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Methods of Measuring Environmental Parameters

ISBN: 978-1-118-68693-5
464 pages
August 2014, ©2014
Methods of Measuring Environmental Parameters (1118686934) cover image

Description

Provides a systematic review of modern methods and instruments for measuring environmental parameters
• Profiles the most modern methods and instruments for environment control and monitoring
• Gives an assessment of biotic and abiotic factors and their effect on quality of atmosphere and indoor air, soil, water
• Provides a brief description of the main climatic (pressure, wind, temperature, humidity, precipitation, solar radiation), atmospheric, hydrographic, and edaphic factors
• Covers a wide range environmental methods and instrumentation including those used in the fields of meteorology, air pollution, water quality, soil science and more
• Supplied with practical exercises, problems, and tests that will help the reader to learn more deeply contents of the book
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Table of Contents

PREFACE xxv

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS xxix

ABOUT THE BOOK xxxi

ABOUT THE AUTHOR xxxiii

INTRODUCTION 1

Some Principal Definitions, 1

PART I CLIMATIC FACTORS

1 Pressure 5

1.1 Definition of Pressure, 5

1.2 Atmospheric Pressure, 6

1.3 Physiological Effects of Decreased Air Pressure on Human Organism, 9

1.4 Physiological Effects of Altitude on Animals, 9

1.5 Effects of Altitude on Plants, 9

1.6 Variation of Pressure with Depth, 10

1.7 Physiological Effects of Increased Pressure on Human Organism, 11

1.8 Physiological Effects of Pressure on Diving Animals, 12

References, 13

2 Measurement of Pressure 14

2.1 Manometers, 14

2.2 Barometers, 17

2.3 Digital Barometric Pressure Sensor, 19

2.4 Vibrating Wire Sensor, 20

2.5 Capacitive Pressure Sensor, 20

2.6 Measurement of Pressure at Depth, 22

Questions and Problems, 23

Further Reading, 23

Electronic References, 23

Practical Exercise 1. Analysis of Observed Data: Theory of Errors 25

1 Approximation of Data, 25

1.1 Rules for Dealing with Significant Numbers, 25

1.2 The Precision of the Measurement During Multiplication or Division, 26

1.3 The Precision of the Measurement During Addition or Subtraction, 26

1.4 The Precision of the Measurement During Raising to a Power or Extracting a Root, 26

2 Theory of Errors, 26

2.1 Types of Errors, 26

2.2 Errors in Direct Measurements, 27

2.3 Errors in Indirect Measurements, 29

References, 33

Electronic Reference, 33

3 Wind 34

3.1 Definition of Wind, 34

3.2 Forces That Create Wind, 34

3.3 Parameters of Wind, 35

3.4 Effect of Wind on Living Organisms, 37

Reference, 37

4 Measurement of Wind Parameters 38

4.1 Cup Anemometer, 38

4.2 Windmill Anemometer, 40

4.3 Hot-Wire Anemometer, 41

4.4 Sonic Anemometer, 42

4.5 Remote Wind Sensing, 43

4.6 Measurement of Wind Direction, 47

4.7 Cyclone Assessment, 49

Reference, 49

Practical Exercise 2. Modeling the Variation inWind Speed 50

1 Modeling Variation in Wind Speed Near the Ground, 50

2 Modeling the Variation in Wind Speed Above a Plant Canopy, 52

Questions and Problems, 55

Reference, 56

Further Reading, 56

Electronic References, 56

5 Temperature 57

5.1 Definition of Temperature, 57

5.2 Temperature Scales, 57

5.3 Atmospheric Temperature, 59

5.4 Soil Temperature, 59

