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Origin of Carbonate Sedimentary Rocks

ISBN: 978-1-118-65270-1
464 pages
August 2015, American Geophysical Union
Origin of Carbonate Sedimentary Rocks (1118652703) cover image

Description

This textbook provides an overview of the origin and preservation of carbonate sedimentary rocks. The focus is on limestones and dolostones and the sediments from which they are derived. The approach is general and universal and draws heavily on fundamental discoveries, arresting interpretations, and keystone syntheses that have been developed over the last five decades. The book is designed as a teaching tool for upper level undergraduate classes, a fundamental reference for graduate and research students, and a scholarly source of information for practicing professionals whose expertise lies outside this specialty. The approach is rigorous, with every chapter being designed as a separate lecture on a specific topic that is encased within a larger scheme.  The text is profusely illustrated with all colour diagrams and images of rocks, subsurface cores, thin sections, modern sediments, and underwater seascapes.

Additional resources for this book can be found at: www.wiley.com/go/james/carbonaterocks
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Table of Contents

Preface xiii

Acknowledgements xv

ABOUT THE COMPANION WEBSITE xvii

PART I: CARBONATE SEDIMENTOLOGY: AN OVERVIEW 1

1 CARBONATE ROCKS AND PLATFORMS 5

What are carbonate sedimentary rocks? 6

Why should we care about studying these rocks? 6

What is the scientific approach? 6

The carbonate continuum 7

How do carbonate sediments form? 9

Where are carbonates produced and where do they accumulate? 10

Tectonic settings and the nature of carbonate platforms 11

How do we study carbonate sediments and rocks? 14

Further reading 14

2 CARBONATE CHEMISTRY AND MINERALOGY 15

Introduction 16

Chemistry 16

Carbonate precipitation and dissolution in the ocean 19

Further reading 21

3 THE CARBONATE FACTORY 22

Introduction 23

Sediment production 23

Component modification 28

Karst and carbonate spring precipitates 36

Further reading 37

4 MARINE CARBONATE FACTORIES AND ROCK CLASSIFICATIONS 38

Introduction 39

Environmental controls 39

Benthic marine factories 46

Pelagic marine factories 47

Limestone classification schemes 48

Further reading 50

5 THE CARBONATE FACTORY: MICROBES AND ALGAE 51

Introduction 52

Microbes and carbonates 52

Microbialites 52

Modern stromatolites 54

Calcimicrobes 60

Calcareous algae 60

Further reading 66

6 THE CARBONATE FACTORY: SINGLE CELLS AND SHELLS 67

Introduction 68

Single ]cell microfossils 68

Macrofossils 71

Further reading 78

7 THE CARBONATE FACTORY: ECHINODERMS AND COLONIAL INVERTEBRATES 79

Introduction 80

Echinoderms 80

Sponges 82

Bryozoans 85

Corals 89

Further reading 93

Part II: CARBONATE DEPOSITIONAL SYSTEMS: AN OVERVIEW 95

8 LACUSTRINE CARBONATES 99

Introduction 100

Modern lakes: Zonation and classification 100

Controls on lake sedimentation 101

Lake sedimentation 103

Lacustrine microbialites 107

Classification of ancient lake deposits 108

Further reading 108

9 CARBONATE SPRINGS 110

Introduction 111

Spring systems 111

Classification of springs 112

Tufa, travertine, or sinter? 113

Biota of spring systems 114

Carbonate precipitation in spring systems 114

Spring architecture 115

Calcareous spring carbonate facies 117

Further reading 122

10 WARM ]WATER NERITIC CARBONATE DEPOSITIONAL SYSTEMS 123

Introduction 124

The carbonate factory 124

Depositional systems 125

Further reading 134

11 THE COOL ]WATER NERITIC REALM 135

Introduction 136

The Carbonate Factory 136

Depositional settings 139

Warm ]temperate carbonates 141

Cool ]temperate carbonates 144

Cold ]water, polar carbonate systems 144

