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Milk and Dairy Products as Functional Foods

Ara Kanekanian (Editor)
ISBN: 978-1-118-63508-7
408 pages
April 2014, Wiley-Blackwell
Milk and Dairy Products as Functional Foods (1118635086) cover image

Description

There continues to be strong interest within the food industry in developing new products which offer functional health benefits to the consumer. The premium prices that can be charged make these added-value products lucrative for manufacturers, and they are also commercially popular. Dairy foods are central to this sector: they are good delivery systems for functional foods (yoghurts, milk drinks, spreads) and are also rich in compounds which can be extracted and used as functional ingredients in other food types.

Milk and Dairy Products as Functional Foods draws together a wealth of information regarding the functional health benefits of milk and dairy products. It examines the physiological role and the claimed health effects of dairy constituents such as proteins, bioactive peptides, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), omega 3 fatty acids vitamin D and calcium. These constituents have been shown to be, for example, anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, hypocholesterolemic, immune-modulating and antimicrobial. This book examines the evidence for these claims, and investigates practical approaches for utilising these attributes.

The book is aimed at dairy scientists and technologists in industry and academia, general food scientists and technologists, microbiologists and nutritionists together with all those involved in the formulation and production of functional food products.

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Table of Contents

Preface to the Technical Series xiii

Preface xv

List of Contributors xvii

1 The Health Benefits of Bioactive Compounds from Milk and Dairy Products 1
A. Kanekanian

1.1 The importance of milk and dairy products 1

1.2 Dairy products: Concerns and challenges 2

1.3 Dairy products and public health 3

1.3.1 Heart disease 4

1.4 Major nutrients in milk 5

1.4.1 Proteins 5

1.4.2 Milk fat 6

1.4.3 Lactose and its derivatives 7

1.4.4 Vitamins and minerals 8

1.5 Dairy products as functional foods 8

1.6 Bioactive compounds from milk 11

1.6.1 Bioactive peptides 12

1.6.2 Other bioactivities 16

1.7 Probiotics and dairy products 17

1.8 Summary and future trends 18

References 18

2 Bioactive Peptides from Casein and Whey Proteins 23
R. McCarthy, S. Mills, R.P. Ross, G.F. Fitzgerald and C. Stanton

2.1 Introduction 23

2.2 Direct effects of casein and whey peptides on host immunity 25

2.2.1 Immunomodulatory peptides derived from casein 25

2.2.2 Immunomodulatory peptides derived from whey proteins 30

2.2.3 Indirect effects of casein and whey peptides on host immunity 32

2.3 Antimicrobial peptides 33

2.3.1 Antimicrobial peptides derived from casein 33

2.3.2 Antimicrobial peptides derived from whey proteins 40

2.4 Peptides that stimulate the gut microbiota 42

2.5 Peptides that regulate gut homeostasis 44

2.6 Potential for peptide bioactivities in vivo and outlook for the future 45

References 46

3 Colostrum: Its Health Benefits 55
T. Marchbank and R.J. Playford

3.1 Introduction 55

3.2 Bioactive constituents of colostrums 57

3.2.1 Peptide growth factors 57

3.2.2 Non-peptide growth factors 62

3.2.3 Immunological factors 63

3.3 Bovine colostrum use in human health 67

3.3.1 Gastrointestinal diseases 67

3.3.2 Non-gastrointestinal diseases 74

3.3.3 Colostrum and athletic performance 76

3.4 Considerations 79

3.5 Conclusion 81

References 81

4 Casein and Whey Proteins in Human Health 94
K. Petrotos, E. Tsakali, P. Goulas and A.G. D’Alessandro

4.1 Introduction 94

4.2 Casein-derived proteins and their effect in human health 95

4.2.1 The cardiovascular system 97

4.2.2 The nervous system 100

4.2.3 The immune system 103

4.2.4 The nutrition system 106

4.3 Whey proteins and their direct and indirect effects on human health 108

4.3.1 β-lactoglobulin 109

