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Sustainable Value Creation in the Fine and Speciality Chemicals Industry

ISBN: 978-1-118-67789-6
312 pages
June 2014
Sustainable Value Creation in the Fine and Speciality Chemicals Industry (1118677897) cover image

Description

The global fine and speciality chemicals industry is a vital segment within the chemical value chain,
catering to a multitude of societal and industrial needs. Regulatory, sustainability and consumer forces have been constantly shaping the business fundamentals of this industry. Developing value creation strategies, which embed economic, environmental and social sustainability components, will need a comprehensive assessment of business, scientific and technological challenges facing the industry.

Sustainable Value Creation in the Fine and Speciality Chemicals Industry assesses sustainable value creation options against the backdrop of global mega trends that are defi ning the present and future course of the industry. It discusses innovative strategies in feedstocks, R&D, technology, manufacturing, resource management and the supply chain as well as the significance of the bio-based chemical economy in enabling sustainable value creation in the fine and speciality chemicals industry.

Topics covered include:

• Transformation in the fine and speciality chemicals business
• Sustainable management: evolution, transitions and tools
• Research and technology directions
• Resource optimization strategies
• Bio-based chemicals, specialities and polymers
• Sustainable practices in the fine and speciality chemicals industry
• Sustainable value creation strategies

Sustainable Value Creation in the Fine and Speciality Chemicals Industry presents a comprehensive
overview of strategic options for sustainability management in the global fine and speciality chemicals industry. It will be a valuable resource for chemists and chemical engineers involved in the design and development of economically, environmentally and socially sustainable practices for the future.

