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Discipline in the Secondary Classroom: A Positive Approach to Behavior Management, 3rd Edition

ISBN: 978-1-118-64013-5
464 pages
June 2013, Jossey-Bass
Discipline in the Secondary Classroom: A Positive Approach to Behavior Management, 3rd Edition (1118640136) cover image


Revised edition of the classic book on classroom management

This third edition of Discipline in the Secondary Classroom is a treasure trove of practical advice, tips, checklists, reproducibles, and ready-to-use activities that will save secondary teachers time and help them become more effective educators. Both new and seasoned teachers will find the book invaluable for designing a management plan that prevents problems, motivates students, and teaches students to behave responsibly.

  • Offers a proven classroom management plan based on Sprick's acclaimed STOIC framework for training teachers: Structure for success, Teach expectations, Observe and monitor, Interact positively, and Correct fluently
  • Includes information on everything from creating a vision for classroom behavior to addressing misbehavior and motivating students
  • Bonus DVD features video of Sprick explaining core practices

This accessible, value-packed resource shows educators how to work with students to create a well-managed classroom where learning can flourish.

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Table of Contents

The Author vii

Acknowledgments viii

How to Use This Book ix

DVD Contents xviii

Foreword by Donald D. Deshler xxiii

Preface xxv

Introduction 1


Chapter 1 Vision: Understand key concepts about managing student behavior 7

Task 1: Understand the Basic Principles of Behavior Modification and Your Role in That Process 8

Task 2: Understand Motivation and the Variables That Can Be Manipulated to Increase It 10

Task 3: Develop and Implement Guidelines for Success 15

Task 4: Maintain High Expectations for Students’ Academic and Behavioral Performance 17

Task 5: Initiate and Maintain Family Contacts 19

Initial Contact 21

Ongoing Contact 24

In Conclusion 25

Chapter 2 Grading and Instruction: Design instruction and evaluation systems 29

Task 1: Develop Clear Goals for Each Class You Teach 30

Task 2: Design Instruction and Evaluation Procedures That Create a Clear Relationship between Student Effort and Success 33

Task 3: Establish a System to Provide Students Feedback on Behavior and Effort; Incorporate This into Your Grading System 37

Planning Step 1: Establish a Grade Percentage for Classroom Behavior or Effort 40

Planning Step 2: Determine the Approximate Number of Total Points Students May Earn During the Term 41

Planning Step 3: Determine the Approximate Number of Total Points Based on Behavior and Effort 42

Planning Step 4: Design an Efficient System for Monitoring and Recording Daily Classroom Behavior Points 43

Planning Step 5: Determine the Impact of Excused and Unexcused Absences on Your Grading of Behavior and Effort 46

Planning Step 6: Assign Weekly Performance Points and Provide Feedback to Students 47

Summary of Behavior Feedback Within Grading Systems 48

Task 4: Design Procedures for Students to Receive Feedback on Each Aspect of Their Behavioral and Academic Performance and to Know Their Current Grades 49

Task 5: Implement Effective Instructional Practices 53

Teacher’s Presentational Style 54

Actively Involving Students in Lessons 54

Ensuring High Rates of Student Success 54

Providing Students with Immediate Performance Feedback 55

Task 6: Present Desired Tasks to Your Students in a Manner That Will Generate Their Enthusiasm 55

In Conclusion 57

Chapter 3 Organization: Prepare routines and procedures 63

Task 1: Arrange the Schedule of Activities for Each Class Period to Maximize Instructional Time and Responsible Behavior 64

Task 2: Arrange the Physical Space in Your Classroom to Promote Positive Student-Teacher Interactions and

Reduce Disruption 68

Task 3: Decide on a Signal You Can Use to Immediately Quiet Your Students and Gain Their Full Attention 74

Task 4: Design Efficient, Effective Procedures for Beginning and Ending the Class Period 76

Entering Class 77

Opening Activities 78

Materials 80

Dealing with Students Returning after an Absence 82

End of Class or Period 82

Dismissal 83

Task 5: Design Effective, Efficient Procedures for Assigning, Monitoring, and Collecting Student Work 83