5.5 Temperature of Water Reservoirs, 60

5.6 Heat Flux, 60

5.7 Effect of Temperature on Living Organisms, 61

6 Measurement of Temperature 67

6.1 Liquid-in-Glass Thermometers, 67

6.2 Bimetallic Thermometer, 69

6.3 Resistance Thermometer, 70

6.4 Thermocouples, 71

6.5 Optical Pyrometry, 72

6.6 Infrared Thermometers, 73

6.7 Heat Flux Measurement, 74

6.8 Method of Scintillometry, 76

References, 77

Practical Exercise 3. Modeling Vertical Changes in Air Temperature 78

1 Measurement of Temperature Above Uniform Surface, 78

2 Measurement of Sensible Heat Flux, 82

Questions and Problems, 83

Reference, 83

Further Reading, 83

Electronic References, 84

7 Humidity 85

7.1 Definition of Humidity, 85

7.2 Parameters of Humidity, 85

7.3 Effect of Humidity on Living Organisms, 86

8 Measurement of Air Humidity 88

8.1 Hygrometers, 88

8.2 Assmann Psychrometer, 88

8.3 Hair Hygrometer, 91

8.4 Capacitive Hygrometer, 92

8.5 Condensation Hygrometer, 93

8.6 Electrolytic Hygrometer, 95

8.7 Radiation Absorption Hygrometer (Gas Analyzer), 95

8.8 An Open-Path System for Measuring Humidity, 96

8.9 Remote Sensing Humidity, 97

Practical Exercise 4. Measuring Parameters of Humidity 99

1 Objectives, 99

2 Materials Supplied, 99

3 Principle of Operation, 99

4 Experimental Procedure, 100

Questions and Problems, 101

Reference, 101

Further Reading, 101

Electronic Reference, 102

9 Precipitation 103

9.1 Definitions, 103

9.2 Mechanisms of Precipitation, 103

9.3 Parameters of Precipitation, 104

9.4 Acid Rain, 104

9.5 Interception, 105

9.6 General Characteristics of Isotopes, 105

9.7 Stable Isotopes of Water, 105

9.8 Isotopic Fractionation, 106

9.9 Stable Isotopes in Precipitation Processes, 106

9.10 Application of Stable Isotopes, 107

9.11 Effect of Precipitation on Living Organisms, 107

9.12 Snow, 108

9.13 Fog, 109

References, 111

10 Measurement of Precipitation 112

10.1 Measurement of Precipitation Parameters, 112

10.2 Measurement of Acid Rain Pollution, 119

10.3 Isotopes in Precipitation, 121

10.4 Remote Sensing of Precipitation, 126

10.5 Snow Measurement, 129

10.6 Fog-Water Measurement, 132

References, 132

Practical Exercise 5. Velocity of a Falling Raindrop 134

1 Balance of Forces, 134

2 The Size and Shape of Raindrops, 135

3 The Drag Coefficient, 135

4 The Reynolds Number, 135

Questions and Problems, 138

References, 138

Further Reading, 138

Electronic References, 139

11 Solar Radiation 141

11.1 SI Radiometry and Photometry Units, 141

11.2 The Photosynthetic Photon Flux Density, 142

11.3 Parameters of Sun, 142

11.4 Intensity of the Sun, 142

11.5 Periodicity of Solar Activity, 144

11.6 Spectral Composition of Solar Radiation, 144

11.7 Atmospheric Radiation, 144

11.8 Terrestrial Radiation, 145

11.9 Effect of Solar Ultraviolet Radiation on Living Organisms, 145

11.10 Effect of Solar Visible Radiation on Living Organisms, 146

References, 147

12 Measurement of Solar Radiation 148

12.1 Classification of Radiometers, 148

12.2 Measurement of Direct Solar Radiation—Pyrheliometer, 149

12.3 Measurement of Global Radiation—Pyranometer, 149

12.4 Measurement of Diffuse Radiation—Pyranometer with a Sun-Shading Ring, 150

12.5 Measurement of Long-Wave Radiation—Pyrgeometer, 150

12.6 Measurement of Albedo—Albedometer, 151

12.7 Measurement of Total Radiation—a 4-Component Net Radiometer, 152

