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Agricultural Medicine: Rural Occupational and Environmental Health, Safety, and Prevention, 2nd Edition

ISBN: 978-1-118-64740-0
600 pages
March 2016, Wiley-Blackwell
Agricultural Medicine: Rural Occupational and Environmental Health, Safety, and Prevention, 2nd Edition (1118647408) cover image

Description

Newly updated, Agricultural Medicine: Rural Occupational Health, Safety, and Prevention, Second Editionis a groundbreaking and comprehensive textbook and reference for students and practitioners of public health, and professionals in the field of rural agricultural occupational health and safety. The book introduces specific occupational and environmental health and safety issues faced by agricultural workers and rural residents, and provides a roadmap to establishing sustainable worker and public health support in agricultural communities.

Responding to reader demand, Agricultural Medicine, Second Edition now features more case studies, key point summaries, and new international perspective chapters comparing North American health and agricultural practices to those in Europe, the Asia Pacific, and South America.

Agricultural health and safety engages a multidisciplinary team of medical professionals, veterinarians, safety professionals, engineers, sociologists, epidemiologists, and psychologists, for whom this book serves as an essential resource.

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Table of Contents

About the Authors, xiii

About the Reviewers, xix

Preface, xxv

1 Introduction and Overview, 1
Kelley J. Donham and Anders Thelin

1.1 Introduction to the Professional Specialty of Agricultural Medicine (Agricultural Safety and Health), 1

1.2 Terminology and Definitions, 1

1.3 What is an Agricultural Health and Safety Professional?, 6

1.4 Training of Agricultural Health Practitioners and Agriculture Health and Safety Specialists, 8

1.5 Demographics of the Agricultural Workforce, 17

1.6 The Evolution of Production Agricultural, Workforce, and Types of Farms, 18

1.7 Other Occupations Exposed to the Agricultural Environment, 21

1.8 General Health Status of the Agricultural Population, 21

1.9 Occupational Health Status of the Agricultural Workforce, 22

1.10 Occupational Injury and Illness Statistics, 23

1.11 Persistent and Emerging Megatrends in Agriculture: Health—Safety Implications, 24

1.12 A Preview of Specific Occupational Health and Safety Risks and Conditions, 31

1.13 Summary, 35

References, 37

2 Special Risk Populations in Agricultural Communities, 43
Kelley J. Donham and Anders Thelin

2.1 Introduction, 43

2.2 Women in Agriculture, 44

2.3 Youths in Agriculture, 49

2.4 Elderly Farmers, 59

2.5 Migrant and Seasonal Farm Workers, 64

2.6 Old?]order Anabaptists, 73

References, 84

3 Agricultural Respiratory Diseases, 95
Kelley J. Donham and Anders Thelin

3.1 Introduction and Overview, 95

3.2 Agricultural Structures and Respiratory Hazards, 98

3.3 Agricultural Dusts, 111

3.4 Confined Animal Feeding Operations and Respiratory Disease Hazards, 126

3.5 Oxides of Nitrogen (“Silo Gas”), 136

3.6 Applied Agricultural Chemicals, 140

3.7 Zoonotic Infections Causing Respiratory Disease, 142

3.8 General Preventive Measures for Agricultural Respiratory Illnesses, 143

References, 149

4 Agricultural Skin Diseases, 155
Kelley J. Donham and Anders Thelin

4.1 Introduction, 155

4.2 Contact Dermatitis, 156

4.3 Clinical Picture of Contact Dermatitis, 156

4.4 Epidemiology and Risk Factors of Contact Dermatitis, 156

4.5 Agents causing Contact Dermatitis in Agricultural Settings, 157

4.6 Infectious Dermatitis, 165

4.7 Arthropod?]induced Dermatitis, 167

4.8 Sunlight?]induced Dermatoses, 171

4.9 Skin Disorders Related to Heat, Cold, and Humidity, 176

References, 177

5 Cancer in Agricultural Populations, 181
Kelley J. Donham

5.1 Introduction, 181

5.2 Summary, 198

References, 200

6 Health Effects of Agricultural Pesticides, 205
Kelley J. Donham

6.1 Introduction, 205

6.2 Definition of Pesticides, 206

6.3 History and Risk Communication, 207

