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Handbook of Measurement in Science and Engineering, Volume 3

Myer Kutz (Editor)
ISBN: 978-1-118-64724-0
832 pages
April 2016
Handbook of Measurement in Science and Engineering, Volume 3 (1118647246) cover image

Description

A multidisciplinary reference of engineering measurement tools, techniques, and applications

"When you can measure what you are speaking about, and express it in numbers, you know something about it; but when you cannot measure it, when you cannot express it in numbers, your knowledge is of a meager and unsatisfactory kind; it may be the beginning of knowledge, but you have scarcely in your thoughts advanced to the stage of science." — Lord Kelvin

Measurement is at the heart of any engineering and scientific discipline and job function. Whether engineers and scientists are attempting to state requirements quantitatively and demonstrate compliance; to track progress and predict results; or to analyze costs and benefits, they must use the right tools and techniques to produce meaningful data.

The Handbook of Measurement in Science and Engineering is the most comprehensive, up-to-date reference set on engineering and scientific measurements—beyond anything on the market today. Encyclopedic in scope, Volume 3 covers measurements in physics, electrical engineering and chemistry:

  • Laser Measurement Techniques
  • Magnetic Force Images using Capacitive Coupling Effect
  • Scanning Tunneling Microscopy
  • Measurement of Light and Color
  • The Detection and Measurement of Ionizing Radiation
  • Measuring Time and Comparing Clocks
  • Laboratory-Based Gravity Measurement
  • Cryogenic Measurements
  • Temperature-Dependent Fluorescence Measurements
  • Voltage and Current Transducers for Power Systems
  • Electric Power and Energy Measurement
  • Chemometrics for the Engineering and Measurement Sciences
  • Liquid Chromatography
  • Mass Spectroscopy Measurements of Nitrotyrosine-Containing Proteins
  • Fluorescence Spectroscopy
  • X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy
  • Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy
  • Near Infrared (NIR) Spectroscopy
  • Nanomaterials Properties
  • Chemical Sensing
Vital for engineers, scientists, and technical managers in industry and government, Handbook of Measurement in Science and Engineering will also prove ideal for academics and researchers at universities and laboratories.
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Table of Contents