12.8 Photometer, 153

12.9 Photon Meter, 154

12.10 Conversion of Light Environment Units, 155

Practical Exercise 6. Parameters of Optical Radiation 156

1 Parameters of Electromagnetic Radiation, 156

2 The Inverse-Square Law, 157

3 The Cosine Law, 158

4 The Wien’s Displacement Law, 159

5 The Stefan–Boltzmann Law, 160

6 The Photosynthetic Photon Flux Density, 160

7 The Laboratory Exercise “The Inverse-Square Law”, 160

Questions and Problems, 162

Further Reading, 162

Electronic Reference, 163

13 Eddy Covariance 164

13.1 Turbulence, 164

13.2 Boundary Layer, 164

13.3 Eddy Covariance, 165

13.4 Turbulent Velocity Fluctuations, 166

13.5 Vertical Momentum Flux, 167

13.6 Sensible Heat Flux, 167

13.7 Latent Heat Flux, 167

13.8 Carbon Dioxide Flux, 168

References, 168

14 Measurement of Eddy Covariance 169

14.1 Meteorological Towers, 169

14.2 Gas Analyzers, 170

14.3 Quantum Cascade Laser Spectroscopy for Atmospheric Gases: Eddy Covariance Flux Measurements, 171

14.4 Stable Isotopes of Carbon Dioxide, 172

14.5 Quantum Cascade Laser Absorption Spectrometry, 173

14.6 Eddy Covariance Measurement of Carbon Dioxide Isotopologues, 173

14.7 Measurement of Eddy Accumulation, 174

14.8 Interaction of Climatic Factors, 174

14.9 Automatic Weather Stations, 175

Reference, 176

Practical Exercise 7. Eddy Covariance Measurement 177

Questions and Problems, 178

Further Reading, 179

Electronic Reference, 180

PART II ATMOSPHERIC FACTORS

15 Atmosphere 183

15.1 Composition of the Atmosphere, 183

15.2 Air Pollution, 183

15.3 Air Quality, 184

Reference, 184

16 Measurement of Ambient Air Quality 185

16.1 Measurement of NO2, 185

16.2 Effect of Nitrogen Dioxide on Human Health, 195

16.3 Measurement of SO2, 195

16.4 Effect of Sulfur Dioxide on Human Health, 198

16.5 Measurement of CO, 198

16.6 Particulate Matter Sampling, 202

16.7 Gravimetric Methods, 203

16.8 Continuous Methods, 206

16.9 Effect of Particulate Matter on Human Health, 208

16.10 Nanoparticles, 209

16.11 Effect of Nanoparticles on Human Health, 209

16.12 Bioaerosols, 209

16.13 Bioaerosol Sampling and Identification, 210

16.14 Measurement of Atmospheric Ozone, 212

16.15 Measurement of Ground-Level Ozone, 214

16.16 Effect of Ozone on Human Health, 214

16.17 Measurement of Lead, 214

16.18 Effect of Lead on Human Health, 216

References, 216

Practical Exercise 8. Fundamentals of Spectroscopy 218

1 Beer–Lambert–Bouger Law, 218

2 Photometry of Ozone in Gas Phase, 219

3 Fourier Transform Spectrometry, 220

Questions and Problems, 221

Further Reading, 221

Electronic References, 221

17 Indoor Air Quality 223

17.1 Indoor Air, 223

17.2 Volatile Organic Compounds, 224

17.3 Sources of Volatile Organic Compounds, 224

17.4 Effect of External Factors on VOCs Emission in Indoor Air, 225

17.5 Health Effects and Toxicity of Volatile Organic Compounds, 226

References, 227

18 Methods of Analysis of Volatile Organic Compounds 229

18.1 Principal Stages of Volatile Organic Compounds Analysis, 229

18.2 Gas Chromatography, 230

18.3 Detection Systems, 231

18.4 Mass Spectrometry, 233

18.5 Combination of Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry, 235

18.6 Photoacoustic Spectroscopy, 236

18.7 Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry, 238

18.8 Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy of Volatile Organic Compounds, 239