6.4 Pesticides: Classes, Subclasses, and Relative Toxicity, 208

6.5 How Farmers, Agricultural Workers, and Agriculture?]associated Workers are Exposed to Pesticides, 209

6.6 The Risk of Pesticide Poisonings, 214

6.7 Insecticides: Usage, Acute Toxicity Mechanisms, Diagnosis, and Treatment, 215

6.8 Herbicides: Usage, Acute Toxic Mechanisms, Diagnosis, and Treatment, 227

6.9 Fumigants: Usage, Acute Toxic Mechanisms and Treatment, 233

6.10 Chronic Health Effects of Insecticides, Herbicides, and Fumigants, 237

6.11 General Strategies for the Prevention of Pesticide Poisoning, 238

6.12 Summary, 243

References, 246

7 General Environmental Hazards in Agriculture Communities, 251
Kelley J. Donham and Anders Thelin

7.1 Introduction, 251

7.2 Water Quality, 252

7.3 Substance Sources and Health Effects of Water Pollution from Agricultural Operations, 255

7.4 Prevention of the Adverse Health Effects of Water Pollution, 265

7.5 Air Quality in Rural Agricultural Environments, 269

7.6 Solid Waste Concerns in Rural Agricultural Areas, 276

7.7 Animal Feeding Operations, 278

7.8 Global Climate Change: Effects on Agricultural Production and the Environment, 282

References, 284

8 Musculoskeletal Disorders, 293
Anders Thelin and Kelley J. Donham

8.1 Introduction, 293

8.2 Chronic Pain Conditions, 294

8.3 Injuries of the Neck, 297

8.4 Injuries of the Spine, 299

8.5 Injuries of the Shoulder, 304

8.6 Injuries of the Elbow, Wrist and Hand, 307

8.7 Injuries of the Hip, 311

8.8 Injuries of the Knee, Ankle, and Foot, 313

8.9 General Disorders, Infections, and Reactive Arthritis, 315

8.10 Prevention of Musculoskeletal Disorders, 316

8.11 Summary, 316

References, 317

9 Physical Factors, 327
Anders Thelin and Kelley J. Donham

Noise and Hearing Loss, 327

9.1 Introduction, 327

9.2 Noise, definitions, and measurements, 328

9.3 How noise affects the auditory system, 329

9.4 Symptoms and Disablement, 330

9.5 Tinnitus, 331

9.6 Hearing Loss due to Trauma or Toxins, 331

9.7 Audiometry, 331

9.8 Other Effects of Noise, 333

9.9 Prevention, 333

Vibration and Injuries Related to Vibration, 336

9.10 Introduction, 336

9.11 Hand–arm Vibration Syndrome, 336

9.12 Whole?]body Vibration, 339

9.13 Disorders due to Heat and Cold, 339

9.14 Human Thermal Balance, 339

9.15 Disorders due to Heat, 341

9.16 Disorders Related to Cold, 343

9.17 Climate and Physical and Mental Capability, 344

9.18 Prevention of Injuries Related to Heat and Cold, 344

9.19 Summary, 345

References, 347

10 Psychosocial Conditions in Agriculture, 351
Anders Thelin and Kelley J. Donham

10.1 Introduction and Background, 351

10.2 Stress and Stress?]related Health Disorders, 353

10.3 Stress Physiology, 356

10.4 Chronic Stress?]related Physiological Reactions, 359

10.5 Stress and Disease, 360

10.6 Measuring Stress, 362

10.7 Management and Prevention of Stress Reactions, 364

10.8 Alcohol?]related Health Problems, 367

10.9 Suicides and Suicide Prevention, 369

10.10 Summary, 370

References, 370

11 Acute Injuries in Agriculture, 379
Kelley J. Donham, Aaron Yoder, and LaMar Grafft

11.1 Introduction, 379

11.2 Agricultural Injury Statistics and Epidemiology, 379

11.3 Medical Considerations of Acute Agricultural Injuries, 385

11.4 First on the Scene/First Aid, 386

11.5 First Responders and Emergency Medical Treatment, Rescue/Extrication, and Transport, 388

11.6 Emergency Room, 391

11.7 Primary Care, 392

11.8 Secondary/Tertiary Care, 393

11.9 Rehabilitation, 393

11.10 Hazards and Injury Scenarios, 394

11.11 Summary, 408

References, 409

12 Veterinary Pharmaceuticals: Potential Occupational and Community Health Hazards, 413
Kelley J. Donham

12.1 Introduction, 413

12.2 Background and Overview, 413

12.3 Veterinary Biologicals, 415

12.4 Antibiotics, 418

12.5 Hormones used for Growth Promotion, 427

12.6 Other Growth Promotors, 429

12.7 Hormones used in Veterinary Obstetrics, 429

12.8 Other Human Health Considerations of Veterinary Pharmaceuticals, 430

12.9 Summary, 430

References, 432

13 Zoonotic Diseases: Overview of Occupational Hazards in Agriculture, 437
Kelley J. Donham

