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Essential Readings in Light Metals, Volume 3, Cast Shop for Aluminum Production

John Grandfield (Editor), D. G. Eskin (Editor)
ISBN: 978-1-118-64777-6
1122 pages
April 2013
Essential Readings in Light Metals, Volume 3, Cast Shop for Aluminum Production (1118647777) cover image



Original research findings and reviews spanning all aspects of the science and technology of casting


Since 1971, The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society has published the Light Metals proceedings. Highlighting some of the most important findings and insights reported over the past four decades, this volume features the best original research papers and reviews on cast shop science and technology for aluminum production published in Light Metals from 1971 to 2011.

Papers have been divided into ten subject sections for ease of access. Each section has a brief introduction and a list of recommended articles for researchers interested in exploring each subject in greater depth.

Only 12 percent of the cast shop science and technology papers ever published in Light Metals were chosen for this volume. Selection was based on a rigorous review process. Among the papers, readers will find landmark original research findings and expert reviews summarizing current thinking on key topics at the time of publication.

From basic research to industry standards to advanced applications, the articles published in this volume collectively represent a complete overview of cast shop science and technology, supporting the work of students, researchers, and engineers around the world.

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Table of Contents

Preface xv

Lead Editors xvii

Editorial Team xix

Part 1: Introduction

The Role of Casting Technology in the Development of New and Improved Fabricated Products 1
W. Peterson

Part 2: Furnaces, Melting, Fluxing, and Alloying

Section Introduction 13

Optimal Fuel Control of a Casting Furnace 15
R. Bui and R. Ouellet

Naand Ca Pick-up from Hall Bath in Ingot Furnaces 21
D. De Young

Alloying by Injection of Mg in an Al Melt 28
E. Myrbostad and K. Vends

Alloying of Molten Aluminium: Optimizing the Present and Preparing the Future 33
C. Sztur and G. Hudault

Dissolution Mechanism for High Melting Point Transition Elements in Aluminum Melt 44
Y. Lee and S. Houser

A Technical Perspective on Molten Aluminum Processing 51
P. Waite

Melt Treatment — Evolution and Perspectives 59
P. Le Brun

Gas Fluxing of Molten Aluminum: An Overview 65
G. Sigworth, E. Williams, and D. Chesonis

Removal of Alkali Metals from Aluminum 71
E. Williams, R. McCarthy, S. Levy, and G. Sigworth

On the Kinetics of Removal of Sodium from Aluminum and Aluminum-Magnesium Alloys 80
B. Kulunk and R. Guthrie

Removal of Lithium in Commercial Metal 93
P. Achim and G. Dubé

Current Technologies for the Removal of Iron from Aluminum Alloys 101
L. Zhang and L. Damoah

Settling of Inclusions in Holding Furnaces: Modeling and Experimental Results 107
C. Sztur, F. Balestreri, J. Meyer, and B. Hannart

Settling Phenomena in Casting Furnaces: A Fundamental and Experimental Investigation 115
J. Martin, G. Dubé, D. Frayce, andR. Guthrie

In-Line Salt Fluxing Process: The Solution to Chlorine Gas Utilization in Casthouses 126
S. Leboeuf, C. Dupuis, B. Maltais, M. Thibault, and E. Smarason

Recommended Reading 133

Part 3: Oxidation and Dross Processing

Section Introduction 135

Oxidation of Liquid Aluminum-Magnesium Alloys 137
M. Silva and D. Talbot

Metallurgy of Dross Formation on Al Melts 143
S. Freti, J. Bornand, and K. Buxmann

Furnace Dross — Its Formation and Recovery 150
C. Moser

New Process of Direct Metal Recovery from Drosses in the Aluminum Casthouse 157
G. Zahorka

Melt Loss Evaluation 165
J. van Linden and H. Reavis

Molten Salt Flux Composition Effects in Aluminum Scrap Remelting 173
J. van Linden and D. Stewart, Jr.

