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Structural Steel Design to Eurocode 3 and AISC Specifications

ISBN: 978-1-118-63126-3
536 pages
March 2016, Wiley-Blackwell
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Description

Structural Steel Design to Eurocode 3 and AISC Specifications deals with the theory and practical applications of structural steel design in Europe and the USA. The book covers appropriate theoretical and background information, followed by a more design‐oriented coverage focusing on European and United States specifications and practices, allowing the reader to directly compare the approaches and results of both codes. Chapters follow a general plan, covering: A general section covering the relevant topics for the chapter, based on classical theory and recent research developments A detailed section covering design and detailing to Eurocode 3 specification A detailed section covering design and detailing to AISC specifications Fully worked examples are using both codes are presented. With construction companies working in increasingly international environments, engineers are more and more likely to encounter both codes. Written for design engineers and students of civil and structural engineering, this book will help both groups to become conversant with both code systems.
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Table of Contents

Preface x

1 The Steel Material 1

1.1 General Points about the Steel Material 1

1.1.1 Materials in Accordance with European Provisions 4

1.1.2 Materials in Accordance with United States Provisions 7

1.2 Production Processes 10

1.3 Thermal Treatments 13

1.4 Brief Historical Note 14

1.5 The Products 15

1.6 Imperfections 18

1.6.1 Mechanical Imperfections 19

1.6.2 Geometric Imperfections 22

1.7 Mechanical Tests for the Characterization of the Material 24

1.7.1 Tensile Testing 25

1.7.2 Stub Column Test 27

1.7.3 Toughness Test 29

1.7.4 Bending Test 32

1.7.5 Hardness Test 32

2 References for the Design of Steel Structures 34

2.1 Introduction 34

2.1.1 European Provisions for Steel Design 35

2.1.2 United States Provisions for Steel Design 37

2.2 Brief Introduction to Random Variables 37

2.3 Measure of the Structural Reliability and Design Approaches 39

2.4 Design Approaches in Accordance with Current Standard Provisions 44

2.4.1 European Approach for Steel Design 44

2.4.2 United States Approach for Steel Design 47

3 Framed Systems and Methods of Analysis 49

3.1 Introduction 49

3.2 Classification Based on Structural Typology 51

3.3 Classification Based on Lateral Deformability 52

3.3.1 European Procedure 53

3.3.2 AISC Procedure 56

3.4 Classification Based on Beam-to-Column Joint Performance 56

3.4.1 Classification According to the European Approach 57

3.4.2 Classification According to the United States Approach 60

3.4.3 Joint Modelling 61

3.5 Geometric Imperfections 63

3.5.1 The European Approach 63

3.5.2 The United States Approach 67

3.6 The Methods of Analysis 68

3.6.1 Plasticity and Instability 69

3.6.2 Elastic Analysis with Bending Moment Redistribution 76

3.6.3 Methods of Analysis Considering Mechanical Non-Linearity 78

3.6.4 Simplified Analysis Approaches 80

3.7 Simple Frames 84

3.7.1 Bracing System Imperfections in Accordance with EU Provisions 88

3.7.2 System Imperfections in Accordance with AISC Provisions 89

3.7.3 Examples of Braced Frames 92

3.8 Worked Examples 96

4 Cross-Section Classification 107

4.1 Introduction 107

4.2 Classification in Accordance with European Standards 108

4.2.1 Classification for Compression or Bending Moment 110

4.2.2 Classification for Compression and Bending Moment 110

4.2.3 Effective Geometrical Properties for Class 4 Sections 115

4.3 Classification in Accordance with US Standards 118

4.4 Worked Examples 121

5 Tension Members 134

5.1 Introduction 134

5.2 Design According to the European Approach 134

5.3 Design According to the US Approach 137

5.4 Worked Examples 140

6 Members in Compression 147

6.1 Introduction 147

6.2 Strength Design 147

6.2.1 Design According to the European Approach 147

6.2.2 Design According to the US Approach 148

6.3 Stability Design 148

6.3.1 Effect of Shear on the Critical Load 155

6.3.2 Design According to the European Approach 158

6.3.3 Design According to the US Approach 162

6.4 Effective Length of Members in Frames 166

6.4.1 Design According to the EU Approach 166

6.4.2 Design According to the US Approach 169

6.5 Worked Examples 172

7 Beams 176

7.1 Introduction 176

7.1.1 Beam Deformability 176

7.1.2 Dynamic Effects 178

7.1.3 Resistance 179

7.1.4 Stability 179

7.2 European Design Approach 184

7.2.1 Serviceability Limit States 184

7.2.2 Resistance Verifications 186

