Textbook
Antenna Theory: Analysis and Design, 4th EditionISBN: 9781118642061
1096 pages
February 2016, ©2016

Description
Updated with color and gray scale illustrations, a companion website housing supplementary material, and new sections covering recent developments in antenna analysis and design
This book introduces the fundamental principles of antenna theory and explains how to apply them to the analysis, design, and measurements of antennas. Due to the variety of methods of analysis and design, and the different antenna structures available, the applications covered in this book are made to some of the most basic and practical antenna configurations. Among these antenna configurations are linear dipoles; loops; arrays; broadband antennas; aperture antennas; horns; microstrip antennas; and reflector antennas. The text contains sufficient mathematical detail to enable undergraduate and beginning graduate students in electrical engineering and physics to follow the flow of analysis and design. Readers should have a basic knowledge of undergraduate electromagnetic theory, including Maxwell’s equations and the wave equation, introductory physics, and differential and integral calculus.
 Presents new sections on flexible and conformal bowtie, Vivaldi antenna, antenna miniaturization, antennas for mobile communications, dielectric resonator antennas, and scale modeling
 Provides color and gray scale figures and illustrations to better depict antenna radiation characteristics
 Includes access to a companion website housing MATLAB programs, Javabased applets and animations, Power Point notes, Javabased interactive questionnaires and a solutions manual for instructors
 Introduces over 100 additional endofchapter problems
Antenna Theory: Analysis and Design, Fourth Edition is designed to meet the needs of senior undergraduate and beginning graduate level students in electrical engineering and physics, as well as practicing engineers and antenna designers.
Constantine A. Balanis received his BSEE degree from the Virginia Tech in 1964, his MEE degree from the University of Virginia in 1966, his PhD in Electrical Engineering from The Ohio State University in 1969, and an Honorary Doctorate from the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki in 2004. From 1964 to 1970, he was with the NASA Langley Research Center in Hampton, VA, and from 1970 to 1983, he was with the Department of Electrical Engineering of West Virginia University. In 1983 he joined Arizona State University and is now Regents' Professor of Electrical Engineering. Dr. Balanis is also a life fellow of the IEEE.
Table of Contents
About the Companion Website xix
1 Antennas 1
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Types of Antennas 3
1.3 Radiation Mechanism 7
1.4 Current Distribution on a Thin Wire Antenna 15
1.5 Historical Advancement 18
1.6 Multimedia 21
References 22
2 Fundamental Parameters and FiguresofMerit of Antennas 25
2.1 Introduction 25
2.2 Radiation Pattern 25
2.3 Radiation Power Density 35
2.4 Radiation Intensity 37
2.5 Beamwidth 40
2.6 Directivity 41
2.7 Numerical Techniques 55
2.8 Antenna Efficiency 60
2.9 Gain, Realized Gain 61
2.10 Beam Efficiency 65
2.11 Bandwidth 65
2.12 Polarization 66
2.13 Input Impedance 75
2.14 Antenna Radiation Efficiency 79
2.15 Antenna Vector Effective Length and Equivalent Areas 81
2.16 Maximum Directivity and Maximum Effective Area 86
2.17 Friis Transmission Equation and Radar Range Equation 88
2.18 Antenna Temperature 96
2.19 Multimedia 100
References 103
Problems 105
3 Radiation Integrals and Auxiliary Potential Functions 127
3.1 Introduction 127
3.2 The Vector Potential A for an Electric Current Source J 128
3.3 The Vector Potential F for A Magnetic Current Source M 130
3.4 Electric and Magnetic Fields for Electric (J) and Magnetic (M) Current Sources 131
3.5 Solution of the Inhomogeneous Vector Potential Wave Equation 132
3.6 FarField Radiation 136
3.7 Duality Theorem 137
3.8 Reciprocity and Reaction Theorems 138
References 143
Problems 143
4 Linear Wire Antennas 145
4.1 Introduction 145
4.2 Infinitesimal Dipole 145
4.3 Small Dipole 155
4.4 Region Separation 158
4.5 Finite Length Dipole 164
4.6 HalfWavelength Dipole 176
4.7 Linear Elements Near or On Infinite Perfect Electric Conductors (PEC), Perfect Magnetic Conductors (PMC) and Electromagnetic BandGap (EBG) Surfaces 179
4.8 Ground Effects 203
4.9 Computer Codes 216
4.10 Multimedia 216
References 218
Problems 220
5 Loop Antennas 235
5.1 Introduction 235
5.2 Small Circular Loop 236
5.3 Circular Loop of Constant Current 250
5.4 Circular Loop with Nonuniform Current 259
5.5 Ground and Earth Curvature Effects for Circular Loops 268
5.6 Polygonal Loop Antennas 269
5.7 Ferrite Loop 270
5.8 Mobile Communication Systems Applications 272
5.9 Multimedia 272
References 275
Problems 277
6 Arrays: Linear, Planar, and Circular 285
6.1 Introduction 285