Recommended Reading 181

Part 4: Melt Quality: Degassing, Filtering, and Analysis

Section Introduction 183

Analysis and Thermodynamic Prediction of Hydrogen Solution in Solid and Liquid Multicomponent Aluminum Alloys 185
P. Anyalebechi

A Radioscopie Technique to Observe Bubbles in Liquid Aluminum 201
M. Bertherat, T. Odièvre, M. Allibert, and P. Le Brun

Molten Aluminium Purification 208
T. Engh and G. Sigworth

Removal of Hydrogen from Molten Aluminium by Gas Purging 218
T. Engh and T. Pedersen

Gas Fluxing of Molten Aluminum. Part 1: Hydrogen Removal 226
G. Sigworth

Alcan Compact Degasser: A Trough-based Aluminum Treatment Process. Part I: Metallurgical Principles
and Performance 234
P. Waite and R. Thiffault

Dynamic Vacuum Treatment of Molten Aluminium and Its Alloys 239
A. Aarflot and F. Patak

Ultrasonic Degassing of Molten Aluminum under Reduced Pressure 246
H. Xu, X. Jian, T. Meek, and Q. Han

Industrial Application of Open Pore Ceramic Foam for Molten Metal Filtration 251
L. Gauckler, M. Waeber, C. Conti, and M. Jacob-Duliére

Deep Bed Filtration Theory Compared with Experiments 263
T. Engh, B. Rasch, and E. Bathen

Efficiency of Industrial Filters for Molten Metal Treatment: Evaluation of a Filtration Process Model 271
P. Netter and C. Conti

Experimental and Numerical Study of Ceramic Foam Filtration 285
E. Laé, H. Duval, C. Rivière, P. Le Brun, and J. Gui Hot

The Influence of Grain Refiners on the Efficiency of Ceramic FoamFilters 291
N. Towsey, W. Schneider, H. Krug, A. Hardman, and N. Keegan

Aluminum Cleanliness Monitoring: Methods and Applications in Process Development and Quality Control 296
D. Doutre, B. Gariépy, J. Martin, and G. Dubé

Ultrasonic Technology for Measuring Molten Aluminum Quality 305
T. Mansfield

In-line Treatment of Molten Aluminum 312
L. Blayden and K. Brondyke

Effects of Grain Refining Additions to Aluminum Alloys 318
R. Gennone, F. Coyle, and G. Farrior

Removal of Inclusions — A Survey and Comparison of Principles 324
F. Frisvold, T. Engh, S. Johansen, and T. Pedersen

The Impact of LiMCA Technology on the Optimization of Melt Cleanliness 332
C. Dupuis and R. Dumont

Recommended Reading 339

Part 5: Structure: Grain Refinement, Modification, and Microsegregation

Section Introduction 341

Grain Refinement in Aluminum Alloys 343
L. Mondolfo

Micro structure Control in Ingots of Aluminum Alloys with an Emphasis on Grain Refinement 354
D. Granger

Studies of the Action of Grain-Refining Particles in Aluminum Alloys 366
P. Schumacher and A. Greer

Heterogeneous Nucleation of an Al-Ti in Al-Ni-Si Alloys 375
B. McKay, P. Cizek, P. Schumacher, and K O 'Reilly

Zr-Poisoning of Grain Refiner Particles Studied in Al-Ni-Zr Amorphous Alloys 381
P. Schumacher, P. Cizek, and A. Bunn

Modelling of the Effectiveness of Al-Ti-B Refiners in Commercial Purity Aluminium 387
A. Bunn, P. Evans, D. Bristow, and A. Greer

The Effect of Alloy Content on the Grain Refinement of Aluminium Alloys 393
M. Easton and D. St John

A Comparison of the Behaviour of AlTiB and AlTiC Grain Refiners 400
W. Schneider, M. Kearns, M. McGarry, and A. Whitehead

Design of Grain Refiners for Aluminium Alloys 409
A. Tronche and A. Greer

On the Mechanism of Grain Refinement by Ultrasonic Melt Treatment in the Presence of Transition Metals 415
D. Eskin, T. Atamanenko, L. Zhang, and L. Katgerman

Modification and Refinement of Cast Al-Si Alloys 420
S. Lu and A. Hellawell

Modification of Silicon in Eutectic and Hyper-Eutectic Al-Si Alloys 425
B. Heshmatpour

Strobloy — The New Combined Grain Refiner and Modifier for Hypoeutectic AISi Foundry Alloys 433
E. Bondhus and T. Sagstad

Factors Governing the Formation of Feathery Crystals in DC-cast Ingots 438
L. Gullman and L. Johansson

Fir Tree Structures of 1000-and 5000-Series Aluminum Alloy Sheet Ingots 452
T. Otani, T. Kato, K. Ar ai, and R. Otsuka

Growth Mechanisms of Intermetallic Phases in DC Cast AAlxxx Alloys 460
X. Chen

A Thermodynamic Study of Metastable Al-Fe Phase Formation in Direct Chill (DC)-Cast Aluminum Alloys Ingots 466
C. Aliravci, J. Gruzleski, and M. Pekgüleryüz

The Generation of AlmFe in Dilute Aluminium Alloys with Different Grain Refining Additions 475
W. Meredith, A. Greer, P. Evans, and R. Hamerton

Effects of Cooling Rate and Grain Refining on Constituent Phase Particle Size in As-Cast 3004 Alloy 482
P. Anyalebechi, T. Rouns, and R. Sanders, Jr.