Assigning Classwork and Homework 84

Collecting Completed Work 86

Returning GradedWork to Students 87

Late or Missing Assignments 88

Task 6: Manage Independent Work Periods 89

In Conclusion 94

Chapter 4 Classroom Management Plan: Plan to encourage responsible behavior and to respond consistently to student misbehavior 101

Task 1: Adjust the Structure of Your Management Plan Based on Your Needs and the Needs of Your Students 102

Consider Your Needs 103

Consider Your Students’ Needs 105

Identify the Level of Structure You Will Use 108

Task 2: Identify and Post Three to Six Classroom Rules That Will Be Used as a Basis for Providing Positive and Corrective

Feedback 109 Task 3: Develop a Plan for Correcting Early-Stage Misbehaviors 114

Proximity 115

Gentle Verbal Reprimand 116

Discussion 116

Family Contact 116

Humor 118

Restitution 118

Conclusion 118

Task 4: Develop Consequences for Rule Violations 119

Loss of Point 122

Time Owed 122

Time-Out 123

Restitution 124

Detention 124

Demerits 124

Office Referral 125

Task 5: Know When and When Not to Use Disciplinary Referral 125

In Conclusion 129


Chapter 5 Expectations: Plan to teach students how to be successful 135

Task 1: Define Clear and Consistent Behavioral Expectations for All Regularly Scheduled Classroom Activities 138

Task 2: Define Clear and Consistent Behavioral Expectations for the Common Transitions, Both within and between Activities, That Occur during a Typical School Day 160

Task 3: Develop a Preliminary Plan, and Prepare Lessons for Teaching Your Expectations to Students 179

In Conclusion 187

Chapter 6 Preparation and Launch: Pull it all together for the first day 193

Task 1: Finalize Your Classroom Management Plan, and Prepare to Communicate That Plan to Your Students 194

Task 2: Complete Your Preparations for the First Day 198

Task 3: Implement Your Plan for the First Day 200

Step 1: Communicate Your Expectations 202

Step 2: Monitor Student Behavior 203

Step 3: Give Students Feedback on Their Implementation of Expectations 204

Task 4: Gradually Decrease the Amount of Time You Spend Teaching Expectations, Procedures, and Routines 206

Task 5: Mark on Your Planning Calendar Particular Times When You Will Reteach Your Expectations 214

In Conclusion 217


Chapter 7 Monitor Student Behavior: Implement and adjust your classroom management plan 223

Task 1: Circulate When Possible, and Scan All Sections of the Classroom Continuously 224

Circulating 224

Visual Scanning 225

Auditory Scanning 226

Task 2: Collect Objective Data about Classroom Behavior, and Adjust Your Management Plan Accordingly 226

Tool A: CHAMPS and ACHIEVE versus Daily Reality Rating Scales 229

Tool B: Ratio of Interactions Monitoring Forms 234

Tool C: Misbehavior Recording Sheet 239

Tool D: Grade Book Analysis Worksheet 241

Tool E: On-Task Behavior Observation Sheet 245

Tool F: Opportunities to Respond Observation Sheet 247

Tool G: Student Satisfaction Survey 250

In Conclusion 254


Chapter 8 Motivation: Enhance students’ desire to succeed 257

Task 1: Understand the Importance of Building Personal Relationships with Students 258

Task 2: Use Every Possible Opportunity to Provide Each Student with Noncontingent Attention 258

Task 3: Give Students Positive Feedback on Their Successes in a Variety ofWays 261

Task 4: Plan to Interact at Least Three Times More Often with Students When They Are Behaving Appropriately Than

When They Are Misbehaving 266

Task 5: Effectively Employ a Classwide System or Systems If Needed to Increase Motivation and Responsible Behavior 269

Step 1: Identify Problems, Goals, Level of Structure Needed, and the Type of System You Will Use 270

Step 2: Select a System and Prepare to Implement It 277

Step 3: Identify How You Will Maintain, Modify, and Fade a Reward-Based System 282

