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Color Appearance Models, 3rd Edition

ISBN: 978-1-118-65310-4
472 pages
June 2013
Color Appearance Models, 3rd Edition (1118653106) cover image

Description

The essential resource for readers needing to understand visual perception and for those trying to produce, reproduce and measure color appearance in various applications such as imaging, entertainment, materials, design, architecture and lighting.

This book builds upon the success of previous editions, and will continue to serve the needs of those professionals working in the field to solve practical problems or looking for background for on-going research projects. It would also act as a good course text for senior undergraduates and postgraduates studying color science.

The 3rd Edition of Color Appearance Models contains numerous new and expanded sections providing an updated review of color appearance and includes many of the most widely used models to date, ensuring its continued success as the comprehensive resource on color appearance models.

Key features:

  • Presents the fundamental concepts and phenomena of color appearance (what objects look like in typical viewing situations) and practical techniques to measure, model and predict those appearances.
  • Includes the clear explanation of fundamental concepts that makes the implementation of mathematical models very easy to understand.
  • Explains many different types of models, and offers a clear context for the models, their use, and future directions in the field.
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Table of Contents

Series Preface xiii

Preface xv

Acknowledgments xviii

Introduction xix

1 Human Color Vision 1

1.1 Optics of the Eye 2

1.2 The Retina 7

1.3 Visual Signal Processing 14

1.4 Mechanisms of Color Vision 19

1.5 Spatial and Temporal Properties of Color Vision 27

1.6 Color Vision Deficiencies 32

1.7 Key Features for Color Appearance Modeling 36

2 Psychophysics 38

2.1 Psychophysics Defined 39

2.2 Historical Context 40

2.3 Hierarchy of Scales 43

2.4 Threshold Techniques 45

2.5 Matching Techniques 49

2.6 One-Dimensional Scaling 50

2.7 Multidimensional Scaling 52

2.8 Design of Psychophysical Experiments 54

2.9 Importance in Color Appearance Modeling 55

3 Colorimetry 56

3.1 Basic and Advanced Colorimetry 57

3.2 Why is Color? 57

3.3 Light Sources and Illuminants 59

3.4 Colored Materials 63

3.5 The Human Visual Response 68

3.6 Tristimulus Values and Color Matching Functions 70

3.7 Chromaticity Diagrams 77

3.8 Cie Color Spaces 79

3.9 Color Difference Specification 81

3.10 The Next Step 83

4 Color Appearance Terminology 85

4.1 Importance of Definitions 85

4.2 Color 86

4.3 Hue 88

4.4 Brightness and Lightness 88

4.5 Colorfulness and Chroma 90

4.6 Saturation 91

4.7 Unrelated and Related Colors 91

4.8 Definitions in Equations 92

4.9 Brightness–Colorfulness Vs Lightness–Chroma 94

5 Color Order Systems 97

5.1 Overview and Requirements 98

5.2 The Munsell Book of Color 99

5.3 The Swedish Ncs 104

5.4 The Colorcurve System 106

5.5 Other Color Order Systems 107

5.6 Uses of Color Order Systems 109

5.7 Color Naming Systems 112

6 Color Appearance Phenomena 115

6.1 What are Color Appearance Phenomena? 115

6.2 Simultaneous Contrast, Crispening, and Spreading 116

6.3 Bezold–Brücke Hue Shift (Hue Changes with Luminance) 120

6.4 Abney Effect (Hue Changes with Colorimetric Purity) 121

6.5 Helmholtz–Kohlrausch Effect (Brightness

Depends On Luminance and Chromaticity) 123

6.6 Hunt Effect (Colorfulness Increases

with Luminance) 125

6.7 Stevens Effect (Contrast Increases

with Luminance) 127

6.8 Helson–Judd Effect (Hue of Non-Selective Samples) 129

6.9 Bartleson–Breneman Equations (Image

Contrast Changes with Surround) 131

6.10 Discounting-the-Illuminant 132

6.11 Other Context, Structural, and

Psychological Effects 133

6.12 Color Constancy? 140

7 Viewing Conditions 142

7.1 Configuration of the Viewing Field 142

7.2 Colorimetric Specification of the Viewing Field 146

7.3 Modes of Viewing 149

7.4 Unrelated and Related Colors Revisited 154

8 Chromatic Adaptation 156

8.1 Light, Dark, and Chromatic Adaptation 157

8.2 Physiology 159

8.3 Sensory and Cognitive Mechanisms 170

8.4 Corresponding Colors Data 174

8.5 Models 177

8.6 Color Inconstancy Index 178

8.7 Computational Color Constancy 179

9 Chromatic Adaptation Models 181

9.1 Von Kries Model 182

9.2 Retinex Theory 186

9.3 Nayatani et al. Model 187

9.4 Guth’s Model 190

9.5 Fairchild’s 1990 Model 192

9.6 Herding Cats 196