Predicting Microstructure and Microsegregation in Multicomponent Aluminum Alloys 512
X. Yan, L. Ding, S. Chen, F. Xie, M. Chu, and Y. Chang

Modelling of the Thermo-Physical and Physical Properties for Solidification of Al-Alloys 519
N. Sounders, X. Li, A. Miodownik, and J. Schillé

Recommended Reading 525

Part 6: Direct-Chill Casting

Section Introduction 527

Recent Developments in Semi-Continuous Casting of Aluminum Alloy Billets and Slabs 529
A. Nussbaum

DC Casting of Aluminium Alloys — Past, Present and Future 534
W. Schneider

Magnesium Direct Chill Casting: A Comparison with Aluminium 542
P. Baker and P. McGlade

New Hot-top Continuous Casting Method Featuring Application of Air Pressure to Mold 550
R. Mitamura, T. Ito, Y. Takahashi, and T. Hiraoka

The Variable Chill Depth Mould System 557
R. Wilkins

New Casting Method for Improving Billet Quality 564
J. Faunae, F. Wagstaff, and H. Shaw

Improvement of Billet Quality by Use of a Hot Top Mold with a Two Phase Lubrication 571
W. Schneider and E. Lossack

Metallurgical Features of Sheet Ingot Cast by the Airslip™ Air-casting Process 577
J. Ekenes and F. Wagstaff

High Speed DC Casting of AA-6063 Extrusion Ingot 584
S. Nawata, M. Kubota, and K. Yokota

Designing Sheet Ingot Moulds to Produce Rectangular Ingots of the Desired Thickness and Width 591
C. Weaver, L. Y enta, G. Morin, and P. Meslage

HDC Process for Small Diameter Ingot 598
Y. Ishii

Development of a New Starting Block Shape for the DC Casting of Sheet Ingots, Part I: Experimental Results 605
W. Schneider, E. Jensen, and B. Corrupt

NETCAST Shape Casting Technology: A Technological Breakthrough that Enhances the Cost Effectiveness
of Aluminum Forgings 612
M. Anderson, R. Bruski, D. Groszkiewicz, and B. Wagstaff

Simultaneous Casting of Alloy Composites 619
G. Binczewski and W. Kramer

Novelis Fusion™: A Novel Process for the Future 628
T. Bischoff L. Hudson, and R. Wagstaff

Detailed Modeling of a Metal Distributor by Means of a Combined Numerical and Physical Approach 633
R. Kieft, J. van Oord, F. Frinking, D. Bal, and H. van Schoonevelt

The Effect of Process Parameters on the Metal Distribution for DC Sheet Ingot Casting 640
M. Fortier, A. Larouche, X. Chen, and Y. Caron

Heat Transfer Measurements during DC Casting of Aluminium. Parti: Measurement Technique 646
J. Bakken and T. Bergström

Heat Transfer Measurements during DC Casting of Aluminium. Part II: Results and Verification for Extrusion Ingots 653
E. Jensen, S. Johansen, T. Bergström, and J. Bakken

The Measurement of Heat Flow within a DC Casting Mould 659
A. Prasad, J. Taylor, and I. Bainbridge

Determination of the Thermal Boundary Conditions during Aluminum DC Casting from Experimental Data
Using Inverse Modeling 665
I. Opstelten and J. Rabenberg

Advances for DC Ingot Casting: Part 2 - Heat Transfer and Casting Results 672
G. Grealy, J. Davis, E. Jensen, P. Tonde I, and J. Moritz

Water Cooling in Direct Chill Casting: Part 1, Boiling Theory and Control 681
J. Grandfield, A. Hoadley, and S. Instone

Impact of Water Heat Extraction and Casting Conditions on Ingot Thermal Response during DC Casting 690
A. Larouche, Y. Caron, and D. Kocaefe

Effect of Water Quality and Water Type on the Heat Transfer in DC Casting 696
L. Kiss, T. Meenken, A. Charette, Y. Lefebvre, and R. Lévesque