4.3.2 α-lactalbumin 112

4.3.3 Immunoglobulins 115

4.3.4 Bovine serum albumin 116

4.3.5 Lactoferrin 116

4.3.6 Lysozyme 118

4.3.7 Lactoperoxidase 119

4.3.8 Casein macropeptides 119

4.3.9 Other enzymes contained in the whey 120

4.4 The effect of processing on the bioactivity of casein and whey proteins 120

4.4.1 The effect of heat treatment 120

4.4.2 The effect of ultra-high-pressure processing 121

4.4.3 The effect of protein hydrolysation 121

4.4.4 The role of processing in the production of allergenic or bitter-tasting peptides 122

4.5 Bioactive peptides production from milk and whey proteins 123

4.5.1 Enzymatic hydrolysis 123

4.5.2 Microbial fermentation 123

4.5.3 Proteolysis 125

4.6 Fractionation and enrichment of bioactive peptides 127

4.7 Commercial applications and future outlook 128

4.8 Conclusion 130

References 131

5 Sports Nutrition and Dairy Products 147
G. Davison

5.1 Introduction 147

5.2 Energy balance 149

5.3 Carbohydrates 149

5.3.1 Total dietary carbohydrate requirement 149

5.3.2 Dietary carbohydrate, exercise, immune function and infection risk in athletes 151

5.3.3 Dairy products as a source of dietary carbohydrate 151

5.3.4 Timing and composition of carbohydrate intake 152

5.3.5 Carbohydrate before and during exercise 152

5.3.6 Dairy products and carbohydrate intake before and during exercise 153

5.3.7 Carbohydrate intake after exercise 154

5.3.8 Dairy products and carbohydrate intake after exercise 154

5.4 Protein 155

5.4.1 Total dietary protein intake 155

5.4.2 Timing of protein intake and protein composition 156

5.4.3 Dairy products and dietary protein intake 156

5.5 Fluid and hydration 157

5.5.1 Fluid intake before exercise 158

5.5.2 Dairy products and total fluid intake 158

5.5.3 Fluid intake during exercise 159

5.5.4 Dairy products and fluid intake acutely before and during exercise 159

5.5.5 Fluid intake after exercise 160

5.5.6 Dairy products and post-exercise rehydration 160

5.6 Micronutrients 161

5.7 Bovine colostrum 163

5.7.1 Body composition and strength 163

5.7.2 Endurance performance 164

5.7.3 High-intensity exercise (i.e. sprint and repeated sprint) performance 165

5.7.4 Gastrointestinal integrity/health 166

5.7.5 Immunity 166

5.8 Probiotics 167

5.9 Summary 168

Recommended further reading 169

References 169

6 Dairy Fat: Perceptions and Realities 174
A.L. Lock, D.I. Givens and D.E. Bauman

6.1 Introduction 174

6.2 The dairy cow dimension 175

6.2.1 Rumen lipid metabolism 175

6.2.2 Milk fat synthesis 177

6.3 Saturated fatty acids 178

6.4 Trans fatty acids 180

6.5 Unsaturated fatty acids 183

6.5.1 Oleic acid 184

6.5.2 Omega-3 fatty acids 184

6.5.3 Conjugated linoleic acids 186

6.6 Dairy-derived fats in foods and human health 189

References 192

7 Milk Ingredients as Functional Foods 198
A.S. Kvistgaard, J.B. Schroder, E. Jensen, A. Setarehnejad and A. Kanekanian

7.1 Infant nutrition 198

7.1.1 Milk ingredients and intestinal protection and maturation 198

7.1.2 Brain development and cognitive function in infant nutrition 201

7.2 Clinical nutrition 203

7.2.1 Immobility-caused muscle loss 203

7.2.2 Diabetes 205

7.2.3 Inflammatory bowel disease 207

7.3 Milk ingredients in sports nutrition 210

7.3.1 Muscle synthesis 211

7.3.2 Muscle strength 212

7.3.3 Endurance 212

7.3.4 Recovery 212

7.3.5 Body composition 213

7.3.6 Immunity 213

7.4 Milk ingredients in functional foods 213

7.4.1 Whey proteins and milk calcium for weight management 213

7.4.2 Milk phospholipids for cognitive performance in adults 214

7.4.3 Milk ingredients for natural defence 216

7.5 Milk protein and dental health 217

7.5.1 Dental erosion 218

7.5.2 Assessment of dental erosion 218

7.5.3 The protective effect of peptides 220

7.5.4 Assessment of dental protection 222

7.5.5 Summary 225

7.6 Conclusion 225

References 226

8 Milk-derived Bioactive Components from Fermentation 237
O.A. Alhaj and A. Kanekanian

8.1 Introduction 237

8.2 Bioactive components in milk fat 238

8.2.1 Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) as a bioactive component 238