Questions and Problems, 240

References, 240

Further Reading, 242

Electronic References, 242

PART III HYDROGRAPHIC FACTORS

19 Water Quality 247

19.1 Water Resources, 247

19.2 Properties of Water, 247

19.3 Classification of Water, 249

19.4 Quality of Water, 249

19.5 Water Quality Parameters, 249

19.6 Effect of Water Quality on Human Health, 251

References, 252

20 Measurement of Water Quality Parameters 253

20.1 In Situ Measurement of Water Quality Parameters, 253

20.2 Laboratory Measurement of Water Quality Parameters, 262

References, 266

Practical Exercise 9. Water Quality Parameters 267

1 pH-Value, 267

2 Oxidation–Reduction Potential. Nernst Equation, 267

3 Conductivity, 268

4 Water Quality Index, 269

Questions and Problems, 269

Further Reading, 270

Electronic References, 270

PART IV EDAPHIC FACTORS

21 Soil Quality 275

21.1 Soil as a Natural Body, 275

21.2 Soil Structure and Composition, 276

21.3 Soil Quality, 276

21.4 Soil Quality Indicators, 277

References, 277

22 Physical Indicators 278

22.1 Aggregate Stability, 278

22.2 Measurement of Aggregate Stability, 279

22.3 Available Water Capacity, 280

22.4 Measurement of Available Water Capacity, 280

22.5 Bulk Density, 282

22.6 Measurement of Bulk Density, 284

22.7 Infiltration, 285

22.8 Measurement of Infiltration, 286

References, 289

23 Chemical Indicators 291

23.1 pH of Soil, 291

23.2 Electrical Conductivity of Soil, 292

23.3 Optical Emission Spectroscopy with Inductively Coupled Plasma, 292

23.4 Mass Spectrometry with Inductively Coupled Plasma, 293

23.5 Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy, 294

References, 295

24 Biological Indicators 297

24.1 Earthworms as Soil Bioindicators, 297

24.2 Analysis of Earthworms, 298

24.3 A Biota-to-Soil Accumulation Factor, 299

24.4 Soil Respiration, 299

24.5 Measurement of Soil Respiration, 300

References, 303

Practical Exercise 10. Determination of the Sedimentation Velocity and the Density of Solid Particles 305