Recommended Reading 703

Part 7: Casting Defects and Their Control

Section Introduction 705

Practical Problems in Casting Aluminum DC Ingots 707
R. Dieffenbach

Reduction of Ingot Bottom "Bowing and Bumping" in Large Sheet Ingot Casting 710
F. Sergerie and N. Bryson

An Empirical Model to Explain Cross-Section Changes of DC Sheet Ingot during Casting 712
C. Weaver

Mathematical Modelling of Butt Curl Deformation of Sheet Ingots. Comparison with Experimental Results
for Different Starter Block Shapes 720
H. Fjaer and E. Jensen

The Mechanism of Pull-In during DC-Casting of Aluminium Sheet Ingots 729
H. Fjaer and A. Hâkonsen

Coupled Stress, Thermal and Fluid Flow Modelling of the Start-up Phase of Aluminium Sheet Ingot Casting 737
H. Fjaer, D. Mortensen, A. Hâkonsen, and E. Sorheim

Investigations About Starting Cracks in DC Casting of 6063 Type Billets. Parti: Experimental Results 743
W. Schneider and E. Jensen

Investigations About Starting Cracks in DC Casting of 6063 Type Billets. Part II: Modelling Results 749
E. Jensen and W. Schneider

Inverse Solidification— A Theory of the Formation of the Surface on DC Cast Round Ingot 756
J. McCubbin

Contribution to the Metallurgy of the Surfaces of Cast Aluminum 768
K. Buxmann

Surface Formation on VDC Casting 783
I. Bainbridge, J. Taylor, and A. Dahle

Wrinkling Phenomena to Explain Vertical Fold Defects in DC-Cast Al-Mg4.5 789
J. Davis and P. Mendez

Study of Shell Zone Formation in Lithographic and Anodizing Quality Aluminium Alloys: Experimental and
Numerical Approach 805
C. Brochu, A. Larouche, and R. Hark

Coupled Modelling of Air-Gap Formation and Surface Exudation during Extrusion Ingot DC-Casting 812
D. Mortensen, B. Henriksen, M. M'Hamdi, and H. Fjaer

Macrosegregation Characteristics of Commercial Size Aluminum Alloy Ingot Cast by the Direct Chill Method 819
M. Chu and J. Jacoby

Effects of Casting Practice on Macrosegregation and Microstructure of 2024 Alloy Billet 825
R. Dorward and D. Beerntsen

Investigation in the Effects of the Casting Parameters on the Extent of Centerline Macrosegregation in DC Cast Sheet Ingots 831
B. Gariepy and Y. Caron

Effect of Grain Refining on Defect Formation in DC Cast Al-Zn-Mg-Cu Alloy Billet 842
R. Nadella, D. Eskin, and L. Katgerman

The Coupling of Macrosegregation with Grain Nucleation, Growth and Motion in DC Cast Aluminum Alloy Ingots 848
M. Zaloznik, A. Kumar, H. Combeau, M. Bedel, P. Jarry, and E. Waz

Thermal Stresses in Continuous DC Casting of Al Alloys: Discussion of Hot Tearing Mechanisms 854
J. Moriceau

Modelling of Fluid Flow and Stress Phenomena during DC Casting of Aluminium Alloys 862
S. Flood, L. Katgerman, A. Langille, S. Rogers, and C. Reed

Thermomechanical Effects during Direct Chill and Electromagnetic Casting of Aluminum Alloys. Part I: Experimental

Investigation 867
J. Drezet and M. Plata

Thermomechanical Effects during Direct Chill and Electromagnetic Casting of Aluminum Alloys. Part II: Numerical Simulation 877
J. Drezet, M. Rappaz, and Y. Krähenbühl

On the Mechanism of Surface Cracking in DC Cast 7xxx and 6xxx Extrusion Ingot Alloys 887
S. Benum, D. Mortensen, H. Fjaer, H. Overlie, and O. Reiso

Hot Tearing in Aluminium-Copper Alloys 895
D. Viano, D. StJohn, J. Grandfield, and C. Caceres

Measurement of the Onset of Hot Cracking in DC Cast Billets 900
B. Commet, P. Delaire, J. Rabenberg, and J. Storm

A Mathematical Model for Hot Cracking of Aluminium Alloys during DC Casting 907
L. Katgerman

Prediction of Hot Tears in DC-Cast Aluminum Billets 912
J. Drezet, and M. Rappaz

As-Cast Mechanical Properties of High Strength Aluminum Alloy 919
J. Wan, H. Lu, K. Chang, and J. Harris

