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Solar Cell Nanotechnology

Atul Tiwari (Editor), Rabah Boukherroub (Editor), Maheshwar Sharon (Editor)
ISBN: 978-1-118-68625-6
544 pages
October 2013
Solar Cell Nanotechnology (111868625X) cover image


Focusing on the cutting-edge technologies available in the field of photovoltaics, Solar Cell Nanotechnology explores the latest research and development activities related to organic, inorganic, and hybrid materials being used in solar cell manufacturing. Several chapters are dedicated to explaining the fundamentals of photovoltaics and nanomaterials utilized in the manufacturing of solar cells. Other essential subjects, such as microcontact printing, plasmonic light trapping, outdoor and indoor efficiency, luminescent solar concentrators, and photon management in photovoltaics, are comprehensively reviewed. Written for a broad audience, this is an essential book for engineers, nanotechnologists, and materials scientists.
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Table of Contents

Preface xvii

Part 1 Current Developments 1

1 Design Considerations for Efficient and Stable Polymer Solar Cells 3
Prajwal Adhikary, Jing Li, and Qiquan Qiao

1.1 Introduction 4

1.2 Role of Interfacial Layer for Efficient BHJ Solar Cells 11

1.3 Selection of Interfacial Layer for Stable and Longer Lifetime 20

1.4 Materials Used as Interfacial Layer 26

1.5 Conclusion and Outlook 34

Acknowledgement 34

References 35

2 Carbazole-Based Organic Dyes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: Role of Carbazole as Donor, Auxiliary Donor and π-linker 41
A. Venkateswararao and K. R. Justin Thomas

2.1 Introduction 42

2.2 Carbazole as a Donor for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells 44

2.3 Carbazole as a π-Linker 64

2.4 Carbazole as Auxiliary Donor for DSSC 75

2.5 Carbazole as Donor as Well as Linker for DSSC 87

2.6 Conclusion and Outlook 91

Acknowledgements 92

References 92

3 Colloidal Synthesis of CuInS2 and CuInSe2 Nanocrystals for Photovoltaic Applications 97
Joanna Kolny-Olesiak

3.1 Introduction 97

3.2 Synthesis of CuInS2 and CuInSe2 Nanocrystals 99

3.3 Application of Colloidal CuInS2 and CuInSe2 Nanoparticles in Solar Energy Conversion 109

3.4 Conclusion and Outlook 112

References 112

4 Two Dimensional Layered Semiconductors: Emerging Materials for Solar Photovoltaics 117
Mariyappan Shanmugam and Bin Yu

4.1 Introduction 118

4.2 Material Synthesis 119

4.3 Photovoltaic Device Fabrication 122

4.4 Microstructural and Raman Spectroscopic Studies of MoS2 and WS2 124

4.5 Photovoltaic Performance Evaluation 126

4.6 Electronic Transport and Interfacial Recombination 129

4.7 Conclusion and Outlook 132

References 133

5 Control of ZnO Nanorods for Polymer Solar Cells 135
Hsin-Yi Chen, Ching-Fuh Lin

5.1 Introduction 136

5.2 Preparation and Characterization of ZnO NRs 137

5.3 Application of ZnO NR in Polymer Solar Cells 147

5.4 Conclusion and Outlook 154

References 154

Part 2 Noble Approaches 159

6 Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells 161
Lakshmi V. Munukutla, Aung Htun, Sailaja Radhakrishanan, Laura Main, and Arunachala M. Kannan

6.1 Introduction 161

6.2 Background 163

6.3 DSSC Key Performance Parameters 173

6.4 Device Improvements 174

6.5 DSSC Performance with Different Electrolytes 180

6.6 Conclusion and Outlook 183

References 183

7 Nanoimprint Lithography for Photovoltaic Applications 185
Benjamin Schumm and Stefan Kaskel

7.1 Introduction 186

7.2 Soft Lithography 186

7.3 NIL-Based Techniques for PV 190

7.4 Conclusion and Outlook 198

References 199

8 Indoor Photovoltaics: Efficiencies, Measurements and Design 203
Monika Freunek (Müller)

8.1 Introduction 203

8.2 Indoor Radiation 205

8.3 Maximum Efficiencies 208

8.4 Optimization Strategies 213

8.5 Characterization and Measured Efficiencies 216

8.6 Irradiance Measurements 217

8.7 Characterization 217

8.8 Conclusion and Outlook 219

References 221

9 Photon Management in Rare Earth Doped Nanomaterials for Solar Cells 223
Jiajia Zhou, Jianrong Qiu

9.1 Introduction 223

9.2 Basic Aspects of Solar Cell 224

9.4 Down-Conversion Nanomaterials for Solar Cell Application 232

9.5 Conclusion and Outlook 236

References 238

Part 3 Developments in Prospective 241

10 Advances in Plasmonic Light Trapping in Thin-Film Solar Photovoltaic Devices 243
J. Gwamuri, D. Ö. Güney, and J. M. Pearce