8.3 Oligosaccharides as bioactive components in milk 239

8.4 Milk proteins as a source of bioactive peptides 240

8.4.1 Health benefits of milk proteins and their derived bioactive peptides 241

8.4.2 Peptide synthesis 242

8.4.3 Milk protein hydrolysate 242

8.5 Production and purification of bioactive peptides 250

8.6 Probiotic as bioactive component in milk 252

8.6.1 What are probiotics? 253

8.6.2 Probiotics concept 254

8.6.3 Characteristics of probiotics 254

8.6.4 Health benefits associated with fermented milk product consumption 259

8.6.5 Factors stimulating the growth and survival of Bifidobacterium spp. 260

8.6.6 The direct health benefits of probiotics: Mechanisms of action 262

8.6.7 Indirect health benefits of probiotics: Biogenic effect 264

8.7 Conclusion 268

References 268

9 Minerals and Vitamins in Milk and Dairy Products 289
I. Gordon

9.1 Introduction 289

9.1.1 Mineral and vitamin needs 289

9.1.2 Bioavailability 290

9.1.3 Differences between minerals and vitamins 290

9.1.4 Caveat 290

9.2 Minerals in dairy products 291

9.2.1 Introduction 291

9.2.2 Milks 293

9.2.3 Fermented milks 296

9.2.4 Cheeses 297

9.2.5 Whey products 299

9.2.6 Butter fat 302

9.2.7 Commercial mineral concentrates 302

9.2.8 Applications 303

9.2.9 Summary 303

9.3 Vitamins in dairy products 303

9.3.1 Introduction 303

9.3.2 Cow milks 305

9.3.3 Fermented milks 307

9.3.4 Vitamin fortification of cow milks 308

9.3.5 Cheeses 308

9.3.6 Whey products 310

9.3.7 Butter fat 310

9.3.8 Summary 312

References 312

10 Legislations and Relevant Regulations 314
M. Hickey

10.1 Background and introduction 314

10.2 The Japanese approach 315

10.2.1 Subsystems of FOSHU 317

10.2.2 Broad headings for approved FOSHU 317

10.2.3 Disease reduction risk FOSHU 317

10.2.4 Foods with nutrient function claims (FNCF) 318

10.2.5 Essential elements for obtaining FOSHU approval 318

10.3 The legislative situation in the European Union (EU) 324

10.3.1 Relevant EU food safety legislation 324

10.3.2 Claims and food labelling provisions 327

10.3.3 Nutrition and health claims 327

10.3.4 Types of health claims 328

10.3.5 Nutrient profiles 334

10.4 The US legislative situation regarding health claims and functional foods 335

10.4.1 Background to US federal legislation 335

10.4.2 Evolution and development of the FDA 337

10.4.3 Functional food and claims on food in the US 337

10.5 The Canadian legislative situation regarding health claims and functional foods 342

10.5.1 Introduction and background to Canadian federal legislation 342

10.5.2 Health claims on foods in Canada 342

10.6 Health claims for foods in Australia and New Zealand 348

10.6.1 The evolution of health and related claims in Australia and New Zealand 348

10.6.2 The Australia and New Zealand nutrient profiling model 351

10.6.3 Enforcement of the health claim proposals in Australia and New Zealand 354

10.7 Health foods and functional foods in China 354

10.7.1 Background 354

10.7.2 Chinese legislative structures 354

10.7.3 The healthy (functional) foods sector in China and its regulation 355

10.8 Codex Alimentarius 358

10.8.1 Background, structure, operation and role 358

10.8.2 Codex standards, their international relevance and their role in the WTO 359

10.8.3 Codex and the issue of health and nutrition claims 361

10.8.4 The Codex Standard for Fermented Milks 363

10.9 Other international developments 364

10.10 Summary and conclusions 365

References 366

Index 373

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Author Information

Ara Kanekanian is Programme Director for the MSc in Food Science and Technology and the Head of Dairy Centre and Functional Food Research group at Cardiff Metropolitan University, UK
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