6.2 TwoElement Array 286
6.3 NElement Linear Array: Uniform Amplitude and Spacing 293
6.4 NElement Linear Array: Directivity 312
6.5 Design Procedure 318
6.6 NElement Linear Array: ThreeDimensional Characteristics 319
6.7 RectangulartoPolar Graphical Solution 322
6.8 NElement Linear Array: Uniform Spacing, Nonuniform Amplitude 323
6.9 Superdirectivity 345
6.10 Planar Array 348
6.11 Design Considerations 360
6.12 Circular Array 363
6.13 Multimedia 367
References 367
Problems 368
7 Antenna Synthesis and Continuous Sources 385
7.1 Introduction 385
7.2 Continuous Sources 386
7.3 Schelkunoff Polynomial Method 387
7.4 Fourier Transform Method 392
7.5 WoodwardLawson Method 398
7.6 Taylor LineSource (TschebyscheffError) 404
7.7 Taylor LineSource (OneParameter) 408
7.8 Triangular, Cosine, and CosineSquared Amplitude Distributions 415
7.9 LineSource Phase Distributions 416
7.10 Continuous Aperture Sources 417
7.11 Multimedia 420
References 420
Problems 421
8 Integral Equations, Moment Method, and Self and Mutual Impedances 431
8.1 Introduction 431
8.2 Integral Equation Method 432
8.3 Finite Diameter Wires 439
8.4 Moment Method Solution 448
8.5 SelfImpedance 455
8.6 Mutual Impedance Between Linear Elements 463
8.7 Mutual Coupling in Arrays 474
8.8 Multimedia 480
References 480
Problems 482
9 Broadband Dipoles and Matching Techniques 485
9.1 Introduction 485
9.2 Biconical Antenna 487
9.3 Triangular Sheet, Flexible and Conformal BowTie, and Wire Simulation 492
9.4 Vivaldi Antenna 496
9.5 Cylindrical Dipole 500
9.6 Folded Dipole 505
9.7 Discone and Conical Skirt Monopole 512
9.8 Matching Techniques 513
9.9 Multimedia 523
References 524
Problems 525
10 Traveling Wave and Broadband Antennas 533
10.1 Introduction 533
10.2 Traveling Wave Antennas 533
10.3 Broadband Antennas 549
10.4 Multimedia 580
References 580
Problems 582
11 Frequency Independent Antennas, Antenna Miniaturization, and Fractal Antennas 591
11.1 Introduction 591
11.2 Theory 592
11.3 Equiangular Spiral Antennas 593
11.4 LogPeriodic Antennas 598
11.5 Fundamental Limits of Electrically Small Antennas 614
11.6 Antenna Miniaturization 619
11.7 Fractal Antennas 627
11.8 Multimedia 633
References 633
Problems 635
12 Aperture Antennas 639
12.1 Introduction 639
12.2 Field Equivalence Principle: Huygens’ Principle 639
12.3 Radiation Equations 645
12.4 Directivity 648
12.5 Rectangular Apertures 648
12.6 Circular Apertures 667
12.7 Design Considerations 675
12.8 Babinet’s Principle 680
12.9 Fourier Transforms in Aperture Antenna Theory 684
12.10 Ground Plane Edge Effects: The Geometrical Theory of Diffraction 702
12.11 Multimedia 707
References 707
Problems 709
13 Horn Antennas 719
13.1 Introduction 719
13.2 EPlane Sectoral Horn 719
13.3 HPlane Sectoral Horn 733
13.4 Pyramidal Horn 743
13.5 Conical Horn 756
13.6 Corrugated Horn 761
13.7 ApertureMatched Horns 766
13.8 Multimode Horns 769
13.9 DielectricLoaded Horns 771
13.10 Phase Center 773
13.11 Multimedia 774
References 775
Problems 778
14 Microstrip and Mobile Communications Antennas 783
14.1 Introduction 783
14.2 Rectangular Patch 788
14.3 Circular Patch 815
14.4 Quality Factor, Bandwidth, and Efficiency 823
14.5 Input Impedance 826
14.6 Coupling 827
14.7 Circular Polarization 830
14.8 Arrays and Feed Networks 832
14.9 Antennas for Mobile Communications 837
14.10 Dielectric Resonator Antennas 847
14.11 Multimedia 858
References 862
Problems 867
15 Reflector Antennas 875
15.1 Introduction 875
15.2 Plane Reflector 875
15.3 Corner Reflector 876
15.4 Parabolic Reflector 884
15.5 Spherical Reflector 920
15.6 Multimedia 923
References 923
Problems 925
16 Smart Antennas 931
16.1 Introduction 931
16.2 SmartAntenna Analogy 931
16.3 Cellular Radio Systems Evolution 933
16.4 Signal Propagation 939
16.5 Smart Antennas’ Benefits 942
16.6 Smart Antennas’ Drawbacks 943
16.7 Antenna 943
16.8 Antenna Beamforming 946
16.9 Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs) 960
16.10 SmartAntenna System Design, Simulation, and Results 964
16.11 Beamforming, Diversity Combining, RayleighFading, and TrellisCoded Modulation 972
16.12 Other Geometries 975
16.13 Multimedia 976
References 976
Problems 980
17 Antenna Measurements 981
17.1 Introduction 981
17.2 Antenna Ranges 982
17.3 Radiation Patterns 1000
17.4 Gain Measurements 1003
17.5 Directivity Measurements 1010
17.6 Radiation Efficiency 1012
17.7 Impedance Measurements 1012
17.8 Current Measurements 1014
17.9 Polarization Measurements 1014
17.10 Scale Model Measurements 1019
References 1024
Appendix I: f (x)= sin(x) x 1027
Appendix II: fN(x)=  sin(Nx) N sin(x)  N =1, 3, 5, 10, 20 1029
Appendix III: Cosine and Sine Integrals 1031
Appendix IV: Fresnel Integrals 1033
Appendix V: Bessel Functions 1035
Appendix VI: Identities 1041
Appendix VII: Vector Analysis 1045
Appendix VIII: Method of Stationary Phase 1055
Appendix IX: Television, Radio, Telephone, and Radar Frequency Spectrums 1061
Index 1065