolites

Terpenoid Compounds

Phenolic Compounds

Potential of Biological Control in Quinoa

Potential for Ecological Management in Quinoa

References

Chapter 6 Quinoa Breeding
Luz Gomez Pando

History-Domestication Process

Collection of Genetic Resources

Goals and Methods of Quinoa Breeding

Requirement of the farmers

Higher Yield

Plant Height

Stalk Strength

Life Cycle

Resistance to Biotic Stresses

Resistance to Abiotic Stresses

Plant Morphology

Harvest Index

Requirement of the Industry and Consumers

Protein Content and Composition

Seed Characteristics

Methods in Genetic Improvement

Reproductive Biology

Polyploidy Level

Quinoa Breeding Methods

Selection

Individual Selection

Mass Selection

Participatory Plant Breeding (PPB)

Introduction of Foreign Germplasm

Hybridization

Selection of Parents

Flowering Biology

Emasculation and Pollination Procedure

Bulk or Mass selection

Individual or Pedigree Selection

Combination of Individual and Mass Selection

Single – Seed Descent

Interspecific and Intergeneric Crosses

Backcross Method

Using Heterosis in Quinoa

Mutagenesis

Marker-Assisted Selection (MAS)

Conclusion

References

Chapter 7 Quinoa Cytogenetics, Molecular Genetics and Diversity
Janet B. Matanguihan,Peter J. Maughan, Eric N. Jellen, and Bozena Kolano

Introduction

Cytogenetics and Genome Structure of Chenopodium quinoa

Crossability of Quinoa and Allied Tetraploid Taxa

DNA Sequence Evidence for Quinoa’s Genomic Origins

Quinoa Genetic Markers and Linkage Maps

Quinoa Diversity

Phenotypic diversity

Genetic diversity

Summary

References

Chapter 8 Ex-situ Conservation of Quinoa: the Bolivian Experience
Wilfredo Rojas and Milton Pinto

Introduction

Centers of Origin and Diversity of Quinoa

Geographical Distribution of Quinoa

Genebanks of the Andean Region

Bolivian Collection of Quinoa Germplasm

History and Management of the Quinoa Germplasm

Current Status of Quinoa Germplasm

Steps for Ex-Situ Management and Conservation of Quinoa

Collection of Quinoa Germplasm

Technical Procedure for Quinoa Germplasm Collection

History and Evolution of Quinoa Germplasm Collections

Distribution of Quinoa Germplasm Collection

Preliminary Multiplication of Quinoa Germplasm

Storage and Conservation of Quinoa Germplasm

Short and Medium Term Storage (1 to 20 years)

Long Term Storage (80 to 100 years)

Characterization and Evaluation of the Quinoa Germplasm

Stages of Germplasm Characterization and Evaluation

Agro-morphological Variables

Agro-food and Nutritional Value Variables

Molecular Characterization

Multiplication and Regeneration of Quinoa Germplasm

Monitoring of Seed Quantity and Percentage of Seed Germination

Technical Procedure for Multiplication and/or Regeneration

Regeneration Schedule

Documentation and Information on Quinoa Germplasm

Utilization of Quinoa Germplasm

Direct Use

Procedure to Apply Participatory Evaluation Techniques for Quinoa

Participatory Assessments with Quinoa Germplasm

Training Courses on the Varied Uses of Quinoa

Indirect Use

Quinoa Core Collection

Social Use

Promotion and Dissemination

Formal and Informal Education

Conclusions

References

Chapter 9 Quinoa Breeding in Africa: History, Goals and Progress
Moses Maliro and Veronica Guwela

Introduction

Origin of quinoa

Introducing Quinoa in Africa

Food Security in Africa

Prevalence of Malnutrition

Nutritional Value of Quinoa

Quinoa as Alternative Crop in Malawi

Increasing Awareness About Quinoa

Ecological Adaptation of Quinoa

Goals of Quinoa Bredding in Africa

Quinoa Studies Under Malawi Conditions

Cultivars Introduced

General Climate Conditions

Plant Growth Performance

Genotype Performance

Quinoa Studies in Kenya

Experimental Sites and Climatic Conditions

Plant Growth and Grain Yield

Pests and Diseases

Challenges and Considerations for Future Research

Plant Lodging

Acceptability

Agronomic Practices

Rainfed Versus Irrigated Cropping Systems

Conclusion

References

Chapter 10 Quinoa Cultivation for Temperate North America: Considerations and Areas for Investigation
Adam Peterson and Kevin Murphy

Introduction

Tolerance to Abiotic Stresses

Heat Tolerance

Drought Tolerance

Cold Tolerance

Salinity Tolerance

Production Aspects

Variety selection

Fertilization

Planting/Spacing

Maturity and Harvesting

Challenges to Quinoa Production

Waterlogging and Sprouting

Disease

Insect Pests

Weed Control

Saponins

Alternative Uses of Quinoa

Forage

Feed

Conclusion

References

Chapter 11 Nutritional Properties of Quinoa

Geyang Wu

Introduction

Protein

Carbohydrates

Starch

Sugar

Dietary Fiber

Lipids

Vitamins

Minerals

Anti-nutritional Factors of Quinoa

Bioactive Compounds

Phenolic compounds

Carotenoids

Summary

References

Chapter 12 Quinoa’s Calling
Sergio Núñez de Arco

                

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