Menu of Classwide Systems 285

Reward-Based Systems for High-Structure Classes 285

Reward-Based Systems for Medium-Structure Classes 288

Nonreward-Based Systems for Low-Structure Classes 291

In Conclusion 297


Chapter 9 Proactive Planning for Chronic Misbehavior 303

Use Effective Correction Techniques 303

Addressing Chronic Misbehavior 305

Task 1: Analyze and, If Needed, Adjust the Implementation of Your Basic Management Plan 307

Task 2: Analyze and, If Needed, Adjust the Strategies You Are Using to Build a Positive Relationship with This Student 313

Task 3: Analyze the Misbehavior and Develop a Function-Based Intervention 317

Intervention Planning Steps 320

Step 1: Identify the target (problem) behavior and collect objective data; Use those data as you proceed to step 2 320

Step 2: Develop a hypothesis (educated guess) about the function of the misbehavior 324

Step 3: Identify Any Specific Contexts or Conditions (Time, Locations, Tasks) When the Target Behavior Typically Occurs (or Does Not Occur) 326

Step 4: Develop a Preliminary Behavior Change (Intervention) Plan Based on Your Hypothesis about the Function of the Misbehavior and Your Understanding ofWhen (UnderWhat Conditions) the Behavior Typically Occurs 326

Plan A: Develop an Intervention for Awareness-Type Misbehaviors 328

Step 1: Make Sure the Student KnowsWhat Behavior You Expect Her to Exhibit (the Target or Goal Behavior) 328

Step 2: Respond to Instances of the Misbehavior in a Manner That Lets the Student Know That She Is Not Meeting the Goal 330

Step 3: Monitor the Student’s Behavior So That You and the Student Will Have an Objective Basis for Discussing Progress 331

Step 4: Provide Positive Feedback When the Student Improves 333

Plan B: Develop an Intervention for Ability-Type Misbehaviors 334

Step 1: At a Neutral Time, Have a Discussion and Provide Information That Teaches the Replacement Behavior 335

Step 2: Correct Errors in a Manner That Provides Instruction 335

Step 3: Make Accommodations to Increase the Student’s Chance of Success 335

Step 4: Provide Positive Feedback When the Student Is Successful or Improves 336

Plan C: Develop an Intervention for Attention-Seeking Misbehaviors 336

Step 1: Determine Whether Ignoring Is an Appropriate Response 337

Step 2: Discuss the Proposed Plan with the Student 338

Step 3:When the Misbehavior Occurs, ContinueWhat You Are Doing and Provide Positive Feedback to Other Students 339

Step 4:When the Attention-Seeking Misbehavior Ceases, Give the Student Attention 340

Step 5: Maintain Frequent Interactions with the Student When He Is Not Misbehaving 340

Step 6: Monitor the Student’s Behavior to Determine Whether Progress Is Being Made 340

Plan D: Develop an Intervention for Habitual and Purposeful Types of Misbehaviors 340

Step 1: Remove Any Positive or Satisfying Aspects of Demonstrating the Misbehavior 341

Step 2: Demonstrate to the Student That Positive Behavior Leads to Positive Results 341

Step 3: Respond to the Misbehavior by Assigning Appropriate Corrective Consequences 344

Step 4: Implement the Intervention Plan for Purposeful/Habitual Misbehavior 347

Step 5: Discuss Your Preliminary Intervention Plan with the Student and, If Appropriate, the Student’s Family 348

Step 6: Implement the Intervention Plan for at Least Two Weeks; Continue to Collect Data on the Target Behavior to Evaluate the Plan’s Effectiveness 349

In Conclusion 350

Appendix A: The Evidence Base behind Discipline in the Secondary Classroom 355
Billie Jo Rodriguez

Appendix B: Schoolwide Implementation of Discipline in the Secondary Classroom 361

Appendix C: Cultural Competence 369
Keba Baldwin and Amalio Nieves

Appendix D: Professionalism for the First-Year Teacher 373

Appendix E: Mapping Discipline in the Secondary Classroom to a Framework for Teaching 383

Appendix F: CHAMPS Icons 393

References 403

Name Index 415

Subject Index 423

How to Use the DVD 435

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Author Information

Randall S. Sprick, Ph.D., is a nationally known authority on classroom management and positive behavior support. He is director of Safe & Civil Schools, a provider of training and school-improvement services to schools, districts, service centers, and state departments of education.

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