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Table of Contents

Foreword xv

Preface xvii

Acknowledgement xxi

About the Author xxiii

1 Transformations in the Fine and Speciality Chemicals Business 1

1.1 Fine and Speciality Chemicals Industry Structure 1

1.1.1 Global Chemical Industry Trends 2

1.1.1.1 Macro Trends Shaping the Fine and Speciality Chemicals Industry 3

1.1.1.2 Consolidation Continues 3

1.1.2 Managing Transitions in the Fine and Speciality Chemicals Industry 5

1.1.2.1 Manage Commoditization Threats 6

1.1.2.2 Restructure Portfolios through Mergers and Acquisitions 8

1.1.2.3 Investing in Innovative R&D Platforms 10

1.1.2.4 Leveraging Emerging Technologies 11

1.1.2.5 Tapping the Promise of Renewables 12

1.1.2.6 Rationalization of Cost Structures 12

1.1.3 Industry Shifts, Competitiveness and Markets 13

1.1.3.1 Understanding Fine and Speciality Chemicals 13

1.1.3.2 Shift of Manufacturing and Markets to Emerging Economies 15

1.1.3.3 Market Focus on Sustainable Products 16

1.2 Regulations and Fine and Speciality Chemicals Industry 18

1.2.1 New Directions in Regulatory Regimes 18

1.2.1.1 GHG and Water Footprint Mapping 20

1.2.1.2 Impact of REACH on Fine and Speciality Chemicals Industry 20

1.3 Fine and Speciality Chemicals Industry and Sustainable Practices 21

1.3.1 Sustainable Value Creation in the Fine and Speciality Chemicals Industry 21

1.3.1.1 New Growth Models Driven by Sustainability Forces 22

1.3.1.2 Customer Drives Industrial Sustainability 23

References 24

2 Sustainable Management: Evolution, Transitions and Tools 29

2.1 Chemical Industry: Aligning with Sustainable Development Mandates 29

2.1.1 Developing a Sustainable Strategy 30

2.1.1.1 Defining Sustainability 31

2.1.1.2 New Green Chemistry and Technology Strategies 32

2.1.1.3 Sustainability Moves Beyond Manufacturing 33

2.1.1.4 Managing Sustainability Initiatives 33

2.2 Sustainability Performance Assessment 34

2.2.1 Evolution of Tools and Metrics 35

2.2.1.1 Sustainable Value Creation Tools 36

2.2.1.2 Sustainable Reporting 37

2.2.1.3 Role of Sustainability Exchanges and Indices 39

2.2.1.4 Sustainability Certifications 40

2.2.2 Carbon Footprint Analysis 40

2.2.2.1 Trends in CFA 41

2.2.2.2 Industrial Initiatives in Lowering Carbon Footprints 41

2.3 Sustainability Trends in the Chemical Industry 43

2.3.1 Sustainability Strategies 43

2.3.1.1 Industry Strategy for Sustainable Management 44

2.3.2 Innovation and Sustainability 45

2.3.2.1 Innovations: Commercial Developments 45

2.3.2.2 Regulation Drives Innovation 46

2.3.2.3 Drivers and Limiters for Innovation 47

2.3.3 Sustainable Technologies: Reflections 48

2.3.3.1 Contemporary Trends 48

2.3.3.2 Promotional Barriers in Developing Countries 49

2.3.3.3 Future Directions 50

References 51

3 Research and Technology Directions 57

3.1 Shifts in Fine and Speciality Chemicals Technologies 57

3.1.1 Evolution of Green Chemistry and Engineering 58

3.1.1.1 Emergence of a Novel Technology Pool 61

3.1.1.2 GCT as a Sustainability Tool: Evolving Perceptions 63

3.1.1.3 Developing Green Chemistry Tools and Metrics 64

3.1.2 Strategies for Commercializing GCT Models 67

3.1.2.1 Trends in Design of Greener Processes 67

3.1.2.2 Advances in Novel Reaction Media 72

3.1.2.3 Nonconventional Process 73

3.1.2.4 New Activations 74

3.1.2.5 Leveraging Green Engineering Principles 75

3.1.3 Future Directions in GCT 77

3.1.3.1 Policy Initiatives 77

3.1.3.2 Emerging Perspectives and Future Challenges 78

3.1.3.3 The Road Ahead: What Has Been Learnt? 78

3.2 Catalytic Technologies 79

3.2.1 New Catalytic Technologies Shape the Fine Chemicals Industry 79

3.2.1.1 Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Catalysis 80

3.2.1.2 Phase Transfer Catalysis 84

3.2.1.3 Asymmetric Catalysis 86

3.2.2 Biocatalysis 88

3.2.2.1 Advances in Biotransformations through Biocatalysis 89

3.2.2.2 Advances in Biocatalysis for Fine Chemicals Synthesis 91

3.2.2.3 Biotransformations Driven by Microbial Cells 94

3.2.2.4 Future Directions in Biocatalysis 95

3.2.3 Advances in Catalysis 96

3.2.3.1 Novel Catalysis 96