VOLUME 3

List of Contributors xxi

PREFACE xxv

Part VII Physics and Electrical Engineering 1943

54 Laser Measurement Techniques 1945
Cecil S. Joseph, Gargi Sharma, Thomas M. Goyette, and Robert H. Giles

54.1 Introduction, 1945

54.2 Laser Measurements: Laser‐Based Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar Systems, 1965

54.3 Laser Imaging Techniques, 1974

References, 1997

55 Magnetic Force Images Using Capacitive Coupling Effect 2001
Byung I. Kim

55.1 Introduction, 2001

55.2 Experiment 2004

55.3 Results and Discussion 2006

55.4 Conclusion 2020

References 2021

56 Scanning Tunneling Microscopy 2025
Kwok‐Wai Ng

56.1 Introduction 2025

56.2 Theory of Operation 2026

56.3 Measurement of the Tunnel Current 2030

56.4 The Scanner 2032

56.5 Operating Mode 2035

56.6 Coarse Approach Mechanism 2036

56.7 Summary 2041

References 2042

57 Measurement of Light and Color 2043
John D. Bullough

57.1 Introduction 2043

57.2 Lighting Terminology 2043

57.3 Basic Principles of Photometry and Colorimetry 2056

57.4 Instrumentation 2072

References 2074

58 The  Detection and Measurement of Ionizing Radiation 2075
Clair J. Sullivan

58.1 Introduction 2075

58.2 Common Interactions of Ionizing Radiation 2076

58.3 The Measurement of Charge 2077

58.4 Major Types of Detectors 2081

58.5 Neutron Detection 2100

58.6 Concluding Remarks 2106

References 2106

59 Measuring Time and Comparing Clocks 2109
Judah Levine

59.1 Introduction 2109

59.2 A Generic Clock 2109

59.3 Characterizing the Stability of Clocks and Oscillators 2110

59.4 Characteristics of Different Types of Oscillators 2117

59.5 Comparing Clocks and Oscillators 2119

59.6 Noise Models 2121

59.7 Measuring Tools and Methods 2126

59.8 Measurement Strategies 2129

59.9 The Kalman Estimator 2133

59.10 Transmitting Time and Frequency Information 2135

59.11 Examples of the Measurement Strategies 2141

59.11.1 The Navigation Satellites of the GPS 2141

59.12 The Polling Interval: How Often Should I Calibrate a Clock? 2152

59.13 Error Detection 2155

59.14 Cost–Benefit Analysis 2156

59.15 The National Time Scale 2157

59.16 Traceability 2158

59.17 Summary 2159

59.18 Bibliography 2160

References 2160

60 Laboratory‐Based Gravity Measurement 2163
Charles D. Hoyle Jr.

60.1 Introduction 2163

60.2 Motivation for Laboratory‐Scale Tests of Gravitational Physics 2164

60.3 Parameterization 2165

60.4 Current Status of Laboratory‐Scale Gravitational Measurements 2166

60.5 Torsion Pendulum Experiments 2167

60.6 Microoscillators and Submicron Tests of Gravity 2177

60.7 Atomic and Nuclear Physics Techniques 2178

Acknowledgements 2178

References 2178

61 Cryogenic Measurements 2181
Ray Radebaugh

61.1 Introduction 2181

61.2 Temperature 2182

61.3 Strain 2201

61.4 Pressure 2205

61.5 Flow 2211

61.6 Liquid Level 2218

61.7 Magnetic Field 2219

61.8 Conclusions 2220

References 2220

62 Temperature‐Dependent Fluorescence Measurements 2225
James E. Parks, Michael R. Cates, Stephen W. Allison, David L. Beshears, M. Al Akerman, and Matthew B. Scudiere

62.1 Introduction 2225

62.2 Advantages of Phosphor Thermometry 2227

62.3 Theory and Background 2227

62.4 Laboratory Calibration of Tp Systems 2235

62.5 History of Phosphor Thermometry 2238

62.6 Representative Measurement Applications 2239

62.7 Two‐Dimensional and Time‐Dependent Temperature Measurement 2241

62.8 Conclusion 2243

References 2243

63 Voltage and Current Transducers for Power Systems 2245
Carlo Muscas and Nicola Locci

63.1 Introduction 2245

63.2 Characterization of Voltage and Current Transducers 2247

63.3 Instrument Transformers 2248

63.4 Transducers Based on Passive Components 2255

63.5 Hall‐Effect and Zero‐Flux Transducers 2258

63.6 Air‐Core Current Transducers: Rogowski Coils 2262

63.7 Optical Current and Voltage Transducers 2267

References and Further Reading 2273

64 Electric Power and Energy Measurement 2275
Alessandro Ferrero and Marco Faifer

64.1 Introduction 2275

64.2 Power and Energy in Electric Circuits 2276

64.3 Measurement Methods 2282

64.4 Wattmeters 2288

64.5 Transducers 2290

64.6 Power Quality Measurements 2303

References 2305

Part VIII CHEMISTRY 2307

65 An Overview of Chemometrics for the Engineering and Measurement Sciences 2309
Brad Swarbrick and Frank Westad

65.1 Introduction: The Past and Present of Chemometrics 2309

65.2 Representative Data 2311

65.3 Exploratory Data Analysis 2317

65.4 Multivariate Regression 2352

65.5 Multivariate Classification 2369

65.6 Techniques for Validating Chemometric Models 2385

65.7 An Introduction to Mspc 2389

65.8 Terminology 2397

65.9 Chapter Summary 2401

References 2404

66 Liquid Chromatography 2409
Zhao Li, Sandya Beeram, Cong Bi, Ellis Kaufmann, Ryan Matsuda, Maria Podariu, Elliott Rodriguez, Xiwei Zheng, and David S. Hage