1 Derivation of the Sedimentation Equation, 305

2 Determination of the Sedimentation Velocity of Solid Particles, 306

3 Determination of the Density of Solid Particles, 307

Questions and Problems, 308

Further Reading, 308

Electronic References, 309

PART V VEGETATION FACTORS

25 Spectroscopic Analysis of Plants and Vegetation 315

25.1 Spectroscopic Approach, 315

25.2 Reflectance Spectroscopy, 317

25.3 Methods of Reflectance Spectroscopy, 317

25.4 Effect of External Factors on Single Leaf and Canopy Reflectance, 324

25.5 Fluorescence Spectroscopy, 325

25.6 Laboratory Methods of Fluorescence Spectroscopy, 327

25.7 Remote Sensing of Vegetation Fluorescence, 333

25.8 The Effect of Various Factors on the Chlorophyll Fluorescence, 335

References, 335

Practical Exercise 11. Determination of Perpendicular Vegetation Index 338

Questions and Problems, 340

Further Reading, 341

Electronic References, 341

PART VI PHYSICAL TYPES OF POLLUTION

26 Mechanical Vibration 345

26.1 Parameters of Vibration, 345

26.2 Vibration Level, 346

26.3 Sources of Vibration, 346

26.4 Effect of Vibration on Human Health, 346

27 Measurement of Vibration 348

27.1 Resistive Transducers, 348

27.2 Electromagnetic Transducers, 349

27.3 Capacitive Transducers, 349

27.4 Piezoelectric Transducers, 349

27.5 Laser Doppler Vibrometer, 350

28 Noise 351

28.1 Main Defintions of Noise, 351

28.2 Sources of Noise, 351

28.3 Parameters of Noise, 352

28.4 Equivalent Sound Level, 352

28.5 Integrating Sound Level, 353

28.6 Spectral Density of Noise, 353

28.7 Effect of Noise on Human Health, 354

28.8 Mechanisms of Noise Action, 354

28.9 How to Protect Yourself from Noise, 355

28.10 Effect of Noise Pollution on Ecosystem, 355

29 Measurement of Noise 356

29.1 Sound Level Meters, 356

29.2 Types of Microphones, 357

29.3 Noise Frequency Analyzers, 357

29.4 Sound Intensity Measurement, 357

Practical Exercise 12. Sound Insulation and Reverberation Time 358

1 Sound Insulation, 358

2 Reverberation Time, 359

30 Thermal Pollution 362

30.1 Sources of Thermal Pollution, 362

30.2 The Effect of Thermal Pollution on Living Organisms, 362

31 Measurement of Thermal Pollution 364

31.1 Thermal Discharge Index, 364

31.2 Indirect Measurement of Thermal Pollution, 364

32 Light Pollution 365

32.1 The Sources of Light Pollution, 365

32.2 Types of Light Pollution, 365

32.3 Effects of Light Pollution on Human Health, 366

32.4 Effects of Light Pollution on Wildlife, 367

References, 367

33 Measurement of Light Pollution 368

33.1 Digital Photography, 368

33.2 Portable Spectrophotometers, 369

33.3 Sky Quality Meter, 369

33.4 The Bortle Scale, 370

References, 370

34 Electromagnetic Pollution 371

34.1 Principal Terminology and Units, 371

34.2 Electromagnetic Pollution, 372

34.3 Effect of Elecromagnetic Pollution on Human Health, 373

References, 376

35 Measurement of Electromagnetic Pollution 377

35.1 EMF Meter, 377

35.2 Types of EMF Meters, 377

36 Radioactive Pollution 380

36.1 Principal Definitions, 380

36.2 Units of Radioactivity, 381

36.3 Nuclear Explosions and Testing of Nuclear Weapons, 381

36.4 Accidents at Nuclear Power Plants, 382

References, 384

37 Measurement of Ionizing Radiation 385

37.1 Doses of Ionizing Radiation, 385

37.2 Gas-Filled Detectors, 386

37.3 Scintillation Counter, 390

37.4 Semiconductor Diode Detector, 390

37.5 Thermoluminescent Dosimeter, 391

Practical Exercise 13. Investigation of Radionuclide Activity and Determination of the Absorption Coefficient of Gamma Radiation 393

1 Objectives, 393

2 Theory, 393

3 Experiment, 394

Questions and Problems, 395

References, 396

Further Reading, 396

Electronic References, 397

PART VII BIOTIC FACTORS

38 Bioindication 401

38.1 Lichens as Bioindicators, 401

38.2 Algae as Bioindicators, 402

38.3 Classification of Water Reservoirs, 402

38.4 Water Quality Indices, 402

38.5 Invertebrates as Bioindicators, 404

References, 406

Electronic References, 406

39 Biomonitoring 407

39.1 Test-Organisms and Test-Functions, 407

39.2 Bacteria as Test-Objects, 408

39.3 Protozoa as Test-Objects, 408

39.4 Algae as Test-Objects, 408

39.5 Invertebrates as Test-Objects, 409

39.6 Fungi as Test-Objects, 410

39.7 Fish as Test-Objects, 410

39.8 Remote Water-Quality Monitoring, 411

References, 411

Practical Exercise 14. Photomovement Parameters as Test-Functions During Biomonitoring 412

1 Simultaneous Use of Several Test-Functions During Biomonitoring, 412

2 Vector Method of Biomonitoring, 413

Questions and Problems, 414

References, 415

Further Reading, 415

Electronic References, 415

APPENDIX 417

INDEX 421

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Author Information

Yuriy Posudin is a Professor in the Department of Physics at the National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine. Dr Posudin is the author of numerous books, journal articles, and the inventor of various methods, and instruments for environmental and biological monitoring.
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