10.1 Introduction 244

10.2 Theoretical Approaches to Plasmonic Light Trapping Mechanisms in Thin-fi lm PV 247

10.3 Plasmonics for Improved Photovoltaic Cells Optical Properties 256

10.4 Fabrication Techniques and Economics 260

10.5 Conclusion and Outlook 263

Acknowledgements 266

References 266

11 Recent Research and Development of Luminescent Solar Concentrators 271

Yun Seng Lim, Shin Yiing Kee, and Chin Kim Lo

11.1 Introduction 272

11.2 Mechanisms of Power Losses in Luminescent Solar Concentrator 274

11.3 Modeling 276

11.4 Polymer Materials 279

11.5 Luminescent Materials for Luminescent Solar Concentrator 280

11.6 New Designs of Luminescent Solar Concentrator 286

11.7 Conclusion and Outlook 287

References 289

12 Luminescent Solar Concentrators – State of the Art and Future Perspectives 293
M. Tonezzer, D. Gutierrez, and D. Vincenzi

12.1 Introduction to the Third Generation of Photovoltaic Systems 294

12.2 Luminescence Solar Concentrators (LSCs) 294

12.3 Components of LSC Devices 299

12.4 Pathways for Improving LSC Efficiency 308

12.5 Conclusion and Outlook 311

Acknowledgments 312

References 312

13 Organic Fluorophores for Luminescent Solar Concentrators 317
Luca Beverina and Alessandro Sanguineti

13.1 Introduction 318

13.2 LSCs: Device Operation and Main Features 321

13.3 Luminophores in LSCs 324

13.4 Conclusion and Outlook 349

References 351

14 PAn-Graphene-Nanoribbon Composite Materials for Organic Photovoltaics: A DFT Study of Their Electronic and Charge Transport Properties 357
Javed Mazher, Asefa A. Desta, and Shabina Khan

14.1 Introduction 358

14.2 Review of Computational Background 379

14.3 Atomistic Computational Simulations: Modeling and Methodology 385

14.4 Results and Discussions 389

14.5 Conclusion and Outlook 398

References 400

15 Analytical Modeling of Thin-Film Solar Cells – Fundamentals and Applications 409
Kurt Taretto

15.1 Introduction 409

15.2 Basics 410

15.3 Fundamental Semiconductor Equations 417

15.4 Analytical Models for Selected Solar Cells 425

15.5 The Importance of the Temperature Dependence of VOC 442

15.6 Conclusions and Outlook 444

Acknowledgements 444

References 444

16 Efficient Organic Photovoltaic Cells: Current Global Scenario 447
Sandeep Rai and Atul Tiwari

16.1 Introduction 448

16.2 Current Developments in OPVs 455

16.3 Economics of Solar Energy 464

16.4 Conclusions and Future Trends in Photovoltaic 468

References 471

17 Real and Reactive Power Control of Voltage Source Converter-Based Photovoltaic Generating Systems 475

S. Mishra and P. C. Sekhar

17.1 Introduction 476

17.2 State of Art 478

17.3 Proposed Solution 479

17.4 Modeling of the PV Generator 480

17.5 Control of the PV Generator 483

17.6 Validation of the Proposed Control Architecture 491

17.7 Conclusion and Outlook 501

References 502

Index 505

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Author Information

Atul Tiwari is a research faculty member in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Hawaii. He received a PhD in polymer materials science and has been designated a Chartered Chemist and Chartered Scientist by the Royal Society of Chemistry, UK. As an organic chemist and mechanical engineer, Dr. Tiwari has sought in his research work to bridge the gap between science and engineering. His area of research interest includes the development of smart materials including silicones, graphene, and bio-inspired biomaterials for industrial applications. He has published more than 60 peer-reviewed research publications and has 6 patents or patents pending.

Rabah Boukherroub received a PhD in chemistry from the University Paul Sabatier, France. He is a group leader at the Interdisciplinary Research Institute, University of Lille, France. He is a coauthor of more than 250 research publications and has written several book chapters in subjects related to nanotechnology, materials chemistry, biosensors, and lab-on-chip devices. He has 8 patents or patents pending. Dr. Boukherroub's research interests are in the area of functional materials, surface chemistry, and photophysics of semiconductor nanostructures.

Maheshwar Sharon obtained his PhD from University of Leicester, UK, and two postgraduate diplomas in nuclear power and radio chemistry. In 1978, he joined the Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay, as a Professor in Chemistry, retiring in 2003. He is now a Research Director at the NSNR Centre for Nanotechnology & Bionanotechnology, Ambernath, India. He is a pioneer in developing plant-based precursors like camphor, kerosene, and various non-edible oils for synthesizing almost all forms of carbon: nanobeads, nanotubes, nanofibers, and various new types of carbon nanomaterials. He is the first to successfully develop a homojunction carbon (n-C/p-C) photovoltaic solar cell from camphoric carbon. He has also pioneered a solar-chargeable battery and a concept known as the Sharon-Schottky type solar cell. He has also pioneered the development of a photoactive lead oxide electrode for application in a photoelectrochemical cell. He has published more than 172 publications in national and international journals and has published 4 books.

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