66.1 Introduction 2409

66.2 Support Materials in Lc 2412

66.3 Role of the Mobile Phase in Lc 2413

66.4 Adsorption Chromatography 2414

66.5 Partition Chromatography 2415

66.6 Ion‐Exchange Chromatography 2417

66.7 Size‐Exclusion Chromatography 2419

66.8 Affinity Chromatography 2421

66.9 Detectors for Liquid Chromatography 2423

66.10 Other Components of Lc Systems 2426

Acknowledgements 2427

References 2427

67 Mass Spectroscopy Measurements of Nitrotyrosine‐Containing Proteins 2431
Xianquan Zhan and Dominic M. Desiderio

67.1 Introduction 2431

67.2 Mass Spectrometric Characteristics of Nitropeptides 2434

67.3 Ms Measurement of in vitro Synthetic Nitroproteins 2443

67.4 Ms Measurement of In Vivo Nitroproteins 2446

67.5 Ms Measurement of In Vivo Nitroproteins in Different Pathological Conditions 2449

67.6 Biological Function Measurement of Nitroproteins 2456

67.7 Pitfalls of Nitroprotein Measurement 2462

67.8 Conclusions 2463

Nomenclature 2464

Acknowledgments 2465

References 2465

68 Fluorescence Spectroscopy 2475
Yevgen Povrozin and Beniamino Barbieri

68.1 Observables Measured in Fluorescence 2476

68.2 The Perrin–Jabłoński Diagram 2476

68.3 Instrumentation 2479

68.4 Fluorophores 2486

68.5 Measurements 2487

68.6 Conclusions 2498

References 2498

Further Reading 2498

69 X‐Ray Absorption Spectroscopy 2499
Grant Bunker

69.1 Introduction 2499

69.2 Basic Physics of X‐Rays 2499

69.3 Experimental Requirements 2505

69.4 Measurement Modes 2507

69.5 Sources 2507

69.6 Beamlines 2512

69.7 Detectors 2518

69.8 Sample Preparation and Detection Modes 2521

69.9 Absolute Measurements 2526

References 2526

70 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (Nmr) Spectroscopy 2529
Kenneth R. Metz

70.1 Introduction 2529

70.2 Historical Review 2530

70.3 Basic Principles of Spin Magnetization 2531

70.4 Exciting the Nmr Signal 2534

70.5 Detecting the Nmr Signal 2538

70.6 Computing the Nmr Spectrum 2540

70.7 Nmr Instrumentation 2542

70.8 The Basic Pulsed Ftnmr Experiment 2550

70.9 Characteristics of Nmr Spectra 2551

70.10 Nmr Relaxation Effects 2563

70.11 Dynamic Phenomena in Nmr 2568

70.12 Multidimensional Nmr 2573

70.13 Conclusion 2580

References 2580

71 Near‐Infrared Spectroscopy and Its Role in Scientific and Engineering Applications 2583
Brad Swarbrick

71.1 Introduction to Near‐Infrared Spectroscopy and Historical Perspectives 2583

71.2 The Theory Behind Nir Spectroscopy 2588

71.3 Instrumentation for Nir Spectroscopy 2595

71.4 Modes of Spectral Collection and Sample Preparation in Nir Spectroscopy 2609

71.5 Preprocessing of Nir Spectra for Chemometric Analysis 2620

71.6 A Brief Overview of Applications of Nir Spectroscopy 2633

71.7 Summary and Future Perspectives 2647

71.8 Terminology 2648

References 2652

72 Nanomaterials Properties 2657
Paul J. Simmonds

72.1 Introduction 2657

72.2 The Rise of Nanomaterials 2660

72.3 Nanomaterial Properties Resulting from High Surface‐Area‐to‐Volume Ratio 2661

72.4 Nanomaterial Properties Resulting from Quantum Confinement 2674

72.5 Conclusions 2695

References 2695

73 Chemical Sensing 2707
W. Rudolf Seitz

73.1 Introduction 2707

73.2 Electrical Methods 2709

73.3 Optical Methods 2717

73.4 Mass Sensors 2722

73.5 Sensor Arrays (Electronic Nose) 2724

References 2724

Index 2727

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