3.2.3.2 Future Directions in Catalytic Technologies for Fine Chemicals 98

3.3 Enabling Technologies 99

3.3.1 Process Intensification: Concepts and Evolution 99

3.3.1.1 Process Intensification: PI Equipment and PI Methodology 100

3.3.1.2 Enabling New Process Options 101

3.3.1.3 Micro Reactor Technologies (MRTs) for Fine Chemical Synthesis 103

3.3.2 Tools for Eco-Efficient Process Development 108

3.3.2.1 Reaction and Process Design 108

3.3.2.2 Computational Tools 109

3.3.2.3 Combinatorial Chemistry Tools 110

3.3.3 Nanotechnology 110

3.3.3.1 Nanotechnology: Emerging Areas 111

3.3.3.2 Future Directions 112

3.4 Product Engineering: A Key Sustainability Tool 112

3.4.1 Product Engineering: A Multidisciplinary Approach 113

3.4.1.1 Product Design in Formulated Products 114

3.4.1.2 New Directions in Product Engineering 114

3.5 Emerging Trends in Chemical Sciences and Engineering Education 115

3.5.1 New Directions 115

3.5.1.1 Context-Based Model 116

References 117

4 Resource Optimization Strategies 135

4.1 Resource Optimization: A Systems Approach 135

4.1.1 Process Integration 135

4.1.1.1 Heat and Mass Resource Optimization 136

4.1.1.2 Water Networks 137

4.1.2 Solvent Optimization Approaches 137

4.1.2.1 Solvent Optimization Tools 138

4.1.2.2 Advances in Solvent Recovery Systems 139

4.1.3 Water Optimization Strategies 139

4.1.3.1 Closed Loop Wastewater Recycling 139

4.1.3.2 Complexities in Wastewater Minimization 141

4.2 Waste Valorization to High Value Chemicals 141

4.2.1 Chemical Waste Recovery and Valorization 142

4.2.1.1 Waste By-products to High Value Chemicals 143

4.2.1.2 Waste Exchanges as a Route to Pollution Prevention 143

4.2.2 Valorization of Bio-Based Organic Wastes 144

4.2.2.1 Bio Wastes to High Value Specialities: Prospects and Challenges 144

4.2.2.2 Biosurfactants from Wastes 145

4.2.3 Valorization of Carbon Dioxide and Carbon Monoxide 145

4.2.3.1 High Value Chemicals from Carbon Dioxide 146

4.2.3.2 Novel Developments Based on Carbon Dioxide 146

References 148

5 Bio-Based Chemicals, Specialities and Polymers 153

5.1 Towards a Bio-Based Economy 153

5.1.1 Bio-Based Industry: Evolution and Structure 155

5.1.1.1 Bio-Based Industry Attracts Investments 156

5.1.1.2 Bio-Based Industry Adopts Diverse Strategies 157

5.1.1.3 Bio-Based Markets and Trends 159

5.2 Biorefinery and Biofeedstocks 160

5.2.1 Biorefining Technologies 162

5.2.1.1 Conversion Technologies 162

5.2.1.2 Biorefineries go Commercial 163

5.2.1.3 Future of Biorefining Technologies 164

5.2.2 Biofeedstocks 164

5.2.2.1 Emerging Trends in Biofeedstocks 165

5.2.3 Platform Chemicals: Technologies at a Nascent Stage 166

5.2.3.1 Bio-Based Products Value Chain 167

5.2.3.2 Platform Chemicals to High End Specialities 169

5.2.3.3 Future Research Directions 172

5.3 Bioproducts: Moving from Laboratory to Markets 173

5.3.1 Bio-Based Commodities 173

5.3.1.1 1,3-Propanediol (1,3-PDO) 174

5.3.1.2 Epichlorohydrin 174

5.3.1.3 Propylene and Derivatives 174

5.3.1.4 Butanol 174

5.3.1.5 Glycerine 175

5.3.1.6 Cellulosic Ethanol 175

5.3.1.7 Methyl Methacrylate 175

5.3.1.8 Isoprene 175

5.3.2 Bio-Based Fine Chemicals 176

5.3.2.1 Biosuccinic Acid 176

5.3.2.2 Acrylic Acid 176

5.3.2.3 Adipic Acid 177

5.3.2.4 Furfural 177

5.3.2.5 Sorbitol 178

5.3.2.6 Levulinic Acid 178

5.3.2.7 Glucaric Acid 178

5.3.3 Biospecialities 178

5.3.3.1 Biolubricants 179

5.3.3.2 Biosolvents 179

5.3.3.3 Biosurfactants 180

5.3.3.4 Bioadhesives 180

5.3.3.5 Miscellaneous Specialities 180

5.3.4 Biopolymers 180

5.3.4.1 Evolution of Biopolymers 181

5.3.4.2 Driving Innovations in Bioplastics 181

5.3.4.3 Biopolymers Going to the Market Place 182

5.3.4.4 Polymeric Resins from Plant Oils 183

5.3.4.5 Algal Bioplastics 184

5.3.4.6 Bio-Based Natural Polymers 184

5.3.4.7 Bio-Based Polymers: Commercial Challenges 184

5.4 Lab to Markets: Challenges of Commercialization 185

5.4.1 Strategies for Growth: Diverse Perspectives 185

5.4.1.1 Commercialization Barriers 186

5.4.1.2 Sustainability Strategies in Bio-Based Chain 188

5.4.1.3 Future Directions for a Bio-Based Economy 189

References 191