9.7 Cat02 197

10 Color Appearance Models 199

10.1 Definition of Color Appearance Models 199

10.2 Construction of Color Appearance Models 200

10.3 Cielab 201

10.4 Why Not Use Just Cielab? 210

10.5 What About Cieluv? 210

11 The Nayatani et al. Model 213

11.1 Objectives and Approach 213

11.2 Input Data 214

11.3 Adaptation Model 215

11.4 Opponent Color Dimensions 217

11.5 Brightness 218

11.6 Lightness 219

11.7 Hue 219

11.8 Saturation 220

11.9 Chroma 221

11.10 Colorfulness 221

11.11 Inverse Model 222

11.12 Phenomena Predicted 222

11.13 Why Not Use Just the Nayatani et al. Model? 223

12 The Hunt Model 225

12.1 Objectives and Approach 225

12.2 Input Data 226

12.3 Adaptation Model 228

12.4 Opponent Color Dimensions 233

12.5 Hue 234

12.6 Saturation 235

12.7 Brightness 236

12.8 Lightness 238

12.9 Chroma 238

12.10 Colorfulness 238

12.11 Inverse Model 239

12.12 Phenomena Predicted 241

12.13 Why Not Use Just the Hunt Model? 242

13 The Rlab Model 243

13.1 Objectives and Approach 243

13.2 Input Data 245

13.3 Adaptation Model 246

13.4 Opponent Color Dimensions 248

13.5 Lightness 250

13.6 Hue 250

13.7 Chroma 252

13.8 Saturation 252

13.9 Inverse Model 252

13.10 Phenomena Predicted 254

13.11 Why Not Use Just the Rlab Model? 254

14 Other Models 256

14.1 Overview 256

14.2 Atd Model 257

14.3 Llab Model 264

14.4 Ipt Color Space 271

15 The Cie Color Appearance Model (1997), Ciecam97s 273

15.1 Historical Development, Objectives, and Approach 273

15.2 Input Data 276

15.3 Adaptation Model 277

15.4 Appearance Correlates 279

15.5 Inverse Model 280

15.6 Phenomena Predicted 281

15.7 The Zlab Color Appearance Model 282

15.8 Why Not Use Just Ciecam97s? 285

16 Ciecam02 287

16.1 Objectives and Approach 287

16.2 Input Data 288

16.3 Adaptation Model 290

16.4 Opponent Color Dimensions 294

16.5 Hue 294

16.6 Lightness 295

16.7 Brightness 295

16.8 Chroma 295

16.9 Colorfulness 296

contents xi

16.10 Saturation 296

16.11 Cartesian Coordinates 296

16.12 Inverse Model 297

16.13 Implementation Guidelines 297

16.14 Phenomena Predicted 298

16.15 Computational Issues 298

16.16 Cam02-Ucs 300

16.17 Why Not Use Just Ciecam02? 301

16.18 Outlook 301

17 Testing Color Appearance Models 303

17.1 Overview 303

17.2 Qualitative Tests 304

17.3 Corresponding-Colors Data 308

17.4 Magnitude Estimation Experiments 310

17.5 Direct Model Tests 312

17.6 Colorfulness in Projected Images 316

17.7 Munsell in Color Appearance Spaces 317

17.8 Cie Activities 318

17.9 A Pictorial Review of Color Appearance Models 323

18 Traditional Colorimetric Applications 328

18.1 Color Rendering 328

18.2 Color Differences 333

18.3 Indices of Metamerism 335

18.4 A General System of Colorimetry? 337

18.5 What About Observer Metamerism? 338

19 Device-Independent Color Imaging 341

19.1 The Problem 342

19.2 Levels of Color Reproduction 343

19.3 A Revised Set of Objectives 345

19.4 General Solution 348

19.5 Device Calibration and Characterization 349

19.6 The Need for Color Appearance Models 354

19.7 Definition of Viewing Conditions 355

19.8 Viewing-Conditions-Independent

Color Space 357

19.9 Gamut Mapping 357

19.10 Color Preferences 361

19.11 Inverse Process 362

19.12 Example System 363

19.13 Icc Implementation 364

20 I mage Appearance Modeling and the Future 369

20.1 From Color Appearance to Image Appearance 370

20.2 S-Cielab 375

20.3 The icam Framework 376

20.4 A Modular Image Difference Model 382

20.5 Image Appearance and Rendering Applications 385

20.6 Image Difference and Quality Applications 391

20.7 icam06 392

20.8 Orthogonal Color Space 393

20.9 Future Directions 396

21 High-Dynamic-Range Color Space 399

21.1 Luminance Dynamic Range 400

21.2 The Hdr Photographic Survey 401

21.3 Lightness–Brightness Beyond Diffuse White 403

21.4 hdr-Cielab 404

21.5 hdr-Ipt 406

21.6 Evans, G0, and Brilliance 407

21.7 The Nayatani Theoretical Color Space 409

21.8 A New Kind of Appearance Space 409

21.9 Future Directions 416

References 418

Index 440

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Author Information

Mark D. Fairchild, Rochester Institute of Technology, USA

Dr. Fairchild is Professor of Color Science and Imaging Science at RIT. He is an Associate Dean for Research & Graduate Education of RIT's College of Science, facilitating the growth and strengthening of the college's research activities and graduate programs. Until recently, he had been the Director of the Munsell Color Science Laboratory for the past 12 years.

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