The rock record 145

Further reading 148

12 MUDDY PERITIDAL CARBONATES 150

Introduction 151

Andros Island: The Bahamas 152

Shark Bay: Western Australia 155

The United Arab Emirates: Persian Gulf 156

Stratigraphy 158

The shallowing ]upward peritidal cycle 158

How do numerous peritidal cycles form? 160

Temporal variations on the peritidal cycle theme 162

Further reading 163

13 NERITIC CARBONATE TIDAL SAND BODIES 165

Introduction 166

Tides and tidal currents 166

Tidal sand bodies 167

Bahamian platform ooid sand bodies 169

Types of Bahamian platform sand bodies 170

Some examples of Bahamian sand bodies 171

Inter ]island tidal ooid sand bodies (tidal deltas) 173

Platform interior Bahamian ooid sand bodies 174

Carbonate ramp tidal ooid sand bodies 175

Carbonate sand bodies in straits and seaways 175

Carbonate sands in flooded incised valleys 176

Carbonate sands in hypersaline basins 177

The rock record of tidal ooid sands 177

Ancient sand body geometries 178

Further reading 178

14 MODERN REEFS 179

Introduction 180

The reef mosaic 180

The coral reef growth window 182

Shallow ]water reefs 184

Deep ]water reefs 189

Further reading 191

15 ANCIENT REEFS 192

Introduction 193

The ancient reef factory 193

Microbes, calcimicrobes, and calcareous algae 194

Internal cavities 195

Lithification 195

Boring and bioerosion 196

Reef stratigraphic nomenclature 196

The spectrum of ancient reefs 198

Reefs 198

Reef mounds 199

Reef geohistory 202

Reef rock classification 206

Further reading 211

16 CARBONATE SLOPES 212

Introduction 213

Depositional bathymetry 213

The deposits 213

Contourites 217

Slope types 219

Temporal and spatial variability 220

Further reading 222

17 DEEP ]WATER PELAGIC CARBONATES 223

Introduction 224

Universal controls 224

Depositional controls 225

Universal attributes 226

Old pelagic sediments 226

Young pelagic sediments 228

The pelagic factory 228

Chalk 229

Associated sediments 233

Ocean anoxia 233

Further reading 233

18 PRECAMBRIAN CARBONATES 234

Introduction 235

Precambrian carbonate systems 235

The carbonate factory 235

Reefs 242

Further reading 246

19 CARBONATE SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHY 247

Introduction 248

Carbonate sequence stratigraphy 249

Shallow ]water reef sequence stratigraphy 250

Photozoan rimmed platforms 252

Evaporites and siliciclastics 255

Heterozoan unrimmed carbonate platforms 255

Ramps 257

Higher ]order cycles (parasequences) 258

Depositional cycles 259

Further reading 259

20 THE TIME MACHINE 261

Introduction 262

Carbonates and plate tectonics 262

Paleoclimate and paleoceanography 265

Carbonates and the evolving biosphere 268

Ocean acidification 271

Further reading 271

Part III: CARBONATE DIAGENESIS: AN OVERVIEW 273

21 THE PROCESSES AND ENVIRONMENTS OF DIAGENESIS 277

Introduction to the processes 278

Carbonate dissolution 278

Carbonate precipitation 278

The environments 281

Synsedimentary marine diagenetic environment 282

Meteoric diagenetic environment 282

Burial diagenetic environment 284

Dolomite and dolostone 285

Further reading 285

22 ANALYTICAL METHODS 286

Introduction 287

Petrography 288

X ]ray diffraction analysis 291

Scanning electron microscopy 292

Electron microprobe analysis 294

Chemical analyses 294

Further reading 296

23 THE CHEMISTRY OF CARBONATE DIAGENESIS 297

Introduction 298

Trace elements and element ratios 298

Stable isotopes 301

Oxygen isotopes 301

Carbon isotopes 303

Stable isotope values for modern biogenic carbonates 304

Carbonate stable isotope values through geologic time 305

Strontium isotopes 307

Further reading 309

24 LIMESTONE: THE SYNSEDIMENTARY MARINE DIAGENETIC ENVIRONMENT 311

Introduction 312

The setting 312

Dissolution 312

Precipitation 313

Alteration 315