6 Sustainable Practices in the Fine and Speciality Chemicals Industry 199

6.1 Shifts Towards Sustainable Practices 199

6.1.1 Investing in Innovative Models 199

6.1.1.1 Moving to the Next Level in Sustainability Management 200

6.2 Sustainable Practices in the Pharmaceutical Industry 201

6.2.1 Sustainabile Transitions 202

6.2.1.1 Sustainable Initiatives 202

6.3 Sustainable Practices in the Crop Protection Chemicals Industry 203

6.3.1 Evolving Sustainability Trends in Crop Protection Chemicals 204

6.3.1.1 Diverse Strategies 204

6.3.1.2 Biopesticides 205

6.4 Sustainable Practices in the Oleochemicals and Surfactants Industry 205

6.4.1 Shifts Towards Sustainable Models 205

6.4.1.1 Newer Approaches to Novel and Safer Surfactants 207

6.4.1.2 Biosurfactants 210

6.4.1.3 New Technologies Redefine Oleochemicals 211

6.4.1.4 Sustainability Trends 212

6.5 Sustainability Practices in the Personal and Home Care Chemicals Industry 214

6.5.1 Sustainability Practices gain Momentum in the Personal and Home Care Sector 215

6.5.1.1 Industry Developed Rating Standards and Indices 215

6.5.1.2 Greener Product Innovations 216

6.5.1.3 Shift to Natural Products 216

6.5.1.4 Future Directions 217

6.6 Sustainable Practices in the Coatings Industry 217

6.6.1 Transitions to Sustainable Models 217

6.6.1.1 Innovative and Sustainable Coating Technologies 219

6.6.1.2 Sustainable Practices at Industry Level 220

6.6.1.3 Developments in Sustainable Coating Additives 221

6.6.1.4 Future Directions 222

6.7 Sustainable Practices in the Adhesives and Sealants Industry 223

6.7.1 Transformations in the Adhesives and Sealants Industry 223

6.7.1.1 Development of Sustainable Adhesives and Sealants 223

6.7.1.2 Commercial Developments 224

6.7.1.3 Future Directions 225

6.8 Sustainable Practices in the Lubricant and Greases Industry 226

6.8.1 Emergence of New Generation Lubricants 227

6.8.1.1 Biolubricants: Market Trends 227

6.8.1.2 Biodegradable Lubricants: Trends 228

6.8.1.3 Product Certifications 229

6.8.1.4 Future Directions 229

6.9 Sustainability Practices in the Colourants Industry 230

6.9.1 Evolution of the Colourants Industry 230

6.9.1.1 Emergence of Hi-Tech Colourants 231

6.9.1.2 Industry Initiatives Address EHS Concerns 232

6.9.1.3 Transitions to Sustainable Practices 232

6.9.1.4 Future Directions 237

References 238

7 Sustainable Value Creation Strategies 245

7.1 Why Sustainable Value Creation? 245

7.1.1 Evolving a Strategy for Sustainable Value Creation 245

7.1.1.1 Value Creation Initiatives 246

7.1.1.2 Approach to Create Sustainable Value 247

7.1.1.3 Strategic and Operational Approaches 248

7.2 Innovating for Sustainable Value Creation 249

7.2.1 Innovation in Practice 249

7.2.1.1 Capturing Value Through Innovations 251

7.2.1.2 New business models 253

7.2.1.3 Collaborative Innovation 254

7.2.2 Innovation in Technology, Feedstocks and Materials 255

7.2.2.1 Technology 255

7.2.2.2 Feedstocks 255

7.2.2.3 Materials 256

7.2.3 Innovation in Supply Chains 256

7.2.3.1 Chemical Management Systems 256

7.2.3.2 Chemical Servicing 257

7.2.3.3 Chemical Leasing 257

7.3 Strategic Cost Management 257

7.3.1 Strategic Cost Management: A Key Tool 258

7.3.1.1 Green Chemistry and Technology Tools 259

7.3.1.2 Cluster Models: A Key to Sustainable Manufacturing 259

7.3.1.3 New Operating Models 260

7.3.1.4 Product Portfolio Rationalization 261

7.4 Prognosis for the Future 261

7.4.1 Moving up the Value Chain 261

7.4.1.1 Managing Sustainability Goals 262

7.4.1.2 Innovation to Markets 263

7.4.2 Emerging Perspectives in Sustainable Technologies 264

7.4.2.1 Technology Transfer 264

7.4.2.2 Technology Strategy 265

7.4.2.3 Human Resources Development: Shifting Focus 266

7.4.3 Game Changers in the Industry 266

7.4.3.1 Game Changing Technologies 267

7.4.3.2 Power of the Consumer 268

References 270

Index 273

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Author Information

R. Rajagopal
KnowGenix, India

Foreword by Dr David Constable,
Director, ACS Green Chemistry Institute, American Chemical Society

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