7.2.3 Buckling Resistance of Uniform Members in Bending 190

7.3 Design According to the US Approach 199

7.3.1 Serviceability Limit States 199

7.3.2 Shear Strength Verification 200

7.3.3 Flexural Strength Verification 204

7.4 Design Rules for Beams 228

7.5 Worked Examples 233

8 Torsion 243

8.1 Introduction 243

8.2 Basic Concepts of Torsion 245

8.2.1 I- and H-Shaped Profiles with Two Axes of Symmetry 250

8.2.2 Mono-symmetrical Channel Cross-Sections 252

8.2.3 Warping Constant for Most Common Cross-Sections 255

8.3 Member Response to Mixed Torsion 258

8.4 Design in Accordance with the European Procedure 263

8.5 Design in Accordance with the AISC Procedure 265

8.5.1 Round and Rectangular HSS 266

8.5.2 Non-HSS Members (Open Sections Such as W, T, Channels, etc.) 267

9 Members Subjected to Flexure and Axial Force 268

9.1 Introduction 268

9.2 Design According to the European Approach 271

9.2.1 The Resistance Checks 271

9.2.2 The Stability Checks 274

9.2.3 The General Method 280

9.3 Design According to the US Approach 281

9.4 Worked Examples 284

10 Design for Combination of Compression, Flexure, Shear and Torsion 303

10.1 Introduction 303

10.2 Design in Accordance with the European Approach 308

10.3 Design in Accordance with the US Approach 309

10.3.1 Round and Rectangular HSS 310

10.3.2 Non-HSS Members (Open Sections Such as W, T, Channels, etc.) 310

11 Web Resistance to Transverse Forces 311

11.1 Introduction 311

11.2 Design Procedure in Accordance with European Standards 312

11.3 Design Procedure in Accordance with US Standards 316

12 Design Approaches for Frame Analysis 319

12.1 Introduction 319

12.2 The European Approach 319

12.2.1 The EC3-1 Approach 320

12.2.2 The EC3-2a Approach 321

12.2.3 The EC3-2b Approach 321

12.2.4 The EC3-3 Approach 322

12.3 AISC Approach 323

12.3.1 The Direct Analysis Method (DAM) 323

12.3.2 The Effective Length Method (ELM) 327

12.3.3 The First Order Analysis Method (FOM) 329

12.3.4 Method for Approximate Second Order Analysis 330

12.4 Comparison between the EC3 and AISC Analysis Approaches 332

12.5 Worked Example 334

13 The Mechanical Fasteners 345

13.1 Introduction 345

13.2 Resistance of the Bolted Connections 345

13.2.1 Connections in Shear 347

13.2.2 Connections in Tension 354

13.2.3 Connection in Shear and Tension 358

13.3 Design in Accordance with European Practice 358

13.3.1 European Practice for Fastener Assemblages 358

13.3.2 EU Structural Verifications 363

13.4 Bolted Connection Design in Accordance with the US Approach 369

13.4.1 US Practice for Fastener Assemblage 369

13.4.2 US Structural Verifications 376

13.5 Connections with Rivets 382

13.5.1 Design in Accordance with EU Practice 383

13.5.2 Design in Accordance with US Practice 383

13.6 Worked Examples 384

14 Welded Connections 395

14.1 Generalities on Welded Connections 395

14.1.1 European Specifications 397

14.1.2 US Specifications 399

14.1.3 Classification of Welded Joints 400

14.2 Defects and Potential Problems in Welds 401

14.3 Stresses in Welded Joints 403

14.3.1 Tension 404

14.3.2 Shear and Flexure 406

14.3.3 Shear and Torsion 408

14.4 Design of Welded Joints 411

14.4.1 Design According to the European Approach 411

14.4.2 Design According to the US Practice 414

14.5 Joints with Mixed Typologies 420

14.6 Worked Examples 420

15 Connections 424

15.1 Introduction 424

15.2 Articulated Connections 425

15.2.1 Pinned Connections 426

15.2.2 Articulated Bearing Connections 427

15.3 Splices 429

15.3.1 Beam Splices 430

15.3.2 Column Splices 431

15.4 End Joints 434

15.4.1 Beam-to-Column Connections 434

15.4.2 Beam-to-Beam Connections 434

15.4.3 Bracing Connections 437

15.4.4 Column Bases 438

15.4.5 Beam-to-Concrete Wall Connection 441

15.5 Joint Modelling 444

15.5.1 Simple Connections 450

15.5.2 Rigid Joints 454

15.5.3 Semi-Rigid Joints 458

15.6 Joint Standardization 462

16 Built-Up Compression Members 466

16.1 Introduction 466

16.2 Behaviour of Compound Struts 466

16.2.1 Laced Compound Struts 471

16.2.2 Battened Compound Struts 473

16.3 Design in Accordance with the European Approach 475

16.3.1 Laced Compression Members 477

16.3.2 Battened Compression Members 477

16.3.3 Closely Spaced Built-Up Members 478

16.4 Design in Accordance with the US Approach 480

16.5 Worked Examples 482

Appendix A: Conversion Factors 491

Appendix B: References and Standards 492

Index 502

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Author Information

Claudio Bernuzzi is associate professor of steel structures in the Department of Architecture, Built Environment and Construction Engineering at the Politecnico di Milano, Italy. Benedetto Cordova is a structural engineering consultant based in Milan, Italy.
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