Synsedimentary limestone 316

Spatial distribution of early lithification 319

Strandline diagenesis 320

The rock record 322

Isotopic composition of ancient marine cements 324

Further reading 325

25 METEORIC DIAGENESIS OF YOUNG LIMESTONES 326

Introduction 327

Processes 327

Cements and cementation 330

Diagenesis of calcite sediments 333

Importance of grain size 333

Diagenesis in different meteoric settings 335

Importance of climate 335

How long does it take? 335

The ultimate product 336

Geochemistry 337

Further reading 339

26 KARST AND WATER ]CONTROLLED DIAGENESIS 341

Introduction 342

Surficial processes and products 342

Surface karst facies 342

Calcrete facies 346

Subsurface karst facies 348

Surface and subsurface carbonate geochemistry 355

Further reading 356

27 BURIAL DIAGENESIS OF LIMESTONE 357

Introduction 358

The setting 358

Controlling factors 358

Processes and products 359

Burial cementation 362

Burial diagenetic models 365

Paragenesis via cement stratigraphy 368

Further reading 369

28 DOLOMITE AND DOLOMITIZATION 370

Introduction 371

Scientific approach 371

Dolomite: the mineral 371

Dolostone: the rock 373

The limestone to dolostone transition 376

Early diagenetic alteration of dolomite 376

Dolomite geochemistry 380

Further reading 382

29 DOLOMITIZATION PROCESSES AND SYNSEDIMENTARY DOLOMITE 383

Introduction 384

What limits dolomite formation? 384

How to form extensive dolomite 385

The different types of dolomite and dolostone 386

Synsedimentary (authigenic) dolomite 386

Further reading 390

30 SUBSURFACE DOLOMITIZATION AND DOLOSTONE PARAGENESIS 392

Introduction 393

Shallow ]burial early ]diagenetic dolomites 393

Deep ]burial late ]diagenetic dolomites 396

Synthesis 399

Dolomite paragenesis 399

Further reading 402

31 DIAGENESIS AND GEOHISTORY 403

Introduction 404

Eogenetic diagenesis 404

Approach 406

Lowstand systems tract 406

Transgressive systems tract 408

Highstand systems tract 410

Post ]eogenetic diagenesis 411

Further reading 413

32 CARBONATE POROSITY 414

Introduction 415

Porosity 415

Porosity measurement 415

Permeability 416

Types of porosity 416

Porosity classification 421

Porosity evolution through time 422

Porosity and dolomitization 423

The evolution of porosity 423

Integration 425

Further reading 426

GLOSSARY 427

INDEX 434

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Author Information

Noel James, Professor of Geology at Queen’s University, Canada, has, for over 40 years focused his research on carbonate sediments and rocks that range from the modern seafloor to the Archean, studying their origin via extensive marine and terrestrial fieldwork, petrography, and geochemistry.   He has taught numerous courses on oceanography, carbonate sedimentology, petroleum geology and the evolution of North America to undergraduates, graduate students, and professionals as well as editing or authoring nine scientific books.  He has been honoured many times by learned societies, is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada, and a Member of the Order of Canada.
 
Brian Jones, Distinguished University Professor (Geology) at the University of Alberta, Canada, has, for over 40 years taught numerous courses at the introductory and advanced level on carbonate sedimentology and diagenesis.  His research on carbonates has concentrated on the deposition and diagenesis of modern and Cenozoic deposits in the Caribbean, surface and subsurface Paleozoic rocks in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin, many of which are prolific hydrocarbon reservoirs, and spring deposits worldwide. He is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada, and the first Middleton Medalist of the Geological Association of Canada.
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