Residual Stress Measurements for Studying Ingot Cracking 925
S. Levy, R. Zinkham, and J. Carson

Numerical Simulation of DC Casting; Interpreting the Results of a Thermo-Mechanical Model 933
W. Boender, A. Burghardt, and E. van Klaveren, and J. Rabenberg

Cold Cracking during Direct-Chill Casting 939
D. Eskin, M. Lalpoor, and L. Katgerman

Recommended Reading 945

Part 8: Other Casting Methods

Section Introduction 947

The Mechanical and Metallurgical Characteristics of Twin-Belt Cast Aluminum Strip Using Current
Hazelett Technology 949
W. Szczypiorski and R. Szczypiorski

The Hunter Continuous Strip Casting Process 959
W. Stephens and G. Vassily

CREM — A New Casting Process. Part II — Industrial Aspects 966
J. Riquet and J. Meyer

Twin Roll Casting of Aluminium: The Occurrence of Structure Inhomogeneities and Defects in As Cast Strip 972
H. Westengen and K. Nes

Centre line Segregation in Twin Roll Cast Aluminum Alloy Slab 981
L Jin, L. Morris, and J. Hunt

Thin Gauge Twin-Roll Casting, Process Capabilities and Product Quality 989
O. Daaland, A. Espedal, M. Nedreberg, and L Alvestad

New Electromagnetic Rheocasters for the Production of Thixotropic Aluminum Alloy Slurries 997
C. Vives

Remelt Ingot Production Technology 1003
J. Grandfield

Recommended Reading 1011

Part 9: Heat Treatment

Section Introduction 1013

Investigating the Alpha Transformation — A Solid-State Phase Change of Dispersed Intermetallic Particles from an Al6(Fe,Mn) Phase to an a-Al-(Fe,Mn)-Si Phase 1015
D. Alexander, R. Hamerton, H. Cama, and A. Greer

Precipitation of Dispersoids in DC-Cast AA3103 Alloy during Heat Treatment 1021
Y. Li and L. Arnberg

Modelling the Metallurgical Reactions during Homogenisation of an AA3103 Alloy 1028
A. Hâkonsen, D. Mortensen, S. Benum, T. Pettersen, and T. Furu

Influence of Homogenizing on the Properties of Cast Aluminium Products 1036
J. Langerweger

Recommended Reading 1043

Part 10: Safety

Section Introduction 1045

Personal Protective Clothing: From Fundamental to a Global Strategy of Protection in the Casthouse Environment 1047
P. Wallach

Why Does Molten Aluminum Explode at Underwater or Wet Surfaces? 1057
L. Nelson, M. Eatough, and K. Guay

Investigation of Coatings Which Prevent Molten Aluminum/Water Explosions 1068
D. Leon, R. Richter, and T. Levendusky

Hazards Associated with the Use of Bone Ash in Contact with Molten Aluminum 1074
D. Doutre

Cause and Prevention of Explosions Involving Hottop Casting of Aluminum Extrusion Ingot 1078
J. Ekenes and T. Saether

Cause and Prevention of Explosions Involving DC Casting of Aluminum Sheet Ingot 1085
R. Richter and J. Ekenes

The Role of Automation in Explosion Prevention in Sheet Ingot Casting 1091
D. Bernard

Hazards in Adding Scrap Copper to Molten Aluminum 1097
W. Peterson

Recommended Reading 1101

Author Index 1103

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Author Information

JOHN F. GRANDFIELD, PhD, is Director of Grandfield Technology Pty Ltd, a consulting and technology firm, and Adjunct Professor in the High Temperature Processing Group at Swinburne University of Technology. Dr. Grandfield has thirty years of experience in light metals research and technology, with an emphasis on smelting, continuous casting, and metal refining. In addition, he has conducted plant benchmarking audits and technology reviews, optimized existing technology, managed technology transfer, and developed and commercialized new technologies.

DMITRY G. ESKIN, PhD, is a Professor of Solidification Research at Brunel University (UK). Internationally recognized for his work in physical metallurgy and solidification processing of light alloys, Dr. Eskin holds several patents and is the author or coauthor of five monographs and more than 160 scientific papers. Among his publications are Advanced Aluminum Alloys Containing Scandium, Multicomponent Phase Diagrams: Applications for Commercial Aluminum Alloys, and Physical Metallurgy of Direct Chill Casting of Aluminum Alloys.

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