13.1 Introduction, 437

13.2 Significance of Zoonotic Disease, 438

13.3 Forces Affecting Trends and Patterns of Zoonoses, 438

13.4 Historical Trends in Zoonoses, 441

13.5 Future Trends in Zoonoses, 441

13.6 General Epidemiologic Considerations of Zoonoses, 442

13.7 Classification of Zoonotic Infections, 442

13.8 Prevention, 444

13.9 Summary, 444

References, 462

14 International Agricultural Safety and Health, 465
Kelley J. Donham

14.1 Introduction, 465

Section A Agricultural Medicine in South America – The Mercosur 4: Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay, 466
Marcos Grigioni and Kelley J. Donham

14.1A Introduction, 466

14.2A Types of Production and Processes, 466

14.3A Culture and Demographics, 470

14.4A The Demography of those Engaged in Agricultural Production, 471

14.5A Agricultural Injury and Illness Statistics: the Current Status of the Health and Safety of Agricultural Populations, 473

14.6A Support Professionals in Agriculture, 475

14.7A Injuries and Illnesses in Farming Populations: Uruguay, Paraguay, and Brazil, 475

14.8A Resources and Organizations in the M4, 477

14.9A Special/unique Illness or Injury Conditions, 478

14.10A Summary, 480

References, 483

Section B Agricultural Medicine in Australia and New Zealand, 487
Susan Brumby

14.1B Introduction, 487

14.2B Differences in Types of Agricultural Systems, 488

14.3B Working Characteristics, 488

14.4B Agricultural Injuries and Illnesses, 489

14.5B Occupational Health and Safety Legislation, 489

14.6B Skin Cancer, 491

14.7B Agricultural Health and Safety Resources, 491

14.8B Conclusion, 492

References, 493

Section C Agricultural Medicine in: The European Community, 495
Christina Lunner Kolstrup and Peter Lundqvist

14.1C Introduction, 495

14.2C Diversification of Agricultural Production in Europe, 495

14.3C Differences in Types of Commodity Production and Processes Relative to North America, 496

14.4C Differences in the Culture of the Workers, 497

14.5C Differences in Agricultural Injury and Illness Statistics, 498

14.6C Differences in Health and Safety Regulations, 499

14.7C Differences in Resources for Agricultural Medicine, 500

14.8C Special/unique Agricultural Illness or Injury Conditions, 500

References, 501

15 Prevention of Illness and Injury in Agriculture, 503
Kelley J. Donham

15.1 Introduction, 503

15.2 Barriers to Prevention Intervention, 504

15.3 A Hierarchy of Prevention Modalities, 507

15.4 Specialized Health and Safety Disciplines, 519

15.5 Multimodal Interventions, 525

15.6 Respiratory Disease Prevention in Swine Confinement Workers, 526

15.7 Sustainable Farm Families in Australia, 528

15.8 Farm?]based Wellness Program, 528

15.9 Developing Comprehensive Prevention Programs, 528

15.10 Iowa Model of Integrated Multimodal Prevention Interventions, 528

15.11 Education to Facilitate Behavior Change, 529

15.12 Removal of Farm Health and Safety Hazards, 530

15.13 Development of Total Worker Health, 530

15.14 Summary, 530

Appendix A, 532

References, 545

Index, 551

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Reviews

"This book should be on the shelf at every hospital and county health department in agricultural communities, and at every referral center that receives patients from these communities...Chapter 1 presents a superlative overview of the broad topic of agricultural medicine... This chapter is a must-read?indeed, should be required reading in medical schools...There are other features of this volume that enhance its value. It is well referenced...amply illustrated...Prevention is a theme throughout the book...its emphasis is farmer occupational safety. Offering a global perspective, its relevance is not limited to health care professionals in North America or Europe. The presentation is eminently practical, typified by the instructions on assembling an agricultural first aid kit...Health conditions of significance to farm workers are discussed at suitable length: not too concise, not too detailed." (Family Medicine June 2017)

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